Lentinan

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Lentinan
Lentinan.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
ATC code
Identifiers
Synonyms (2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2,3,5-trihydroxy-6-[[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]oxan-4-yl]oxyoxan-4-yl]oxy-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy-3,5-dihydroxy-6-[[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]oxan-4-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
  • none
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Chemical and physical data
Formula C42H72O36
Molar mass 1152.99948 g/mol
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Lentinan is an intravenous anti-tumor polysaccharide isolated from the fruit body of shiitake (Lentinula edodes mycelium (LEM)). Lentinan has been approved as an adjuvant for stomach cancer in Japan since 1985.[1] Lentinan is one of the host-mediated anti-cancer drugs which has been shown to affect host defense immune systems.

Chemistry[edit]

Lentinan is a β-1,3 beta-glucan with β-1,6 branching. Molecular weight of lentinan is 500,000 Da. Specific rotation +14-22° (NaOH).

Research[edit]

An in vitro experiment showed lentinan stimulated production of white blood cells in the human cell line U937.[2] A pharmacological blend (MC-S) of lentinan, PSK, Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus propinquus has also been shown to stimulate white blood cell production in vitro.[3]

An in vivo experiment on mice, revealed lentinan is orally active (since clinical use of the drug is administered through an IV).[4]

Limited clinical studies of cancer patients have associated lentinan with a higher survival rate, higher quality of life, and lower re-occurrence of cancer.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Lentinan may have been implicated in shiitake mushroom dermatitis.[13]

A study identified LNT as a novel antidepressant, with clinical potential and a new antidepressant mechanism for regulating prefrontal Dectin 1/AMPA receptor signaling.[14]

Formulations containing Lentinan[edit]

Lentinex is a formulation featuring lentinan and is approved as a safe novel food in the EU.[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Smith JE; Rowan NJ; Sullivan R (2001). Medicinal Mushrooms: Their Therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on Cancer Treatments. Cancer Research UK. 
  2. ^ Sia GM; Candlish JK (Mar 1999). "Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line". Phytotherapy Research. 13 (2): 133–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199903)13:2<133::AID-PTR398>3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 10190187. 
  3. ^ Clark D; Adams M (2007). "Using commercial nutraceutical mixes as immune stimulants: an in vitro proliferation study using Metabolic Cell-Support on non-stimulated human lymphocytes". Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine. 19: 108–111. 
  4. ^ Ng ML; Yap AT (Oct 2002). "Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes)". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. National University of Singapore. 8 (5): 581–9. doi:10.1089/107555302320825093. PMID 12470439. 
  5. ^ Yang P; Liang M; Zhang Y; Shen B (Aug 2008). "Clinical application of a combination therapy of lentinan, multi-electrode RFA and TACE in HCC". Advances in Therapy. 25 (8): 787–94. doi:10.1007/s12325-008-0079-x. PMID 18670743. 
  6. ^ Nimura H; Mitsumori N; Takahashi N; et al. (Jun 2006). "[S-1 combined with lentinan in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer]". Gan to Kagaku Ryoho (in Japanese). 33 (1): 106–9. PMID 16897983. 
  7. ^ Nakano H; Namatame K; Nemoto H; Motohashi H; Nishiyama K; Kumada K. (1999). "A multi-institutional prospective study of lentinan in advanced gastric cancer patients with unresectable and recurrent diseases: effect on prolongation of survival and improvement of quality of life. Kanagawa Lentinan Research Group.". Hepatogastroenterology. 46 (28): 2662–8. PMID 10522061. 
  8. ^ Oba K, Kobayashi M, Matsui T, Kodera Y, Sakamoto J (July 2009). "Individual Patient Based Meta-analysis of Lentinan for Unresectable/Recurrent Gastric Cancer". Anticancer Research. 29 (7): 2739–45. PMID 19596954. 
  9. ^ Hazama S, Watanabe S, Ohashi M, et al. (July 2009). "Efficacy of Orally Administered Superfine Dispersed Lentinan (β-1,3-Glucan) for the Treatment of Advanced Colorectal Cancer". Anticancer Research. 29 (7): 2611–2617. PMID 19596936. 
  10. ^ Kataoka H, Shimura T, Mizoshita T, et al. (2009). "Lentinan with S-1 and paclitaxel for gastric cancer chemotherapy improve patient quality of life". Hepatogastroenterology. 56 (90): 547–50. PMID 19579640. 
  11. ^ Isoda N, Eguchi Y, Nukaya H, et al. (2009). "Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (β-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatogastroenterology. 56 (90): 437–41. PMID 19579616. 
  12. ^ Shimizu K, Watanabe S, Watanabe S, et al. (2009). "Efficacy of oral administered superfine dispersed lentinan for advanced pancreatic cancer". Hepatogastroenterology. 56 (89): 240–4. PMID 19453066. 
  13. ^ Nakamura, T (1992). "Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) dermatitis". Contact Dermatitis. 27 (2): 65–70. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb05211.x. PMID 1395630. 
  14. ^ Bao, H.; et al. (2016). "Lentinan produces a robust antidepressant-like effect via enhancing the prefrontal Dectin-1/AMPA receptor signaling pathway". Behavioural Brain Research. 317: 263–271. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2016.09.062. PMID 27693847. 
  15. ^ EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2010), "Scientific Opinion on the safety of "Lentinus edodes extract" (Lentinex®) as a Novel Food ingredient" (PDF), EFSA Journal, 7 (8): 1685, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1685 

References[edit]

  • Chihara, G. et al. "Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked antitumor activity, especially lentinan, from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an edible mushroom)", Cancer Research (1970),30(11):2776-2781.
  • Ina, K. et al. "Lentinan prolonged survival in patients with gastric cancer receiving S-1-based chemotherapy", World Journal of Clinical Oncology (2011),2(10):339-343.
  • Bao H, Sun L, Zhu Y, Ran P, Hu W, Zhu K, Li B, Hou Y, Nie J, Gao T, Shan L, Du K, Zheng S, Zheng B, Xiao C, Du J (2017). "Lentinan produces a robust antidepressant-like effect via enhancing the prefrontal Dectin-1/AMPA receptor signaling pathway". Behav. Brain Res. 317: 263–271. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2016.09.062. PMID 27693847. 

External links[edit]