San Marino Scale

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The San Marino Scale is a suggested scale for assessing risks associated with deliberate transmissions from Earth aimed to possible extraterrestrial intelligent life. The scale was suggested by Iván Almár at a conference in San Marino in 2005.[1][2] The radio output of Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune is not considered in the model. The San Marino Scale was subsequently adopted by the SETI Permanent Study Group of the International Academy of Astronautics at its 2007 meeting in Hyderabad, India.

Rating scale[1][edit]

Value Potential Hazard
10 Extraordinary
9 Outstanding
8 Far-reaching
7 High
6 Noteworthy
5 Intermediate
4 Moderate
3 Minor
2 Low
1 Insignificant


  1. ^ a b IAA SETI Permanent Study Group: The San Marino Scale
  2. ^ Hecht, Jeff; Paulshuch, H (24 October 2006). "The San Marino Scale: A new analytical tool for assessing transmission risk". Acta Astronautica. 60: 57. Bibcode:2007AcAau..60...57A. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.04.012. Lay summaryNew Scientist.