Lentinan

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Lentinan
Lentinan.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
ATC code L03AX01 (WHO)
Identifiers
Synonyms (2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2,3,5-trihydroxy-6-[[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]oxan-4-yl]oxyoxan-4-yl]oxy-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy-3,5-dihydroxy-6-[[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]oxan-4-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
CAS Number 37339-90-5 YesY
PubChem (CID) 37723
ChemSpider none
KEGG D01695 YesY
Chemical and physical data
Formula C42H72O36
Molar mass 1152.99948 g/mol
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Lentinan is an intravenous anti-tumor polysaccharide isolated from the fruit body of shiitake (Lentinula edodes mycelium (LEM)). Lentinan has been approved as an adjuvant for stomach cancer in Japan since 1985.[1] Lentinan is one of the host-mediated anti-cancer drugs which has been shown to affect host defense immune systems.

Chemistry[edit]

Lentinan is a β-1,3 beta-glucan with β-1,6 branching. Molecular weight of lentinan is 500,000 Da. Specific rotation +14-22° (NaOH).

Research[edit]

An in vitro experiment showed lentinan stimulated production of white blood cells in the human cell line U937.[2] A pharmacological blend (MC-S) of lentinan, PSK, Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus propinquus has also been shown to stimulate white blood cell production in vitro.[3]

An in vivo experiment on mice, revealed lentinan is orally active (since clinical use of the drug is administered through an IV).[4]

Limited clinical studies of cancer patients have associated lentinan with a higher survival rate, higher quality of life, and lower re-occurrence of cancer.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Lentinan may have been implicated in shiitake mushroom dermatitis.[13]

A study identified LNT as a novel antidepressant, with clinical potential and a new antidepressant mechanism for regulating prefrontal Dectin 1/AMPA receptor signaling.[14]

Formulations containing Lentinan[edit]

Lentinex is a formulation featuring lentinan and is approved as a safe novel food in the EU.[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Smith JE; Rowan NJ; Sullivan R (2001). Medicinal Mushrooms: Their Therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on Cancer Treatments. Cancer Research UK. 
  2. ^ Sia GM; Candlish JK (Mar 1999). "Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line". Phytotherapy Research. 13 (2): 133–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199903)13:2<133::AID-PTR398>3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 10190187. 
  3. ^ Clark D; Adams M (2007). "Using commercial nutraceutical mixes as immune stimulants: an in vitro proliferation study using Metabolic Cell-Support on non-stimulated human lymphocytes". Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine. 19: 108–111. 
  4. ^ Ng ML; Yap AT (Oct 2002). "Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes)". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. National University of Singapore. 8 (5): 581–9. doi:10.1089/107555302320825093. PMID 12470439. 
  5. ^ Yang P; Liang M; Zhang Y; Shen B (Aug 2008). "Clinical application of a combination therapy of lentinan, multi-electrode RFA and TACE in HCC". Advances in Therapy. 25 (8): 787–94. doi:10.1007/s12325-008-0079-x. PMID 18670743. 
  6. ^ Nimura H; Mitsumori N; Takahashi N; et al. (Jun 2006). "[S-1 combined with lentinan in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer]". Gan to Kagaku Ryoho (in Japanese). 33 (1): 106–9. PMID 16897983. 
  7. ^ Nakano H; Namatame K; Nemoto H; Motohashi H; Nishiyama K; Kumada K. (1999). "A multi-institutional prospective study of lentinan in advanced gastric cancer patients with unresectable and recurrent diseases: effect on prolongation of survival and improvement of quality of life. Kanagawa Lentinan Research Group.". Hepatogastroenterology. 46 (28): 2662–8. PMID 10522061. 
  8. ^ Oba K, Kobayashi M, Matsui T, Kodera Y, Sakamoto J (July 2009). "Individual Patient Based Meta-analysis of Lentinan for Unresectable/Recurrent Gastric Cancer". Anticancer Research. 29 (7): 2739–45. PMID 19596954. 
  9. ^ Hazama S, Watanabe S, Ohashi M, et al. (July 2009). "Efficacy of Orally Administered Superfine Dispersed Lentinan (β-1,3-Glucan) for the Treatment of Advanced Colorectal Cancer". Anticancer Research. 29 (7): 2611–2617. PMID 19596936. 
  10. ^ Kataoka H, Shimura T, Mizoshita T, et al. (2009). "Lentinan with S-1 and paclitaxel for gastric cancer chemotherapy improve patient quality of life". Hepatogastroenterology. 56 (90): 547–50. PMID 19579640. 
  11. ^ Isoda N, Eguchi Y, Nukaya H, et al. (2009). "Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (β-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatogastroenterology. 56 (90): 437–41. PMID 19579616. 
  12. ^ Shimizu K, Watanabe S, Watanabe S, et al. (2009). "Efficacy of oral administered superfine dispersed lentinan for advanced pancreatic cancer". Hepatogastroenterology. 56 (89): 240–4. PMID 19453066. 
  13. ^ Nakamura, T (1992). "Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) dermatitis". Contact Dermatitis. 27 (2): 65–70. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb05211.x. PMID 1395630. 
  14. ^ Bao, H.; et al. (2016). "Lentinan produces a robust antidepressant-like effect via enhancing the prefrontal Dectin-1/AMPA receptor signaling pathway". Behavioural Brain Research. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2016.09.062. PMID 27693847. 
  15. ^ EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2010), "Scientific Opinion on the safety of "Lentinus edodes extract" (Lentinex®) as a Novel Food ingredient" (PDF), EFSA Journal, 7 (8): 1685, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1685 

References[edit]

External links[edit]