List of rulers of Wallachia

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This is a list of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.

Notes[edit]

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any family branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons, being defined as os de domn, "of Voivode marrow", or as having heregie, "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans; between 1821 and 1878 (the date of Romania's independence), various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Wallachian rulers, like the Moldavian rulers, bore the titles of Voivode ("duke") or/and Hospodar ("lord, master").

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

List[edit]

House of Basarab[edit]

Ruler Portrait Years Family Marriage Notes
Bezerenbam c. before 1241 – ? Unknown Bezerenbam is semi-legendary leader of Wallachia; he appears within the context of the Mongol invasion of Europe.
Litovoi c. before 1247 – 1277/1280 Unknown Litovoi is a shadowy figure who ruled Oltenia as leader; Ioan Aurel Pop argues that there could have been two rulers with the same name, one being the other's successor.
Bărbat c. 1277/1280 – unknown Unknown Bărbat was the brother and successor of Voivode Litovoi
Thocomerius c. before 1247 – 1277/1280 Unknown the father of Basarab, who would become the first independent voivode of Wallachia. Many Romanian historians, such as Vlad Georgescu and Marcel Popa, believe that Thocomerius was a Voivode in Wallachia who succeeded Bărbat, who ruled around 1278.
Radu Negru Negru.Voda.pictura.jpg c. 1290 – 1310 Unknown Radu Negru is legendary voivode of Wallachia; some historians consider it to be just a nickname of Thocomerius or Basarab I.
Basarab I the Founder
(Basarab Întemeietorul)
Basarab I of Wallachia.jpg c. 1310 – 1352 Basarab Margareta
two children
son of Thocomerius; first non-legendary ruler of Wallachia.
Nicolae Alexandru Nicolae Alexandru.jpg 1352–1364 Basarab Maria Lackfy
five children

Clara Dobokai
two children

Margareta Dabkai
no children
son of Basarab I
Vladislav I
Vlaicu-Vodă
Vladislav Vlaicu.jpg c. 1364 – 1377 Basarab unknown son of Nicolae Alexandru
Radu I Radu I.jpg c. 1377 – 1383 Basarab Anna
one child

Kalinikia
c.1354 or 1355
two children
son of Nicolae Alexandru
Dan I c. 1383 – 1386 Dănești Maria of Serbia
one child
son of Radu I
Mircea I the Elder
(Mircea I cel Bătrân)
MirceatheElder.jpg 1386-1394

1397-1418
Basarab Maria Tolmay
six children

Anca
no children
Son of Radu I. Wallachia reached one of its peaks. Was deposed by a usurper, Vlad.
Vlad I the Usurper
(Vlad I Uzurpatorul)
1394–1397 Dănești Unknown son of Dan I (or simply a wallachian boyar), usurped the throne
Mihail I Mircea and Mihail.jpg 1418–1420 Basarab unknown
two children
Son of Mircea cel Bătrân, co-ruled with his father since 1415.
Radu II the Bald
(Radu II Praznaglava)
Radu II.jpg 1420-1422[1]

1426-1427[2]
Basarab unknown Son of Mircea cel Bătrân
Dan II Dan al II-lea.jpg 1422-1426

1427-1431
Dănești unknown
five children
Son of Dan I, member of the Order of the Dragon
Alexandru I Aldea 1431–1436 Drăculești unknown son of Mircea cel Bătrân
Vlad II the Dragon
(Vlad II Dracul)
Vlad II Dracul of Wallachia.jpg 1436–1442

1443-1447
Drăculești unknown
one child

Cneajna of Moldavia
three children
illegitimate son of Mircea cel Bătrân; member of the Order of the Dragon (thus Dracul); While in negotiations outside Wallachia with the Ottoman Empire, his son Mircea was named prince. He returned to the throne in 1443, winning against John Hunyadi, and deposing also Basarab II. He was assassinated in 1447.
Mircea II the Younger
(Mircea al II-lea cel Tânăr)
1442

1446-1447
Drăculești Unmarried son of Vlad II Dracul, sometimes not counted; he ruled while his father was absent, on his way to pay the tribute to the Ottoman Empire; Deposed by John Hunyadi. Returned in 1446, co-ruling with his father. He was blinded and buried alive by Hunyadi in 1447.
Basarab II 1442–1443 Dănești Maria (Dobra)
two children
son of Dan II; Placed in the throne by John Hunyadi, in war with Vlad II.
Vladislav II Vladislav al II-lea.jpg 1447–1448

1448-1456
Dănești Neacşa
one child
son of Dan II; supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; The way he came to the throne is debatable, but the most accepted is that he killed Vlad II, and was then replaced in the throne by Hunyadi. Returned in 1448, after deposing Vlad the Impaler, and ruled again until his death in a combat hand-to-hand against Vlad III, who retook the throne
Vlad III the Impaler
(Vlad al III-lea Țepeș)
Vlad Tepes 002.jpg 1448

1456-1462

1476-1477
Drăculești Cneajna Báthory
Before 1462
one child

Ilona Szilágyi
Between 1462 and 1466
two children

Jusztina Nelipic
no children
son of Vlad II Dracul, invaded Wallachia while Vladislav was away, in battle against the Ottomans; Deposed in the next year by Hunyadi. Returned in 1456, after killing Vladislav II in battle. Deposed again in 1462.
Radu III the Fair
(Radu cel Frumos)
Radu cel Frumos.jpg 1462–1473

1473-1474

1474

1474-1475
Drăculești Maria
one child
son of Vlad II Dracul; From 1473 in war with Basarab III.
Basarab III Laiotă the Old
(Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân)
Laiota basarab fresca.png 1473

1474

1474

1475-1476

1476-1477
Dănești Unmarried son of Dan II; In war against Radu III;1st rule
Basarab IV The Younger, The Little Impaler
(Basarab IV Țepeluș cel Tânăr)
1477–1481

1481-1482
Dănești Maria
one child
son of Basarab II
Mircea (III) 1481 Drăculești Unmarried illegitimate son of Vlad II Dracul
Vlad IV the Monk
(Vlad Călugărul)
Vlad Calugarul.jpg 1481

1482-1495
Drăculești Rada Smaranda
Before 1460
four children

Maria Palaiologina
1487
one child
son of Vlad II Dracul
Radu IV the Great
(Radu cel Mare)
Radu cel Mare Dealu.jpg 1495–1508 Drăculești Catherine of Zeta
six children
son of Vlad Călugărul
Mihnea I the Bad
(Mihnea cel Rău)
Mihnea I cel Rau.jpg 1508–1509 Drăculești Smaranda
no children

Voica
three children
son of Vlad III Țepeș
Mircea III (IV) Miloș 1509–1510 Drăculești Maria of Serbia
1519
two children
son of Mihnea cel Rău
Vlad V the Younger
(Vlad cel Tânăr)
1510–1512 Drăculești Anca of Zeta
Before 1508
one child
son of Vlad Călugărul; also known as Vlăduț
Neagoe Basarab V Neagoe Basarab 01.jpg 1512–1521 Craiovești Milica of Serbia
1505
six children
possibly son of Pârvu Craiovescu or Basarab IV; The most accepted theory is that he claimed the throne as a son of Basarab IV, being in fact son of Pârvu. Cultural zenith in Wallachia.
Milica of Serbia (Regent) Milita Despina.jpg 1521–1522 Branković/ Craiovești Neagoe Basarab V
1505
six children
Regent in behalf of her son
Teodosie 041 - Teodosie.jpg Craiovești unmarried under regency of his mother Milica Despina
Radu V Radu of Afumati.jpg 1522–1523

1524

1524-1525

1525-1529
Drăculești Voica of Bucsani
three children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
After 1525
no children
illegitimate son of Radu cel Mare; allied with Craiovești
Vladislav III 1523

1524

1525
Dănești Unknown nephew of Vladislav II
Radu VI Bădica 1523–1524 Drăculești Unknown son of Radu IV the Great.
Basarab VI 1529 Unknown Non-dynastic; Son of Mehmed-bey
Moise Moise Voda.jpg 1529–1530 Dănești Unknown son of Vladislav III. Last of the Dănești.
Vlad VI the Drowned
(Vlad Înecatul)
1530–1532 Drăculești Anna of Moldavia
1531
no children
son of Vlad cel Tânăr
Vlad VII Vintilă de la Slatina VladVintila.jpg 1532–1535 Drăculești Zamfira
one child

Rada
one child
son of Radu cel Mare
Radu VII Paisie Radu Paisie si fiul sau Marco.jpg 1535–1545 Drăculești Stana
three children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
c.1541
three children
son of Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina
Mircea IV (V) the Shepherd
(Mircea Ciobanul)
054 - Mircea Ciobanul.jpg 1545–1552

1553-1554

1558-1559
Drăculești Chiajna of Moldavia
June 1546
seven children
son of Radu IV.
Radu VIII Ilie the Cowherd
(Radu Ilie Haidăul)
1552–1553 Drăculești Unknown son of Radu de la Afumați
Pătrașcu the Good
(Pătrașcu cel Bun)
Patrascu cel Bun.jpg 1554–1558 Drăculești Voica of Slatioare
four children
son of Radu Paisie
Chiajna of Moldavia (regent) 1559-1564 Drăculești Mircea IV (V)
June 1546
seven children
Regent on behalf of her son.
Petru I the Younger
(Petru cel Tânăr)
Petru cel Tanar - Snagov.jpg 1564–1568 Drăculești Jelena Crepovic of Transylvania
22 August 1563
one child
son of Mircea Ciobanul
Alexandru II Mircea Alexandru II Mircea.jpg 1568–1574

1574-1577
Drăculești Catherine Salvaresso
1558
Pera
one child
Son of Mircea III Dracul; popularly called Oaie Seacă (Barren Sheep); in 1574 was expelled by Vintilă, but returned in that same year to the throne.
Vintilă 1574 Drăculești Unknown son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun
Catherine Salvaresso (regent) MihneaTurcuitul&mother.jpg 1577-1583 Salvaresso/Drăculești Alexandru II Mircea
1558
Pera
one child
Regent on behalf of her son, Mihnea II. Deposed by Peter II.
Petru II of the Earring
(Petru Cercel)
069 - Petru Cercel.jpg 1583–1585 Drăculești Unmarried son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun
Mihnea II the Turk (Mihnea Turcitul) 068 - Mihnea Turcitul.jpg 1585–1591 Drăculești Neaga de Cislau
June 1582
three children
Paid for the assassination of his usurper. Returned and ruled alone.

House of Bogdan-Muşat[edit]

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Ștefan I Surdul
(Stephen the Deaf)
1591–1592
Alexandru III cel Rău
(Alexander III the Mean)
1592–1593 also ruled Moldavia (1592)

Houses of Basarab and Movilă[edit]

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Mihail II Viteazul
(Michael II the Brave)
MViteazul at Alba Iulia.jpg 1593–1600 Drăculești illegitimate son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun; also ruled Transylvania (1599-1600) and Moldavia (1600), briefly uniting the three principalities.
Nicolae Pătrașcu Nicolae Patrascu.jpg 1599–1600 Drăculești Son of Michael II, co-ruled with his father since 1599.
Simion Movilă Stamp of Moldova 255.gif 1600–1601

1602
Movilești
Radu IX Mihnea Stamp of Moldova 444.gif 1601–1602

1611

1611-1616
Drăculești son of Minhea II Turcitul; 1st rule
Radu X Șerban Painting of Wallachian voivode Radu Șerban at Horezu Monastery.jpg 1602–1610

1611
Nephew of Neagoe Basarab V. 1st rule
Transylvanian occupation: direct rule of Gabriel Báthory (1611)
Gabriel Movilă 1616 Movilești son of Simion Movilă; 1st rule

Various dynasties[edit]

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Alexandru IV Iliaș 1616–1618 1st rule
Gabriel II Movilă 1618–1620 Movilești 2nd rule
Radu IX Mihnea Stamp of Moldova 444.gif 1620–1623 Drăculești 4th rule
Alexandru V Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
1623–1627 Drăculești son of Radu Mihnea
Alexandru IV Iliaș 1627–1629 2nd rule
Leon Tomșa Leon Tomsa.jpg 1629–1632
Radu XI Iliaș 1632
Matei Basarab Bessaraba.jpg 1632–1654 Brâncovenești
Constantin I Șerban Constantin Serban Basarab.jpg 1654–1658 illegitimate son of Radu Șerban
Mihnea III Mihnea al III-lea si fiul.jpg 1658–1659
Gheorghe I Ghica 114 - Gheorghe Ghica.jpg 1659–1660 Ghica
Grigore I Ghica 116 - Grigore Ghica.jpg 1660–1664 Ghica 1st rule
Radu XII Leon Radu Leon.jpg 1664–1669
Antonie Vodă din Popeşti 1669–1672
Grigore I Ghica 116 - Grigore Ghica.jpg 1672–1673 Ghica 2nd rule
Gheorghe II Ducas Stamp of Moldova 114.gif 1673–1678
Șerban Cantacuzino Serban Cantacuzino.jpg 1678–1688 Cantacuzene
Constantin II Brâncoveanu Constantin Brancoveanu.jpg 1688–1714 Brâncovenești
Ștefan II Cantacuzino Stefan Cantacuzino.jpg 1714–1715 Cantacuzene
Phanariote rule (1715–1821)
Nicolae Mavrocordat NicolaeMavrocordat.gif 1715–1716 Mavrocordato 1st rule
- Habsburg occupation 1716
Ioan Mavrocordat Ioan Mavrocordat.jpg 1716–1719 Mavrocordato
Nicolae Mavrocordat NicolaeMavrocordat.gif 1719–1730 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg 1730 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Mihai Racoviță Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg 1730–1731 Racoviță 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg 1731–1733 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Grigore II Ghica Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg 1733–1735 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg 1735–1741 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Mihai Racoviță Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg 1741–1744 Racoviță 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg 1744–1748 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Grigore II Ghica Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg 1748–1752 Ghica 2nd rule
Matei Ghica Matei Ghica.jpg 1752–1753 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 1753–1756 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg 1756–1758 5th rule
Scarlat Ghica Scarlat Ghica portrait.jpg 1758–1761 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg 1761–1763 6th rule
Constantin Racoviță 1763–1764 Racoviță 2nd rule
Ștefan Racoviță 1764–1765 Racoviță
Scarlat Ghica Scarlat Ghica portrait.jpg 1765–1766 Ghica 2nd rule
Alexandru I Ghica 1766–1768 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1768
Grigore III Ghica Grigore III Ghica, Prince of Moldavia and Wallachia.jpg 1768–1769 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1769–1770
Emanuel Giani Ruset Kherson-28102009(059).jpg 1770-1771 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Alexander Ypsilantis Stamp of Moldova md631.jpg 1774–1782 Ypsilanti 1st rule
Nicolae Caragea 1782–1783 Caradja
Mihai Suțu Mihail Sutu.jpg 1783–1786 Soutzos 1st rule
Nicolae Mavrogheni Nicolae Mavrogheni.jpg 1786–1789
- Habsburg occupation 1789–1790 military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Mihai Suțu Mihail Sutu.jpg 1791–1793 Soutzos 2nd rule
Alexandru Moruzi Alexandru Moruzi.jpg 1793–1796 Mourousi 1st rule
Alexander Ypsilantis Stamp of Moldova md631.jpg 1796–1797 Ypsilanti 2nd rule
Constantin Hangerli Constantine Hangerli.jpeg 1797–1799
Alexandru Moruzi Alexandru Moruzi.jpg 1799–1801 Mourousi 2nd rule
Mihai Suțu Mihail Sutu.jpg 1801–1802 Soutzos 3rd rule
Alexandru Suțu Alexandru Sutu.jpg 1802 Soutzos
Constantin Ypsilanti Constantin Ipsilanti.jpg 1802-1806 Ypsilanti
- Russian occupation 1806–1812
Ioan Gheorghe Caragea Ion Gheorghe Caragea.jpg 1812–1818 Caradja
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncovenu
1818 assisted by Vornic Barbu Văcărescu, Vistier Grigore Ghica and Logofăt Samurcaș
Alexandru Suțu Alexandru Sutu.jpg 1818–1821 Soutzos
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncoveanu
1821
Tudor Vladimirescu Theodor Aman - Tudor Vladimirescu2.jpg 1821 leader of the anti-Phanariote uprising
Scarlat Callimachi Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg 1821 Callimachi
Grigore IV Ghica Grigore Dimitrie Ghica IV.jpg 1822–1828 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1828–1834 military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Alexandru II Ghica Alexander II. Ghika.jpg 1834–1842 Ghica
Gheorghe Bibescu Paulus Petrovitz - Domnitorul Gheorghe Bibescu.jpg 1842–1848 Craiovești / Brâncovenești / Știrbei / Bibescu
Provisional Government 1848 Metropolitan Neofit II, assisted by Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Ștefan Golescu, Gheorghe Magheru, Gheorghe Scurti
Locotenența domnească
(Regency of three)
1848 Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Nicolae Golescu
Joint Ottoman and Russian occupation 1848–1851 military commanders: Omar Pasha and Alexander von Lüders
Caimacam
Constantin Cantacuzino
Pavel Đurković (attrib.) - Constantin Cantacuzino.png 1848
Barbu Știrbei Ion Negulici, Barbu Ştirbei.jpg 1848–1853 Știrbei 1st rule
Russian occupation 1853–1854
Ottoman occupation 1854
Austrian occupation 1854–1856 military commander: Johann Coronini-Cronberg
Barbu Știrbei Ion Negulici, Barbu Ştirbei.jpg 1854–1856 Știrbei 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Caimacam
Alexandru II Ghica
Alexander II. Ghika.jpg 1856–1858
Caimacam of three 1858–1859 Ioan Manu, Emanoil Băleanu, Ioan A. Filipescu
Alexander John Cuza Al I Cuza.jpg 1859–1862 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia since 1862.
Alexander John Cuza Al I Cuza.jpg 1862–1866 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
Carol I Carol I portrait.JPG 1866–1881 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen A new constitution came into effect in 1866 giving the country the official name Romania, and on 14 March (O.S.) (26 March) 1881, it became the Kingdom of Romania.

For later rulers, see Kings of Romania.

References[edit]