Records of heads of state
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Heads of state throughout the world and at all periods of history may be ranked according to characteristics such as length of time holding that position; age of accession or death; or physical attributes. In this way world records in these characteristics may be identified, although the historical basis for such claims is frequently uncertain.
- 1 Longest-reigning/serving
- 1.1 Monarch
- 1.2 Republic
- 1.2.1 Longest-serving male non-royal head of state
- 1.2.2 President
- 2 Shortest Serving
- 3 Ruling houses
- 4 Post-nominal numbers
- 5 Physical attributes
- 6 Age
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Longest-reigning male monarch
The longest-reigning male monarch ever known is disputed between the following candidates:
- Minhti, who ruled the Kingdom of Arakan as a absolute monarch under the title of King of Arakan. He is believed to have ruled for 95 years, however there is little documentary evidence exists for this claim.
- Pepi II Neferkare, who ruled the Kingdom of Egypt as a absolute monarch under the title of Pharaoh of Egypt. He is believed to have ruled for either 94 or 64 years.
- Taejo of Goguryeo, who ruled Goguryeo as a absolute monarch under the title of Taewang ("The Greatest of all Kings"). He is believed to have ruled for either 93 years or 68 years.
The longest undisputed reigning male monarch known is Sobhuza II, who ruled the Kingdom of Swaziland as a absolute monarch under the title of Paramount Chief of Swaziland and later King of Swaziland. He ruled for 82 years, 8 months, 11 days.
Longest current reigning male monarch
The longest current reigning male monarch is Hassanal Bolkiah, who is currently the Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei ("(he) who is Lord"), a absolute monarch of the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace.
Longest-reigning female monarch
The longest reigning female monarch ever known was Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled the Duchy of Aquitaine as a feudal absolute monarch under the title of Duchess of Aquitaine. She ruled for 66 years, 11 months, and 23 days.
The longest reigning female constitutional monarch ever is Elizabeth II, who is currently the Queen of the United Kingdom and other commonwealth realms, of the United Kingdom and other commonwealth realms.
Longest current reigning female monarch
The longest current reigning female monarch is Elizabeth II, who is currently the Queen of the United Kingdom and other commonwealth realms, a constitutional monarch of the United Kingdom and other commonwealth realms.
Longest-serving male non-royal head of state
The longest serving non-royal male head of state ever was Fidel Castro, who held the titles of Prime Minister of Cuba, First Secretary of the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the United Party for the Socialist Revolution of Cuba, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba, President of the Council of State, and President of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Cuba. He served for 52 years, 2 months, and 3 days.
Longest-serving and longest current serving male president
Longest-serving female non-royal head of state and longest serving female
The longest serving female non-royal head of state and longest serving female president ever was Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, who was the President of Iceland of the Republic of Iceland. She served for 16 years.
Longest current serving president
The shortest serving monarch of all time is believed to be Louis XIX of France . After his fathers abdication during the July Revolution on August 2, 1830, he ascended to the throne, but abdicated around 20 minutes later. This reign is disputed, as some historians believe this reign is too short to be valid. The next contender is the unnamed daughter of Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei who was appointed by her grandmother, Empress Dowager Hu. She reigned for a matter of hours until being replaced by Yuan Zhou.
Officially, the current Emperor of Japan, Akihito is the 125th in line from the first emperor Jimmu, who is variously believed to have reigned in the 1st or 7th century BC. However, the earliest documentary evidence is only for the 29th emperor, Kinmei (AD 509–571).
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is well-documented as being descended from Arnulf of Metz (c. AD 582–640), forefather of Charlemagne, thus representing a lineage of 47 generations. (See Descent of Elizabeth II from the Franks.)
The highest post-nominal number representing a member of a royal house is 75, used by Count Heinrich LXXV Reuss (r. 1800–1801). All male members of the branch were named Heinrich, and were successively numbered from 1 upwards, from the beginning of each century.
The heaviest monarch is believed to have been Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, King of Tonga from 1965 to 2006 who at his peak in 1976 was measured as 607.5 kg (1,339 lb), though he subsequently lost around 40% of his weight.
According to legends, the youngest ruler is Shapur II who was crowned in utero when a crown was placed on the belly of Hormizd II 's wife after Hormizd II died. However, according to Shapur Shahbazi, it is unlikely. Other claims as the youngest ruler include John I of France and Alfonso XIII of Spain who were both crowned on the day of their birth.
- Head of state
- Records of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom
- Records of Prime Ministers of Hungary
- List of the oldest living state leaders