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Coordinates: 50°41′24″N 3°10′54″E / 50.6901°N 3.18167°E / 50.6901; 3.18167
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The city hall
The city hall
Coat of arms of Roubaix
Probitas et Industria
Location of Roubaix
Roubaix is located in France
Roubaix is located in Hauts-de-France
Coordinates: 50°41′24″N 3°10′54″E / 50.6901°N 3.18167°E / 50.6901; 3.18167
CantonRoubaix-1 and Roubaix-2
IntercommunalityMétropole Européenne de Lille
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Guillaume Delbar[1]
13.23 km2 (5.11 sq mi)
 • Density7,500/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Roubaisian (en)
Roubaisien(ne) (fr)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
59512 /59100
Elevation17–52 m (56–171 ft)
(avg. 35 m or 115 ft)
Websitewww.ville-roubaix.fr (in French)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Roubaix (French: [ʁubɛ] or [ʁube]; Dutch: Robaais; West Flemish: Roboais; Picard: Roubés) is a city in northern France, located in the Lille metropolitan area on the Belgian border. It is a historically mono-industrial commune[3] in the Nord department,[4] which grew rapidly in the 19th century from its textile industries, with most of the same characteristic features as those of English and American boom towns.[5][6] This former new town has faced many challenges linked to deindustrialisation such as urban decay,[7] with their related economic and social implications, since its major industries fell into decline by the middle of the 1970s. Located to the northeast of Lille, adjacent to Tourcoing, Roubaix is the chef-lieu of two cantons and the third largest city in the French region of Hauts-de-France ranked by population with nearly 99,000 inhabitants.[8]

Together with the nearby cities of Lille, Tourcoing, Villeneuve-d'Ascq and eighty-six other communes,[9] Roubaix gives structure to a four-centred metropolitan area inhabited by more than 1.1 million people: the European Metropolis of Lille.[10][11][12] To a greater extent, Roubaix is in the center of a vast conurbation formed with the Belgian cities of Mouscron, Kortrijk and Tournai, which gave birth to the first European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation in January 2008, Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai with an aggregate population of over 2 million inhabitants.[13]





Roubaix occupies a central position on the north-east slope of the Métropole Européenne de Lille: it is set on the eastern side of Lille and the southern side of Tourcoing, close to the Belgian border. As regards towns' boundaries, Roubaix is encompassed by seven cities which constitute its immediate neighbouring environment. These municipalities are namely: Tourcoing to the north and the northwest, Wattrelos to the northeast, Leers to the east, Lys-lez-Lannoy to the southeast, Hem to the south and Croix to the southwest and the west. Roubaix, alongside those municipalities and twenty-one other communes, belongs to the land of Ferrain, a little district of the former Castellany of Lille between the Lys and Scheldt rivers.[14]

As the crow flies, the distance between Roubaix and the following cities is some odd: 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) to Tournai, 18 kilometres (11 mi) to Kortrijk, 84 kilometres (52 mi) to Brussels and 213 kilometres (132 mi) to Paris.[15]



The land upon which Roubaix stands belongs to the plain of Flanders. The Roubaisian area stretches on an east-west oriented shallow syncline axis which trends south-southeast to the Paleozoic limestone[16] of the Mélantois-Tournaisis faulted anticline.[17] It consists predominantly of Holocene alluvial sediment depositions. It is flat and low, with an elevation drop of only 35 m (114 ft 10 in) over its 13.23 square kilometres (5.11 sq mi). The lowest altitude of this area stands at 17 m (55 ft 9+12 in), while its highest altitude is 52 m (170 ft 7 in) meters above the sea level.[18]



The Trichon stream fed by waters of the Espierre stream used to flow through the rural landscape of Roubaix before the industrialisation process began to alter this area in the middle of the 19th century.[19] From that century on, the ensuing industries, with their increasing needs for reliable supplies of goods and water, led to the building of an inland waterway connected upstream from the Deûle and downstream to the Marque and Espierre toward the Scheldt, which linked directly Roubaix to Lille.[20][21]

Opened in 1877,[22] the Canal de Roubaix crosses the town from its northern neighbourhoods to its eastern neighbourhoods and partially flows along the city's boundaries. The Canal de Roubaix closed in 1985, after more than a century in use.[23] Thank to the European funded project Blue Links, the waterway has been reopened to boating traffic since 2011.[24]



The area of the city is not known for undergoing unusual weather events. In regard to the town's geographical location[25] and the results of the Météo-France's weather station of Lille-Lesquin,[26][27] Roubaix is a temperate oceanic climate: while summer experiences mild temperatures, winter's temperatures may fall to below zero. Precipitation is infrequently intense.

Climate data for Roubaix (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1965−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.5
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 6.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 1.6
Record low °C (°F) −14.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.8
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.0 10.8 12.3 10.6 11.3 9.8 10.3 8.9 10.8 12.0 13.3 13.1 136.2
Source: Météo-France[28]



The current city's name is most likely derived from Frankish rausa "reed" and baki "brook".[29][30][31] Therefore, the meaning of Roubaix can, in all likelihood, find its origin on the banks of its three historical brooks: Espierre, Trichon and Favreuil.[32] The place was mentioned for the first time in a Latinised form in the 9th century: Villa Rusbaci.[30][31][33] Thereafter, the following names were in use: 1047 and 1106 Rubais, 1122 Rosbays, 1166 Rusbais, 1156 and 1202 Robais, 1223 Roubais.[30][34] Over the span of centuries, the name evolved to Roubaix as shown on Mercator's map of Flanders published at Leuven in 1540.[35]

Parallel to the official and usual name Roubaix, some translations are worth a mention. Firstly, though the city has never belonged to the Flemish-speaking area,[36] the seldom-heard renderings Robeke[37][38] and Roodebeeke[39] are documented for Roubaix.[40] Furthermore, the Dutch Language Union established Robaais as the city's proper Dutch name.[41] Lastly, one can cite Rosbacum as the definite Latin transcription of Roubaix which has been in use since the 19th century, as recorded on dedication statements sealed in the first stones of the foundations of the City Hall laid in 1840 and the Church of Notre Dame laid in 1842.[42]


View of the city, dated 1699. Landscape with the castle, surrounded by a moat, next to the Sainte-Elisabeth hospital at left, the mill at right and the Saint-Martin church, regarded as the city's centre point, at centre


Arms of Roubaix
Arms of Roubaix
The arms of Roubaix are blazoned:
Party per pale ermine a chief gules and azure, thereon between two bobbins argent a five-pointed star or in chief, a wool-cards at its centre and a shuttle fesswise in base or, all within a bordure indented of the same.



Inhabitants of Roubaix are known in English as "Roubaisians" and in French as Roubaisiens (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.zjɛ̃]) or in the feminine form Roubaisiennes (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.zjɛn]), also natively called Roubaignots (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.njo]) or in the feminine form Roubaignotes (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.njoz]).[43][44][45]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1716 4,715—    
1764 7,363+0.93%
1789 8,559+0.60%
1793 9,120+1.60%
1800 8,091−1.70%
1801 8,151+0.74%
1805 8,703+1.65%
1806 8,724+0.24%
1817 8,724+0.00%
1821 12,170+8.68%
1830 13,132+0.85%
1831 18,187+38.49%
1836 19,455+1.36%
1841 24,802+4.98%
1842 24,892+0.36%
1846 31,039+5.67%
1851 34,698+2.25%
1856 39,445+2.60%
1861 49,274+4.55%
1866 65,091+5.73%
1872 75,987+2.61%
1876 83,661+2.43%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1881 91,757+1.86%
1886 100,299+1.80%
1891 114,917+2.76%
1896 124,661+1.64%
1901 124,365−0.05%
1906 121,017−0.54%
1911 122,723+0.28%
1921 113,265−0.80%
1926 117,209+0.69%
1931 117,190−0.00%
1936 107,105−1.78%
1946 100,978−0.59%
1954 110,067+1.08%
1962 112,856+0.31%
1968 114,547+0.25%
1975 109,553−0.63%
1982 101,602−1.07%
1990 97,746−0.48%
1999 96,984−0.09%
2007 97,423+0.06%
2012 94,536−0.60%
2017 96,990+0.51%
From 1962 to 1999: population without double counting
Source: L.E. Marissal for 1716, 1789, 1801, 1805, 1817, 1830 and 1842,[46] Comte du Muy for 1764,[47] Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 2006[18] and INSEE from 2007[48]

The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793 and the research study of Louis-Edmond Marissal, Clerk of the Peace of the city, published in 1844.[46] Roubaix evolved into a provincial market town until the end of the Early modern period with a census population of 4,715 inhabitants in 1716.[46] By the late 18th century, the city began to emerge as regional textile manufacturing centre and its population increased, reaching a level of 8,091 in 1800. As a result of the industrialisation process of the 19th century, the need of workers was supplied by rural flight as well as immigration. Belgian settlement was a feature of the Roubaisian life at that time.[49][50]

During the first-half period of the 19th century, Roubaix ranked the first French town in terms of population growth rate with a five times increase,[51] whereas in the remaining period of this century its population doubled. Within this last time framework, Belgian immigration appeared to be one of the major factor to explain the significantly high population growth, with 30,465 Belgian inhabitants counted in 1866 and 42,103 in 1872.[52] Nonetheless, the rate of natural increase shew to be a more important component of the population growth in that period.[53]

At the 20th century threshold, the Roubaisian population reached a peak of 124,661, from which it progressively declined over the successive decades. Occupied by German troops from October 1914 to October 1918, Roubaix belonged to the combat zone of the Western Front during the First World War.[54] Over this occupation period, Roubaisians suffered from dearth, deportation for compulsory labour and unusual casualties[55] with a rather slight population drop from 122,723 to 113,265 between the 1911 and 1921 censuses.[56]

The population of the city was 98,828 as of January 2019.[8] This enables Roubaix to remain the third largest municipality in the region Hauts-de-France, after Lille and Amiens.

As of 2019, at least 25% of residents in Roubaix were immigrants, mainly of Arab, North African, Turkish, and Sub-Saharan African origin.[57][58][59]



Although the region of Roubaix was subjected many times to the domination of Flanders' rulers throughout its history, Roubaisians have used a local Picard variant as the language of everyday life for centuries. This spoken vernacular is locally known as Roubaignot.[60][61] Until the early 20th century this patois prevailed.[62] Therefore, French language progressive penetration into local culture should not only be analysed as a result of the industrialisation and urbanisation of the area but should also be considered in terms of public education policies.[44][63]





The city of Roubaix is divided into six Catholic parishes and belongs to the deanery of the same name in the archdiocese of Lille.



In the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War and the German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, many Jews left their homes and emigrated.[64][65] Jewish arrival in Roubaix derives from that bitter period of history.[66][67] At the time, the new immigrant community, even though its small size, dedicated a building to Jewish faith and liturgical practises.[67][68][69] The newly opened synagogue, located in a house at number 51 on the narrow rue des Champs,[67][69] operated more than 60 years, until 1939, when it was closed under imprecise local circumstances as the Nazi regime took over in Europe.[69][70] Despite the closure of the synagogue, the occupation and police raids,[note 1][72] the local practise of Judaism saw a humble revival after the war which lasted until the start of the 1990s when the modest Jewry of Roubaix handed over its Sefer Torah to the care of the Jewish community of Lille.[70] Roubaix has no longer been home to a Jewish place of worship since that event.[73] The house inside which the first one was created 123 years ago, has been demolished since an urban renewal project occurred in 2000.[67] On 10 September 2015 the mayor unveiled a commemorative plaque on the rue des Champs, as a tribute to the Roubaisian Jewry, in memory of the religious purpose of this previous building.[70]



As of August 2013 there were six mosques in the town, including one under construction. According to estimates by the mayor's office, around 20,000 people, or at least 20% of the population were Muslims.[74][58] Over one-in-three residents in Roubaix are of Arab, North African, Turkish, and Sub-Saharan African origin.[57] Four areas of the cemetery were designated for Muslims.[75]



During the second half of the 20th century, the city took in Buddhist communities from originally Buddhist countries in the Southeast Asian peninsula including Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam.[76] Within this background Roubaix has brought together two Buddhist traditions on its territory, hence cultural variations across communities: Mahāyāna and Theravāda with, respectively, one and four places of worship.[77]



Urban geography


During the Middle Age, the city grew in a northward-facing semicircle around its primitive core, beyond the area spread out between the church Saint Martin and the former fortified castle. The existence of this south boundary remained until the 18th century and marked an urban expansion which mainly occurred on the western and northern sides of the town.[78] Increasing industrialisation, land transport improvement, continued population growth and the resulting need for suitable low cost lands for housing and manufacturing plants, all of which finally led to expand the city southward from the centre, in the 19th century.[79]

Administrative and political affairs


Constituencies and cantons


Roubaix grouped four cantons from 1988 to 2012. Since then, this number has fallen to two with Roubaix 1 and Roubaix 2. After the last redistricting of French legislative constituencies in 2010, the city is now divided into two constituencies: Nord's 7th constituency which include the former canton of Roubaix-Ouest and Nord's 8th constituency formed by the following former cantons: Roubaix-Centre, Roubaix-Nord and Roubaix-Est.

Administrative zoning


Eastern district neighbourhoods

  • Fraternité
  • Pile
  • Sainte-Elisabeth
  • Sartel-Carihem
  • Trois Ponts

Western district neighbourhoods

  • Epeule
  • Fresnoy-Mackellerie
  • Trichon

Central district neighbourhoods

  • Anseelme Motte-Bossut
  • Barbieux
  • Centre-ville
  • Crouy
  • Espérance
  • Nations-Unies
  • Vauban

Northern district neighbourhoods

  • Alma-Gare
  • Armentières
  • Cul de Four
  • Entrepont
  • Fosses aux Chênes
  • Hommelet
  • Hutin-Oran-Cartigny

Southern district neighbourhoods

  • Chemin Neuf
  • Edouard Vaillant
  • Hauts-Champs
  • Justice
  • Linné-Boulevards
  • Moulin
  • Nouveau Roubaix
  • Petites-Haies
  • Potennerie

Mayors of the city

Mayor Term start Term end Party[note 2]
Henri Carette May 1892 December 1901 POF
Edouard Roussel December 1901 January 1902 UDR
Eugène Motte January 1902 May 1912 FR
Jean-Baptiste Lebas[note 3] May 1912 March 1915 SFIO
Henri Thérin[note 4] March 1915 October 1918 SFIO
Jean-Baptiste Lebas October 1918 June 1940 SFIO
Fleuris Vanherpe[note 5] June 1940 August 1941
Marcel Guislain August 1941 December 1941
Alphonse Verbeurgt January 1942 May 1942
Charles Bauduin May 1942 July 1942
Victor Provo[note 6] July 1942 March 1977 SFIO then PS
Pierre Prouvost March 1977 March 1983 PS
André Diligent March 1983 May 1994 UDF-CDS
René Vandierendonck May 1994 March 2012 UDF-CDS then DVG and finally PS
Pierre Dubois March 2012 March 2014 PS
Guillaume Delbar April 2014 UMP then LR and finally DVD

International relations


Roubaix is twinned with:[86]



Remarkable buildings, old brick factories and warehouses abound in this once renowned city which was esteemed to be a worldwide textile capital in the early years of the 20th century.[94] Thus, the city inherited one of the most architectural works in the French history and culture of the 19th century Industrial Revolution and was designated Town of Art and History on 13 December 2000.[95] Ever since the Ministry of Culture endowed Roubaix with this label, the city has entered the 21st century by promoting its cultural standing as the inheritance of its industrial and social history.[96]

Several profane or sacral buildings of Roubaix are registered as historic monuments.

Secular buildings registered as monuments historiques
Religious structures registered as monuments historiques

Sculptures and memorials


The city has been the place where illustrious names of French sculptors put their skills to create memorial monuments since the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century. After a long slack period 2010 introduced a shift in the genre with the unveiling of Wim Delvoye's Discobolos, a statue of modern art conceived as a welcoming sign to a neighbourhood of the city.[97] The sculptures and memorial monuments in Roubaix which deserve notice for their historical or artistical interest are mentioned below.

  • Discobolos: a New patrons project by Wim Delvoye (sculptor), Bruno Dupont (mediator), Fondation de France and city of Roubaix (supporters), ordered by the neighbourhood residents with the members of the Hommelet neighbourhood committee[note 7] and inaugurated on 5 June 2010[98]
  • Joan of Arc statue: Maxime Real del Sarte (sculptor), inaugurated on 27 May 1952[99]
  • Memorial to Jean-Baptiste Lebas: Albert de Jaeger (sculptor), funded through public subscription and inaugurated on 23 October 1949[99][100]
  • Memorial to Resistance Martyrs of Roubaix: Albert de Jaeger (sculptor), engraved "Roubaix a ses martyrs de la Résistance" and "Ils ont brisé les chaînes de l'oppression",[note 8] ordered by the City council and inaugurated on 11 November 1948[101]
  • Memorial to Eugène Motte: Raoul Bénard (sculptor), Gustave Poubel (architect), funded through public subscription and inaugurated on 22 September 1935[99]
  • Memorial to Jean-Joseph Weerts: Alexandre Descatoire (sculptor), ordered by the City council and inaugurated on 29 October 1931[102]
  • Memorial to Louis Bossut: Maxime Real del Sarte (sculptor), ordered by the City council and inaugurated on 4 October 1925[99][103]
  • Monuments aux Morts or World War I Memorial of Roubaix: Alexandre Descatoire (sculptor), Jean-Frédéric Wielhorski (architect), engraved "Roubaix à ses enfants morts pour la défense du pays et pour la paix",[note 9] ordered by the City council and inaugurated on 18 October 1925[104]
  • Memorial to Jules Guesde: Georgette Agutte-Sembat (sculptor), Albert Bührer (architect), funded through public subscription and inaugurated on 12 April 1925[105][106]
  • Memorial to Amédée Prouvost: Hippolyte Lefèbvre (sculptor), ordered by the City council and inaugurated on 29 October 1922[99]
  • Memorial to Pierre Destombes: Corneille Theunissen (sculptor), engraved "Hortorum, Musicae, Librorumque, Studiosus",[note 10] ordered by the City council and inaugurated on 29 October 1922[99][107]
  • Memorial to Gustave Nadaud: Alphonse-Amédée Cordonnier (sculptor), Gustave Leblanc-Barbedienne (art founder), inaugurated on 11 October 1896[99][108]





Roubaix has been home to two major museums of the region Hauts-de-France since the beginning of the 21st century: La Piscine[note 11] and La Manufacture;[note 12] inheriting both of the local socioeconomic history. La Piscine, also known as the Musée d'Art & d'Industrie André Diligent,[note 13] is one of the most lauded cultural attractions in northern France. This museum is housed in the Art Deco-style former swimming pool of Roubaix, a building remodelled in 2000 to accommodate and exhibit 19th and 20th century collections of the city.[note 14] After being closed for two years of renovation works and extension, it was reopened to the public in October 2018, becoming more successful than ever before.[109] La Manufacture is the reference textile museum in northern France. It is hosted in an old weaving factory.



The most prestigious names of painters, who made their reputation in Roubaix from the middle of the 19th century to the early 20th century are Jean-Joseph Weerts[102] and Rémy Cogghe.[110]

From the end of the Second World War to the beginning of the 1970s, a casual group of young artists from Roubaix and the surrounding region was formed and given the name Groupe de Roubaix.[111][112][113] Two painters commonly associated with the group are Arthur Van Hecke and Eugène Leroy.[114][115][116]



Anxious to restore the prestige of northern France's textile industry and operating under the label of Maisons de Mode, the cities of Lille and Roubaix have created spaces for new fashion designers to thrive since 2007. The Roubaisian location, next to La Piscine museum, is known as Le Vestiaire.[note 15] There are fifteen boutiques and fashion studios housed in an old industrial building.[117]

Theatre and performing arts centres

  • Centre chorégraphique national Roubaix - Hauts-de-France[note 16]
  • Colisée
  • Condition publique
  • Théâtre de l'Oiseau-Mouche "Le Garage"
  • Théâtre Louis Richard
  • Théâtre Pierre de Roubaix



The city of Roubaix has a rich heritage in film production and been the filming location (mostly or partly) of the following productions:

Higher education

  • The EDHEC Business School is one of the few Grandes École located outside the Paris Metropolitan Area. It is one of Europe's fastest rising business schools.
  • ENSAIT is a higher education and research institute, gathering all the disciplines related to textiles.
  • ESAAT is a design education institute.
  • Decentralisation of the Universities of Lille II and Lille III[139]





Roubaix has an old sporting heritage[140] and is home to the finish of one of the world's oldest races of professional road cycling at its velodrome: Paris–Roubaix, known as the Hell of the North. While Roubaix is famous for its velodrome, there is more to this city than the cycling sports facilities.

The building of indoor and outdoor sports amenities in the city should be associated with its era of economic rise during the industrial revolution, in addition to the development of local sporting clubs and associations.[141]

In October 2021 Roubaix hosted the 2021 UCI Track Cycling World Championships.



During the 19th century, Roubaix acquired an international reputation for textile industry and wool production. In the 1970s and 1980s, international competition and automation caused an industrial decline and resulted in the closure of many factories. From that moment on and since the implementation of the French urban policy in the early 1980s, around three-fourths of the town's territory has been regularly assigned specific zoning designations as well as health and welfare plans.[142]

Roubaix's high level of unemployment is a consequence of the deindustrialisation. The town is listed among France's poorest cities.[96][143] Successive local governments have tried to address difficulties associated with deindustrialisation by attracting new industries, making the most of the town's cultural credentials[96] and organising a strong student presence on different campuses. While undergoing conversion efforts, the city is experimenting with new models and able to take advantage of successful economic stories, with online retail and information technology, and seems to be on the way to reverse the decades of decline.[144]

Textile industry


Nowadays, local textile companies are focusing on developing high-tech textile products.

Commerce and services


Mail order companies of international renown such as La Redoute,[145] Damart[146][147] and 3 Suisses,[148][149] stemmed from textile industries which were founded in Roubaix. Showroomprive.com has been locally established since 2016 as an e-commerce company that specialises in online flash sales.

Information technology and e-business

  • OVH was created in Roubaix in 1999 and became a global IT infrastructure company, creating more than thousand jobs in the city and surroundings. Its head office is still in Roubaix.[150]
  • Ankama Games has established its head office in Roubaix since 2007.[151]
  • Blanchemaille, an e-commerce cluster helped by the incubator EuraTechnologies, has been established in the former building of La Redoute in Roubaix since 2014.




Roubaix's position in the motorway roads network
Roubaix and Tourcoing

A22 autoroute, a French part of the European route E17 from Burgundy to Antwerp, is the only motorway, within a motorway roads network of the highest density in France after Paris, which passes by Roubaix.

The Gare de Roubaix railway station offers connections to Antwerp, Lille, Ostend, Paris and Tourcoing.

The city is also served by the Lille Metro.

Environmental perspectives


Throughout the 1970s and 1980s desindustrialisation dramatically influenced major urban landscapes across the arrondissement of Lille.[152] Large areas of brownfield land came to mark the city of Roubaix. With the support of the local and national government programs, these areas are acquired and gradually restored or rebuilt.

Roubaix has one of the most efficient biomass district heating plant in France[153] and is therefore among the most advanced cities for sustainability in Hauts-de-France. Since 2014, the city has been engaged in several related initiatives aimed at moving to a circular economy and a zero waste future.[154]

Notable people






Politicians and professionals






See also


Notes and references



  1. ^ The Jewish population of Roubaix dropped from 160 members[70] in the beginning of its settlement to 68 in 1942.[71]
  2. ^ Under French State's dictatorship from 1940 to 1944, mayors of communes over 2,000 inhabitants were not elected democratically. The mayor was nominated by the government of Marshal Philippe Pétain in communes of over 10,000 inhabitants and the prefet in communes less than 10,000 inhabitants and more than 2,000. The mayor in communes less than 2,000 inhabitants was elected by the city council. Mayors of communes of the Zone interdite were nominated by prefects in agreement with the German authorities. Therefore, mayors are not affiliated to a political party for this period of time.[80][81]
  3. ^ Jean-Baptiste Lebas's mandate was interrupted when he was arrested on March 7, 1915 by German authorities to be imprisoned in the fortress of Rastatt.
  4. ^ Henri Thérin, the first deputy mayor, stood in for Jean-Baptiste Lebas during his imprisonment time.
  5. ^ Fleuris Vanherpe, the eldest deputy mayor of the city council, supplanted Jean-Baptiste Lebas after his forfeiture in June 1940, and was entrusted functions of mayor on December 18, 1940.[82] His death, on August 17, 1941, put an early end to his mandate.
  6. ^ Victor Provo accepted the mandate in 1942.[83] He was maintained by resistance committees in 1944 then elected in April 1945.[84][85]
  7. ^ A local association (as per the 1901 law about association) called "Comité de quartier de l'Hommelet"
  8. ^ "Roubaix has its martyrs of the Resistance" and "They broke the chains of oppression"
  9. ^ "Roubaix to his children died in defense of the country and for peace"
  10. ^ "Friend of the gardens, music and books"
  11. ^ "The Swimming Pool"
  12. ^ "The Manufactory"
  13. ^ "André Diligent Museum of Art and Industry"
  14. ^ The collections held at the museum include sculptures by Alberto Giacometti, Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel and Pablo Picasso
  15. ^ The Cloakroom
  16. ^ National choreographic centre Roubaix - Hauts-de-France


  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2021" (in French). The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2023.
  3. ^ Pooley, Timothy (30 December 1996). Chtimi: The Urban Vernaculars of Northern France. Applications in French Linguistics Series. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. pp. 15–44. ISBN 978-1-853-59345-1. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  4. ^ INSEE commune file
  5. ^ Lecigne, Constantin (1911). Amédée Prouvost (in French). Paris, F: Bernard Grasset. p. 71. OCLC 679906866. Retrieved 17 March 2016. Roubaix donne l'impression d'une enclave américaine dans la France du Nord. C'est en même temps la ville de l'énergie frénétique et des fuites à travers le monde.
  6. ^ Strikwerda, Carl (1984). Sweets, John F. (ed.). "Regionalism and Internationalism: The Working-Class Movement in the Nord and the Belgian Connection, 1871–1914". Proceedings of the ... Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History. 1983/1984. Lawrence (Kansas), USA: The University of Kansas: 222. hdl:2027/mdp.39015012965524. ISSN 0099-0329. Contemporaries never tired of calling Roubaix an "American city," because of its raw, fast-growing character, or of referring to Roubaix and its sister cities of Lille and Tourcoing as the "French Manchester."
  7. ^ Clark, Peter (29 January 2009). European Cities and Towns: 400–2000. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-199-56273-2. Retrieved 1 October 2015. Roubaix was another new town, originally a craft village, whose many textile mills attracted a population of 100,000 and generated massive social and environmental problems.
  8. ^ a b Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2019, INSEE
  9. ^ Lecluyse, Frédérick (16 December 2016). "MEL: on prend les mêmes ou presque et on recommence" [MEL: let's take the same ones, or almost, and start over]. La Voix du Nord (in French). 73 (349, ROUBAIX & SES ALENTOURS). Roubaix, F: 4. ISSN 1277-1422. Bois-Grenier, Le Maisnil, Fromelles, Aubers et Radinghem-en-Weppes. Soit 6000 habitants supplémentaires pour une MEL qui compte désormais 90 communes…
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  12. ^ Neveu, Clarisse (15 December 2016). "Métropole Européenne de Lille: les vice-présidents et conseillers métropolitains délégués élus" [European Metropolis of Lille: elected vice-presidents and metropolitan delegate-councilors]. MEL. Communiqué de presse (in French). Lille, F: Métropole Européenne de Lille. Retrieved 18 December 2016. La fusion, effective au 1er janvier 2017, acte un élargissement historique du territoire de la Métropole Européenne de Lille, passant de 85 à 90 communes pour près d'1.2 million d'habitants.
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  18. ^ a b Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Roubaix, EHESS (in French).
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  20. ^ Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries. Vol. 3695. Washington DC: Govt. Printing Office. 1898. p. 63. Retrieved 9 July 2015. …and with the Deule by the Canal d'Espierre and that of Roubaix
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  34. ^ Gysseling, Maurits (1960). "Toponymisch Woordenboek van België, Nederland, Luxemburg, Noord-Frankrijk en West-Duitsland (vóór 1226) door Maurits Gysseling (1960)" [Toponymic dictionary of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Northern France and Western Germany (before 1226) by Maurits Gysseling (1960)] (in Dutch). Centrum voor Teksteditie en Bronnenstudie. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
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  36. ^ Tilly, Louise; Tilly, Charles (1 June 1981). Class Conflict and Collective Action. New Approaches to Social Science History. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks (California), USA: Sage Publications. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-803-91587-9. Retrieved 27 July 2015. In some areas of France, Flemish was spoken by the natives; but since Roubaix lies just outside French Flanders, native Roubaisians spoke only French, hence the language disparity.
  37. ^ Schuermans, Lodewijk Willem (1865). Algemeen Vlaamsch idioticon, Met Tijd en Vlijt [General Flemish idioticon, with time and assiduity] (in Dutch). Leuven, B: Gebroeders Vanlinthout. p. 268. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  38. ^ Fortuné, Raymond (1899). Histoire du Hainaut français et du Cambresis [History of the French Hainaut and Cambresis] (in French). Paris, F: Editions Paul Lechevalier. p. 61. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  39. ^ Kolff, Gualtherus Johannes (28 October 1914). "De Belgische Plaatsnamen" [Belgian place names]. Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). G.J. Kolff & Co.: 6. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  40. ^ Schuermans, Lodewijk Willem; David, Jan Baptist; Du Bois, Pierre (1883). Bejvoegsel: aan het Algemeen Vlaamsch idioticon uitgegeven in 1865-1870 [General Flemish idioticon issued in 1865-1870] (in Dutch). Leuven, B: K. Fonteyn. p. 268. OCLC 23400838. Retrieved 24 February 2017. ROBAAIS, zoo las ik ergens vertaald den naam der fransche stad Roubaix, 't welk beter Roobeek of Robeke zou zijn
  41. ^ "Buitenlandse Aardrijkskundige Namen" [Foreign Geographical Names] (in Dutch). taaladvies.net. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  42. ^ Leuridan, Théodore (1862). Histoire des seigneurs et de la seigneurie de Roubaix [History of the lords and lordships of Roubaix]. Histoire de Roubaix (in French). Vol. 3. Roubaix, F: Imprimerie J. Reboux. p. 24. OCLC 466447211. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  43. ^ Ireland, Patrick Richard (1 January 1994). The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland. Cambridge (Massachusetts), USA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-68375-4. Retrieved 27 July 2015. Even very large immigrant communities managed to integrate into the ranks of the Roubaignos (native Roubaisians) through their membership in the working class.
  44. ^ a b Landrecies, Jacques (March 2001). Boutet, Josiane (ed.). "Une configuration inédite: la triangulaire français-flamand-picard à Roubaix au début du XXe siècle" [An original configuration: the French-Flemish-Picard linguistic triangle in Roubaix at the start of the 20th century]. Langage et Société (in French). 97 (3). French-language web portal and library Cairn.info. Paris, F: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme: 27–69. doi:10.3917/ls.097.0027. ISBN 978-2-735-10894-7. ISSN 0181-4095. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  45. ^ Bowen, Reginald (1937). La formation du féminin de l'adjectif et du participe passé dans les dialectes normands, picards et wallons d'après l'Atlas linguistique de la France [The Feminine formation of adjectives and past participles in Norman, Picard and Wallon dialects according to the Linguistic Atlas of France] (in French). Paris, F: Librairie Droz. OCLC 252979177.
  46. ^ a b c Marissal, Louis-Edmond (1844). Recherches pour servir à l'histoire de Roubaix de 1400 à nos jours (in French). Roubaix, F: Impr. de Beghin. pp. 108–109. OCLC 253762961. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 1716: 4 715; 1789: 8 559; 1801: 8 151; 1805: 8 703; 1817:8 724; 1830: 13 132; 1842: 24,892
  47. ^ de Félix, Louis-Nicolas-Victor (1764). Mémoires sur les frontières et places de la Flandre, du Haynault, du pays entre Sambre et Meuze, du Calaisis, de l'Artois, du cours de la Somme et des Trois-Évèchez jusques à l'Alsace (manuscript). Français 11409. p. 969.
  48. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  49. ^ Declercq, Elien; Vanden Borre, Saartje (2013). Cultural integration of Belgian migrants in northern France (1870–1914): a Study of Popular songs. French History. Vol. 27. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 91–108. doi:10.1093/fh/crs123. ISSN 1477-4542. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  50. ^ Guerin-Gonzales, Camille; Carl, Strikwerda (1998). The Politics of Immigrant Workers: Labor Activism and Migration in the World Economy Since 1830 (2 revised ed.). New York (New York), USA: Holmes & Meier. pp. 115–133. ISBN 978-0-841-91298-4. Retrieved 15 July 2015. All Merrheim's years living in a French city that was over a third Belgian never made him question the ability of workers of different nationalities to unite.
  51. ^ de Planhol, Xavier; Clava, Paul (1994). An Historical Geography of France. Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography. Vol. 21. Cambridge (New York), USA: Cambridge University Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-521-32208-9. ISSN 1747-3128. OCLC 27266536. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  52. ^ Ministère des affaires étrangères du royaume de Belgique (1873). Recueil consulaire, contenant les rapports commerciaux des agents belges à l'étranger. Vol. 19. Brussels, B: P. Weissenbruch, Imprimeur du Roi. p. 971. ISBN 978-0-521-32208-9. Retrieved 16 July 2015. D'après un recensement récent, la population de Roubaix s'élève aujourd'hui à 75,987 habitants, dont 42,103 belges. En 1866 le recensement accusait une population totale de 64,706 habitants, dont 30,465 belges.
  53. ^ Moch, Leslie Page (2003) [First published 1992]. Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe Since 1650. Interdisciplinary studies in history (Second ed.). Bloomington (Indiana), USA: Indiana University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-253-21595-6. OCLC 50774361. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  54. ^ Stone, David (1 June 2015). The Kaiser's Army: The German Army in World War One. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 400. ISBN 978-1-844-86235-1. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  55. ^ Kramer, Alan (12 July 2007). Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-192-80342-9. Retrieved 25 July 2015. The death rate is high; in ordinary times two gravediggers were enough in Roubaix, and now there are six of them
  56. ^ Tilly, Charles (July 1983). Collective-action repertoires in five French provinces, 1789–1914 (PDF). CRSO Working Paper. Vol. 300. Ann Arbor (Michigan), USA: University of Michigan. p. 17. Retrieved 25 July 2015. In fact, the population of Lille-Roubaix-Tourcoing, a combat zone in World War I, fell slightly between 1901 and 1921.
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  61. ^ Pooley, Timothy (30 December 1996). Chtimi: The Urban Vernaculars of Northern France. Applications in French Linguistics Series. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. pp. 104–140. ISBN 978-1-853-59345-1. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  62. ^ Pooley, Timothy (9 October 2002). "The depicardization of the vernaculars of the Lille conurbation". In Jones, Mari C.; Esch, Edith (eds.). Language Change: The Interplay of Internal, External, and Extra-linguistic Factors. Contributions to the sociology of language. Vol. 86. Berlin, D: Walter de Gruyter GmbH. p. 34. ISBN 978-3-110-17202-7. ISSN 1861-0676. Retrieved 27 July 2015. Viez notes the enduring prevalence of Picard in Roubaix in the early twentieth century despite progressive francization favoured by urbanization and industrialization
  63. ^ Viez, Henri-Aimé (1978) [1st pub. 1910]. Le parler populaire patois de Roubaix: étude phonétique [Patois of Roubaix: a phonetic study of the popular dialect] (in French). Geneva, CH: Slatkine Reprints. p. 7. Retrieved 27 July 2015. …du parler populaire de Roubaix, tel qu'il était couramment employé avant que l'instruction primaire ne fût devenue obligatoire.
  64. ^ Gopnik, Adam (9 May 1994). "A Reporter at Large: The Ghost of the Glass House". The New Yorker. New York (New York), USA: F-R Publishing Corporation. p. 58. ISSN 0028-792X. Many of them had German names. They had fled from Alsace-Lorraine as the Franco-Prussian War ended, in 1871.
  65. ^ Gilbert, Barbara C.; Fishel Deshmukh, Marion (30 September 2005). Max Liebermann: from realism to impressionism. Los Angeles (California), USA: Skirball Cultural Center. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-970-42956-8. Retrieved 28 September 2015. After Alsace-Lorraine territory is annexed by the German Empire, thousands of Alsatian Jews emigrate to France.
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  67. ^ a b c d Viey, Frédéric; d'Almeida, Franck (June 2009). Histoire des communautés juives du Nord et de Picardie [History of the Jewish Communities of the North and Picardy Regions] (in French). Valenciennes, F: Synagogue de Valenciennes. pp. 24–25. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  68. ^ Cahen, Isidore; Prague, Hippolyte (1894). Archives israélites – Recueil politique et religieux [Israelite Archive – Political and religious reports] (in French). Vol. Tome LV. Paris, F: Bureau des Archives Israelites. p. 23. Retrieved 27 September 2015. M. Maurice Marx, fils du ministre-officiant de la Synagogue de Roubaix, a été nommé dans le courant de novembre au commandement de la canonnière l'Onyx. Ce jeune officier est un ancien élève de l'École polytechnique.
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  71. ^ Wigoder, Geoffrey; Spector, Shmuel (1 January 2001). "K-Sered – Roubaix". The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. Vol. 2. New York (New York), USA: New York University Press. p. 1098. ISBN 978-0-814-7935-65. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  72. ^ Michman, Dan (May 1998). Belgium and the Holocaust: Jews, Belgians, Germans. Jerusalem: Daf-Noy Press. pp. 335–336. ISBN 978-9-653-08068-3. A massive round-up, i.e., large-scale random arrests, of Jews in northern France was conducted on September 11, 1942, at the same time as the one in Antwerp […] On October 27, 1943, the Germans arrested two Jewish families in Croix and Roubaix.
  73. ^ Wieviorka, Michel; Bataille, Philippe (September 2007). The Lure of Anti-Semitism: Hatred of Jews in Present-Day France. Jewish Identities in a Changing World. Vol. 10. Translated by Couper Lobel, Kristin; Declerck, Anna. Leiden, NL: Brill Publishers. p. 98. ISBN 978-9-004-16337-9. Retrieved 30 September 2015. Roubaix does not have a Jewish community and there is no Jewish place of worship, intra muros.
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  78. ^ Leuridan, Théodore (1863). Histoire des institutions communales et municipales de la ville de Roubaix. Histoire de Roubaix (in French). Vol. 4. Roubaix, F: Imprimerie J. Reboux. p. 92. OCLC 466447211. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  79. ^ Tellier, Thibault (16 March 2006). "Le développement urbain de Roubaix dans la première partie du XXe siècle". In David, Michel (ed.). Roubaix: cinquante ans de transformations urbaines et de mutations sociales [Fifty years of urban transformations and social mutations in Roubaix]. Histoire et civilisations (in French). Vol. 972. Villeneuve d'Ascq, F: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion. p. 43. ISBN 978-2-859-39926-9. ISSN 1284-5655. Retrieved 21 July 2015. …c'est en fait le développement vers le sud qui semble le plus prometteur…
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  81. ^ Pottrain, Martine (1993). Le Nord au cœur: historique de la Fédération du Nord du Parti socialiste, 1880–1993 [Nord at heart: history of the French socialist party federation of the Nord, 1880–1993] (in French). Lille, F: SARL de presse Nord-Demain. OCLC 34886141. La loi de Vichy du 16 novembre 1940 réorganise l'administration communale : les maires et les conseillers municipaux sont désignés par le préfet, après accord des autorités allemandes.
  82. ^ Piat, Jean (1985). Victor Provo: 1903–1983: Roubaix témoigne et accuse (in French). Dunkerque, F: Éditions Des Beffrois. p. 11. ISBN 978-2-903-07747-1. Retrieved 7 July 2015. Toutefois, Jean Lebas restera suspendu et le poste de maire sera confié, le 18 décembre 1940, au plus ancien adjoint : Fleuris Vanherpe.
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  84. ^ Thyssen Geert; Herman Frederik; Kusters Walter; Van Ruyskensvelde Sarah; Depaepe Marc (20 December 2010). "From popular to unpopular education? The open-air school(s) of "Pont- Rouge", Roubaix (1921–1978)". History of Education & Children's Literature (PDF). Macerata, I: Edizioni Università di Macerata. p. 203. ISBN 978-88-6056-252-4. Retrieved 10 September 2015. …he was replaced successively by Fleuris Vanherpe, Marcel Guislain, Alphonse Verbeurgt, Charles Baudoin and Victor Provo. The latter, who was appointed by the Vichy regime, would be reinstalled as mayor of Roubaix after the war and govern the city from 1944 until 1977.
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