Sentinelese people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sentinelese
Total population
15[1]–500[2]
Regions with significant populations
North Sentinel Island
Languages
Sentinelese
Religion
Possibly a form of Andamanese animism
Related ethnic groups
Perhaps Jarawa or Onge
North Sentinel Island is located in India
North Sentinel Island
North Sentinel Island
North Sentinel Island (India)

Sentinelese (also Sentineli, Senteneli, Sentenelese, North Sentinel Islanders) are an indigenous people of the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal. They inhabit North Sentinel Island, which lies westward off the southern tip of the Great Andaman archipelago. They are noted for resisting attempts at contact by outsiders. The Sentinelese maintain an essentially hunter-gatherer society subsisting through hunting, fishing, and collecting wild plants. There is no evidence of either agricultural practices or methods of producing fire.[3] Their language remains unclassified and is not mutually intelligible with the Jarawa language of their nearest neighbors.[4]

The Sentinelese are designated as Scheduled Tribe.[5]

Population[edit]

Comparative map showing the distribution of Andamanese tribes in the Andaman Islands – early 1800s versus in 2004. Notably:
(a) Rapid depopulation of the original southeastern Jarawa homeland in the 1789–1793 period
(b) Onge (in blue) and Great Andamanese shrinkage to isolated settlements
(c) Complete Jangil extinction by 1931
(d) Jarawa move to occupy depopulated former west coast homeland of the Great Andamanese, and
(e) Only the Sentinelese zone is somewhat intact

The precise population of the Sentinelese is not known. Estimates range from lower than 40, through a median of around 250, and up to a maximum of 500. In 2001, Census of India officials recorded 39 individuals[4] (21 males and 18 females); however, out of necessity this survey was conducted from a distance and almost certainly does not represent an accurate figure for the population who range over the 72 km2 (17,800 acres) island.[2] The 2011 Census of India recorded only 15 individuals (12 males and 3 females).[1] Any medium– or long–term impact on the Sentinelese population arising from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and resulting tsunami is not known, other than the confirmation obtained that they had survived the immediate aftermath.[6]

On previous visits, groups of some 20–40 individuals were encountered regularly. Habitations of 40–60 individuals were found on two occasions.[citation needed] As some individuals are thought to be hiding, a more precise approximation of group size cannot be determined.[citation needed] This would suggest that some 2–6 groups occupy the island. The rule of thumb population density of 1.5 km2 (370 acres)/individuals [clarification needed] in comparable hunter–gatherer societies indicates that one such group could live off the land alone. A significant amount of food is derived from the sea. It seems that, at any one time, the groups that were encountered could only have come from a rather small part of the island, and that about half of the couples had dependent children or included pregnant women. There appeared to be slightly more males than females.

Characteristics[edit]

The Sentinelese and other indigenous Andamanese peoples are frequently described as negritos, a term which has been applied to various widely separated peoples in Southeast Asia, such as the Semang of the Malay Peninsula, the Aeta of the Philippines archipelago, as well as to other peoples in Australia including former populations of Tasmania.[citation needed] The defining characteristics of these "negrito" peoples (who are not a monophyletic group) include a comparatively short stature, dark skin and "peppercorn" hair, qualities also found commonly across the continent of Africa.[citation needed]

Although no close contacts have been established, author Heinrich Harrer described one man as being 1.6 metres (5 ft 3 in) tall and apparently left-handed.[7]

Culture[edit]

Most of what is known about Sentinelese material culture is based on observations during contact attempts in the late 20th century. The Sentinelese maintain an essentially hunter-gatherer society, obtaining their subsistence through hunting, fishing, and collecting wild plants; there is no evidence of any agricultural practices.[3]

Their dwellings are either shelter-type huts with no side walls and a floor sometimes laid out with palms and leaves, which provide enough space for a family of three or four and their belongings, or larger communal dwellings which may be some 12 square metres (130 sq ft) and are more elaborately constructed, with raised floors and partitioned family quarters.[citation needed]

Advanced metalwork is unknown, as raw materials on the island are extremely rare. It has been observed, however, that they have made adroit use of metal objects which have washed up or been left behind on their shores, having some ability at cold smithing and sharpening iron and incorporating it into weapons and other items. For example, in the late 1980s two international container ships ran aground on the island's external coral reefs; the Sentinelese retrieved several items of iron from the vessels.[8]

The 1880 British expedition to the island led by Maurice Vidal Portman reported that "their methods of cooking and preparing their food resemble those of the Öngés, not those of the aborigines of the Great Andaman."[9]

Their weaponry consists of javelins and a flatbow with high accuracy against human-sized targets up to nearly 10 metres (33 ft).[citation needed] At least three varieties of arrows, apparently for fishing and hunting, and untipped ones for shooting warning shots, have been documented.[citation needed] Fishing arrows have a number of forward-pointing prongs; hunting arrows have ovoid arrowheads, with bodkin-type tips for both purposes, the latter two as well as their associated barbs below the tip made from iron. The arrows are over 1 m (3 ft) long. The harpoon- or javelin-type arrows are nearly half as long again, about the same length as the bows (over 3 m (10 ft)), and can also be thrown or used for stabbing, but the latter probably only rarely.[citation needed]

For catching large fish, a harpoon is used which is similar in design to the fishing arrows, but nearly 2.5 m (8 ft) long. Knives are also known, but it is unclear to what extent the Sentinelese fashion them themselves.[citation needed]

Known tools include adzes, pounding and smithing stones, and various finely or coarsely woven baskets for small-grained or larger goods, as well as bamboo and wooden containers. Fires are maintained as embers inside dwellings, possibly assisted by resin torches. There exist fishing nets and basic outrigger canoes used for fishing and collecting shellfish from the lagoon but not for open-sea excursions.[citation needed]

Food consists primarily of plants gathered in the forest, coconuts, which are frequently found on the beaches as flotsam, pigs, and, presumably, other wildlife (which apart from sea turtles is limited to some smaller birds and invertebrates). Wild honey is known to be collected and the Sentinelese use a kind of rake to pull down branches to gather fruit or nuts, such as sapodilla and pandanus.[citation needed]

Incidents of contact[edit]

In January 1880, an armed British expedition to the island led by 20-year-old Maurice Vidal Portman, the local colonial administrator, arrived to conduct a survey of the island, and to take a prisoner, in accordance with British policy to pacify unfriendly tribes at the time, which was to abduct a member of the tribe, treat them well and give them gifts, and release them back to the tribe, hoping to demonstrate friendliness. Portman's expedition of the island is believed to be the first by outsiders. While the Sentinelese tended to disappear into the jungle whenever outsiders were spotted approaching, Portman's expedition found an elderly couple and four children after several days. They were taken prisoner and brought to Port Blair. The elderly couple became ill and died, probably from contracting diseases to which they did not have immunity. The four children were returned to the island, given gifts, and released. The children then disappeared into the jungle. After this incident, the British did not try to contact the Sentinelese again and instead focused on other tribes.[10]

In 1967, the Indian government began a series of "Contact Expeditions" to the island. The programme was managed by the Director of Tribal Welfare and anthropologist T. N. Pandit.[11][12] The first expedition, headed by Pandit, included armed police and naval officers. The Sentinelese retreated into the jungle, and the expedition failed to make contact with any of them. During these expeditions, an Indian Navy vessel would anchor outside the coral reefs and send small boats to approach the beaches, and while keeping a distance, the crew would drop various gifts into the water to wash up on shore. If the Sentinelese fled for the jungle, the parties might land on shore and drop off the gifts before leaving.[10]

On 29 March 1970, a research party of Indian anthropologists, which included Pandit, found themselves cornered on the reef flats between North Sentinel and Constance Island. An eyewitness recorded the following from his vantage point on a boat lying off the beach:

Quite a few discarded their weapons and gestured to us to throw the fish. The women came out of the shade to watch our antics... A few men came and picked up the fish. They appeared to be gratified, but there did not seem to be much softening to their hostile attitude... They all began shouting some incomprehensible words. We shouted back and gestured to indicate that we wanted to be friends. The tension did not ease. At this moment, a strange thing happened — a woman paired off with a warrior and sat on the sand in a passionate embrace. This act was being repeated by other women, each claiming a warrior for herself, a sort of community mating, as it were. Thus did the militant group diminish. This continued for quite some time and when the tempo of this frenzied dance of desire abated, the couples retired into the shade of the jungle. However, some warriors were still on guard. We got close to the shore and threw some more fish which were immediately retrieved by a few youngsters. It was well past noon and we headed back to the ship...[13]

In the spring of 1974, a National Geographic film crew came to the island, in what was one of the most unsuccessful expeditions made on the island. North Sentinel was visited by a team of anthropologists filming a documentary entitled Man in Search of Man. The team was accompanied by armed police officers and a National Geographic photographer. When the motorized boat broke through the barrier reefs, locals emerged from the jungle. The Sentinelese responded with a curtain of arrows. The boat landed at a point on the coast out of range of the arrows and the police (dressed in jackets with padded armour) landed and left gifts in the sand: a miniature plastic car, some coconuts, a live pig tied, a doll, and aluminium cookware.[14] The policemen returned to the boat and waited to see the locals' reaction to the gifts. The reaction was to launch another round of arrows, one of which struck the documentary's director in the left thigh. The man who wounded the director withdrew and laughed proudly, sitting in the shade while others speared, then buried, the pig and the doll. Afterwards, everyone left, taking with them only the coconuts and aluminium cookware.[14]

In the early 1990s, the Sentinelese began allowing the boats to come closer to the shore, and sometimes greeted them unarmed. However, after a few minutes, the Sentinelese would warn them off by making menacing gestures and firing arrows without arrowheads. In 1996, the Indian government ended the "Contact Expeditions" following a series of hostile encounters resulting in several deaths in a similar programme practised with the Jarawa people of South and Middle Andaman Islands and because of the danger of introducing diseases.[10][12]

The Sentinelese appear to have emerged relatively unscathed from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, apparently managing to reach high ground. Three days following the tsunami, an Indian naval helicopter was sent to check on them and drop food on the beach. It was warned away by a Sentinelese warrior who emerged from the jungle and brandished a bow and arrow.[10]

In 2006, Sentinelese archers killed two fishermen who were fishing illegally for mud crabs within range of the island. Their boat's improvised anchor failed to prevent it from being carried away by currents while they were asleep. The boat drifted into the shallows of the island, where they were killed. The Sentinelese buried them in shallow graves. An Indian Coast Guard helicopter that was sent to retrieve the bodies was driven off by Sentinelese warriors, who fired a volley of arrows.[15]

Present situation[edit]

Their island is an integral part of and administered by the Indian Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In practice, however, the Sentinelese exercise complete autonomy over their affairs and the involvement of the Indian authorities is restricted to occasional monitoring, even more infrequent and brief visits, and generally discouraging any access or approaches to the island.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b District Census Handbook: Andaman & Nicobar Islands (PDF). Census of India (Report). 2011: 156. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Earth from Space: North Sentinel Island". European Space Agency. 29 April 2005. Retrieved 1 August 2015. The 72-square-kilometre-area North Sentinel Island is home to the fiercely independent Sentinelese tribe, known to reject any contact with outsiders. The Indian government carried out its 2001 census of the Island from a distance, counting a total population of 21 males and 18 females, although other estimates range higher, to a maximum of 500. 
  3. ^ a b B. K. Roy Burman, ed. (1990). Cartography for development of outlying states and islands of India: short papers submitted at NATMO Seminar, Calcutta, December 3-6, 1990. National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. p. 203. OCLC 26542161. 
  4. ^ a b Enumeration of Primitive Tribes in A&N Islands: A Challenge (PDF) (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2014. The first batch could identify 31 Sentinelese. The second batch could count altogether 39 Sentinelese consisting of male and females adults, children and infants. During both the contacts the enumeration team tried to communicate with them through some Jarawa words and gestures, but, Sentinelese could not understand those verbal words. 
  5. ^ "List of notified Scheduled Tribes" (PDF). Census India. p. 27. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Did Island Tribes Use Ancient Lore to Evade Tsunami?". National Geographic Society. 24 January 2005. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  7. ^ Harrer, Heinrich (1977). Die letzten Fünfhundert: Expedition zu d. Zwergvölkern auf d. Andamanen [The last five hundred: Expedition to the dwarf peoples in the Andaman Islands] (in German). Berlin: Ullstein. ISBN 3-550-06574-4. OCLC 4133917. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  8. ^ Master Plan 1991–2021 for Welfare of Primitive Tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sec. II Ch. 21. Dept. of Tribal Welfare, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration; as reproduced in Andaman Book
  9. ^ Portman, Maurice Vidal (1899). "XVIII: The Jàrawas". A History of Our Relations with the Andamanese II. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 728. OCLC 861984. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d The Forbidden Island
  11. ^ Noted researcher on the Andamanese and later to become Director of the Anthropological Survey of India
  12. ^ a b Goodheart, Adam (2000). "The Last Island of the Savages". The American Scholar 69 (4): 13–44. (subscription required (help)). 
  13. ^ Quotation reproduced in Chapter 12, The Andamanese (Weber n.d.). The original attribution for the quote is not provided.
  14. ^ a b Vishvajit Pandya (2009). In the Forest: Visual and Material Worlds of Andamanese History (1858–2006). University Press of America. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-7618-4272-9. OCLC 673383888. 
  15. ^ Peter Foster (8 February 2006). "Stone Age tribe kills fishermen who strayed on to island". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Pandit, T. N. (1990). The Sentinelese. Kolkata: Seagull Books. ISBN 81-7046-081-6. 
  • Weber, George (n.d.). "The Andamanese". The Lonely Islands. The Andaman Association. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 

External links[edit]