Research, Assistance, Intervention, Deterrence
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
|Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion|
|Branch||French National Police|
|Role||Domestic anti-Terrorism and Law Enforcement|
|Nickname(s)||RAID, Black Panthers|
|Motto||Servir sans faillir (To serve without failing)|
|Engagements||Neuilly hostage crisis
Anti-Action Directe arrests
2005 Paris Riots
2012 Midi-Pyrénées shootings
2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting
November 2015 Paris attacks
|Ange Mancini, Christian Lambert, Amaury de Hauteclocque|
Research, Assistance, Intervention, Deterrence, commonly abbreviated RAID (French: Recherche, Assistance, Intervention, Dissuasion) is the name of an elite tactical unit of the French National Police. Unlike the regional National Police Intervention Groups (GIPN) units of the National Police, RAID is France's primary national counter-terrorism unit, the police equivalent of the National Gendarmerie's National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (GIGN), with exclusive jurisdiction on the 21 closest départements of Paris. RAID was founded by Robert Broussard and Ange Mancini in 1985, in response to a bombing and murder campaign. Since 2009, RAID is included within the French Police Intervention Force, alongside GIPN and the Research and Intervention Brigade (BRI) of Paris.
- Counter-Terrorism in coordination with UCLAT: In that case, The RAID can intervene nationwide if the situation is very risky.
- Hostage Situation
- Arrest of high-profile criminals
On 13 May 1993, a man named Erick Schmitt, calling himself "HB" (for "Human Bomb", in English), and carrying large quantities of explosives, took 21 children hostage in a school in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Nicolas Sarkozy, mayor of Neuilly at the time, secured the release of several children. He was later removed from the negotiation process, as he was not a professional negotiator and thus risked interfering with the police. After 46 hours, with Schmitt falling asleep, members of RAID crept into the school to evacuate the six remaining children. Schmitt was shot dead by three bullets to the head as he tried to reach the explosives. All the children were safe, as well as their teacher and a nurse.
In 1996, in Roubaix, the unit neutralized the Gang de Roubaix, a 14-member terrorist group tied to the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA), suspected of several bank robberies, murders and a missed attack against a Group of Seven (G7) meeting in Lille. The assault was very violent and resulted in the death of 4 terrorists. 2 RAID operatives were also injured, one by a grenade blast, the other one hit by a bullet in a lung. Christophe Caze, the head of the group, escaped the building in flame but was killed at a Belgium checkpoint during a gunfight with Customs agents. Several days later, thanks to an electronic device found on Caze's body, Fateh Kamel, head of a terrorist cell in Montreal was arrested in Jordan and tried in France.
On 21 and 22 March 2012, RAID was in charge to arrest Mohammed Merah, the main suspect for shooting sprees in Toulouse and Montauban. RAID surrounded the flat where Merah was entrenched. After 30 hours of siege, RAID stormed the flat to apprehend Merah who fought back. After a 4 minutes of heavy gunfight, Merah was shot down by a RAID sniper while exiting the building.
On 14 November 2015 RAID took part in operations at the Bataclan theatre, where 89 people were killed during a series of bombings, shootings and hostage taking in Paris on 13 – 14 November. On 18 November RAID took part in a follow-up operation in Saint-Denis seeking Abdelhamid Abaaoud, the 'mastermind' of the attacks, who was killed.
RAID is in charge of the protection of foreign dignitaries traveling in France. During special events, RAID is also in charge of protecting French individuals abroad (For example, the French Delegation during the Olympic Games is under RAID protection during the whole event). Three of its members have died in service.
RAID has a strength of around 180 men and is divided into three main sections with about 60 members each:
- First Section
- The first section deals with the usual tasks of special forces: intervention, monitoring, protection.
- Second Section
- The second section is the Research and Development unit of the RAID. It studies techniques and collects information. This section is divided into three groups:
- Intelligence Group
- Technical Group
- Weaponry Group
- Third section
- The Third section deals with the psychological aspects of the interventions. It is in charge of negotiations and crisis management. It also provides psychological support for the policemen in the unit and in the whole French Police. It is composed of forensic experts, a psychologist and physicians.
The Negotiation group is on permanent alert. It deals with suicides, violent crises, mental disorders, hostage crises and other major troubles, independently from the rest of the RAID. It assesses the dangers of the situation, suggests possible solutions, and helps with the negotiations and the resolution of the crises. If the whole RAID has to intervene, the Negotiations section is used as a reconnaissance unit, and prepares the intervention of the other sections. To join the unit, an officer needs five years duty within the Police Nationale and after passing a thorough test he will serve in the RAID for five years. With a commendation he can expand it further five years. All members must leave the tactical unit after ten years. Officers over forty cannot make an application.
- Assault Groups
- Group of Research and Information
- Dog handlers
- Benelli M3
- Beretta M3P4
- Colt M4A1
- FN SCAR
- FN Herstal Minimi
- FN Herstal P90
- Franchi SPAS-15
- Glock 17 / 17L / 18 / 19 / 26 / 34
- Heckler & Koch G36
- Heckler & Koch HK53
- Heckler & Koch HK69A1
- Heckler & Koch MP5K
- Heckler & Koch PSG1
- Manurhin MR 73
- PGM Precision Hecate II
- PGM Precision Ultima Ratio
- Remington 870
- Rheinmetall MG3
- SIG Sauer SG553
- Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN)
- Groupes d'Intervention de la Police Nationale (GIPN)
- Escadron parachutiste d'intervention de la Gendarmerie nationale (EPIGN)
- Amaury de Hauteclocque, le patron du RAID, quitte son poste, Le Monde, 12 April 2013
- [dead link]
- "WRAPUP 7-Gunman dies in hail of bullets as French siege ends". Reuters. 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
- Christopher Zara. "Charlie Hebdo Attack: Anti-Terror Raid In Reims, France". Ibtimes.com. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
- Aurelien Breeden, Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura (19 November 2015). "Chief Suspect in Paris Attacks Died in Raid, France Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Collectif. "Le RAID: Unité d'élite de la police nationale" (in French). Crépin-Leblond (September 15, 2005). ISBN 978-2-7030-0264-2.
All the following articles are in French
- Le RAID, l'ultime recours (RAID, the last resort) by Jean-Louis Courtois published by Crépin-Leblond in 2000
- Le RAID, Unité d'élite de la Police Nationale publié aux éditions The RAID, an elite unit of the National Police published by Crépin-Leblond in 2005 (DVD included)
- Le RAID, l'unité d'élite de la Police Française de Jean-Louis Courtois RAID, an elite unit of the French police by Jean-Louis Courtois published by Pygmalion-Gérard Watelet in 1999
- HB, 46 heures qui ont bouleversé la France de Jean-Pierre About HB, 46 hours that shook France Jean-Pierre About editions Tarcher in 2005
- Le jour où j'ai tué HB de Daniel Boulanger The day I killed HB Daniel Boulanger Literature published by Hachette in 2007
- Le RAID en action Hors Série RAIDS n°19 paru The RAID action RAIDS Off Series No. 19 issued in 2005
- RAID, 20 ans d'action, RAID, 20 years of action, article published in the magazine Commando No. 20 January–December 2005
- La sélection du RAID, The selection of RAID, article published in the magazine Police Pro No. 8 March–April 2008
- Le RAID, 20 ans d'opérations, RAID 20 years of operations, article published in the magazine RAIDS No. 233 in October 2005
- RAID: refuser la fatalité paru RAID: reject the inevitability published in the magazine Police Frequency No. 2 October 1987
- La police face à l'exception: flics de choc article paru dans le magazine Civic n°53 août-septembre 1995 The police deal with the exception of shock cops article published in the magazine Civic No. 53 in August–September 1995