Gauge (bore diameter)
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The gauge of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the inner diameter (bore diameter) of the barrel. Gauge is determined from the weight of a solid sphere of lead that will fit the bore of the firearm, and is expressed as the multiplicative inverse of the sphere's weight as a fraction of a pound, e.g., a one-twelfth pound ball fits a 12-gauge bore. Thus there are twelve 12-gauge balls per pound, etc. The term is related to the measurement of cannon, which were also measured by the weight of their iron round shot; an 8 pounder would fire an 8 lb (3.6 kg) ball.
Gauge is commonly used today in reference to shotguns, though historically it was also used in large double rifles, which were made in sizes up to 2 bore during their heyday in the 1880s, being originally loaded with black powder cartridges. These very large rifles, sometimes called elephant guns, were intended for use in India and Africa for hunting dangerous game.
Gauge is abbreviated "ga.", "ga", or "G". The space between the number and the abbreviation is often left out, as in "12ga".
An n-gauge diameter means that a ball of lead (density 11.3 g/cm3 or 6.6 oz/in3) with that diameter has a mass equal to 1/n part of the mass of the international avoirdupois pound (454 grams), that is, that n such lead balls could be cast from a pound weight of lead. Therefore, an n-gauge shotgun or n-bore rifle has a bore diameter (in inches) of approximately
- Divide 454 (grams in 1 pound avoirdupois) by n to find the mass of each one of the balls.
- Divide it by 11.3 (density of lead) to find the volume of the ball.
- Multiply it by 0.75 and divide it by pi, then find its cube root, (rearranged from the volume-of-a-sphere equation) to find its radius in cm.
- Multiply it by 2 to find the diameter in cm.
- Divide it by 2.54 to find the diameter in inches.
This simplifies to
to find the internal diameter in inches of the barrel of an n-gauge shotgun.
Therefore, if the diameter is in inches,
Another source for a gauge size formula can be found in page Shotgun shell#Shotgun gauge diameter formula.
Gauges in use
Since shotguns were not originally intended to fire solid projectiles, but rather a compressible mass of shot, the actual diameter of the bore can vary. The fact that most shotgun bores are not cylindrical also causes deviations from the ideal bore diameter.
The chamber of the gun is larger, to accommodate the thickness of the shotshell walls, and a "forcing cone" in front of the chamber reduces the diameter down to the bore diameter. The forcing cone can be as short as a fraction of an inch, or as long as a few inches on some guns. At the muzzle end of the barrel, the choke can constrict the bore even further, so measuring the bore diameter of a shotgun is not a simple process, as it must be done away from either end.
Shotgun bores are commonly "overbored" or "backbored", meaning that most of the bore (from the forcing cone to the choke) is slightly larger than the value given by the formula. This is claimed to reduce felt recoil and improve patterning. The recoil reduction is due to the larger bore producing a slower acceleration of the shot, and the patterning improvements are due to the larger muzzle diameter for the same choke constriction, which results in less shot deformation. A 12-gauge shotgun, nominally 18.5 mm (0.73 in), can range from a tight 18.3 mm (0.72 in) to an extreme overbore of 20.3 mm (0.80 in). Some also claim an increased velocity with the overbored barrels, up to 15 m/s (49 ft/s), which is due to the larger swept volume of the overbored barrel. Once only found in expensive custom shotguns, overbored barrels are now becoming common in mass marketed guns. Aftermarket backboring is also commonly done to reduce the weight of the barrel, and move the center of mass backwards for a better balance. Factory overbored barrels generally are made with a larger outside diameter, and will not have this reduction in weight—though the factory barrels will be tougher, since they have a normal barrel wall thickness.
Sizes in use
The most common size is 12 gauge, with up to 50% of the overall shotgun market in the United States. The 20 gauge shotgun is favored by shooters uncomfortable with the weight and recoil of a 12 gauge gun, and is popular for upland game hunting. The next most popular sizes are 28 gauge and .410 bore. The 10 gauge and 16 gauge, while a little less common, are still readily available in the United States.
Shotguns and shells exceeding 10 gauge, such as the 8 and 4 gauge, are rather rarely manufactured and only a few manufacturers of the otherwise large market of shotgun, rifle and ammo makers across the United States still produce them. Shells are usually black powder paper cartridges as opposed to the plastic/wax cartridge and smokeless powder of today.
The 11, 15, 18, 2, and 3 gauge shells are rarest of all; owners of these types of rare shotguns will usually have their ammunition custom loaded by a highly paid specialist in rare and custom bores. The 14 gauge has not been loaded in the United States since the early 1900s, although the 2-9/16 inch hull is made in France. The very small 24 and 32 gauges are still produced and used in some European countries and Brazil. Punt guns and special purpose guns, such as the Russian 23 mm KS-23 (approximately 6 gauge), are rarely encountered.
To further complicate matters, special shot cartridges are available for typical handgun chamberings such as 9 mm Parabellum, .45 ACP, .38 Special/.357 Magnum, .44 Special/.44 Magnum, and .45 Colt, as well as .22LR. These rounds are either crimped in or in a plastic casing, replacing the bullet. These are not generally considered "shot shells" by shotgun users, and the patterning performance is questionable, since they are fired through rifled barrels. Thompson/Center has manufactured special pistol barrels in for their Contender frames in .38/.357, .44 and .45 Colt/.410 (.45/.410 Also available for T/C Encore frames) that have "straight rifled" chokes in them to reduce the spin of the shot column and produce better patterns, but they are still suitable only for pest control at very short ranges.
Gauge and shot type
The 10 gauge narrowly escaped obsolescence when steel and other nontoxic shot became required for waterfowl hunting, since the larger shell could hold the much larger sizes of low-density steel shot needed to reach the ranges necessary for waterfowl hunting. The move to steel shot reduced the use of 16 and 20 gauges for waterfowl hunting, and smaller 2.75" (70mm) 12 gauge shells as well. However, the advent of the 3.5 in (89 mm) 12 gauge shell, with its higher SAAMI pressure rating compared to standard 12 gauge guns, begin to approach the performance of the 10 gauge loads. Newer nontoxic shots, such as bismuth and tungsten-nickel-iron alloys, and even tungsten-polymer blends, regain much or all of the performance loss, but are much more expensive than steel or lead shot. However, laboratory research indicates that tungsten alloys can actually be quite toxic internally.
Sizes found in the UK
- 4 bore 4" (100mm)
- 8 bore 3¼" (83mm)
- 10 bore 2⅝" (19.7 x 67mm), 10 bore 2⅞" (19.7 x 73mm), 10 bore 3½" (19.7 x 89mm)
- 12 bore 2" (18.5 x 51mm), 12 bore 2½" (18.5 x 63mm), 12 bore 2¾" (18.5 x 70mm), 12 bore 3" (18.5 x 76mm), 12 bore 3½" (18.5 x 89mm)
- 14 bore 2½" (63mm)
- 16 bore 2½" (63mm), 16 bore 2¾" (70mm)
- 20 bore 2½" (63mm), 20 bore 2¾" (70mm), 20 bore 3" (76mm)
- 24 bore 2½" (63mm)
- 28 bore 2½" (63mm), 28 bore 2¾" (70mm)
- 32 bore 2½" (63mm)
- .410 bore 2" (10.4 x 51mm), .410 bore 2½" (10.4 x 63mm), .410 bore 3" (10.4 x 76mm)
- .360 bore 1¾" (9 x 45mm)
- 9mm (no.3 bore) rimfire [0.5"], 9mm (no.3 bore) long rimfire [1.4"]
- 7mm (no.2 bore) rimfire
- 6mm (no.1 bore) short rimfire, 6mm (no.1 bore) long rimfire
A table showing the various gauge sizes with weights. The bores marked * are found in punt guns and rare weapons only. However, 4 gauge were sometimes found used in Blunderbuss guns made for coach defense and defense against piracy. The .410 bore and 23mm caliber are exceptions; they are actual bore sizes, not gauges. If the .410 and 23mm were measured traditionally, they would be 67.62 gauge and 6.278 gauge, respectively.
|Diameter||Weight of unalloyed (pure) lead ball|
Note: Use of this table for estimating bullet masses for historical large-bore rifles is limited, as this table assumes the use of round ball, rather than conical bullets; for example, a typical 4 bore rifle from circa 1880 used a 2,000-grain (4.57 oz) bullet, or sometimes slightly heavier, rather than using a 4-ounce round lead ball. (Round balls give progressively much worse external ballistic performance than conical bullets at ranges greater than about 75 yards.) In contrast, a 4-bore express rifle often used a 1,500-grain (3.43 oz) bullet wrapped in paper to keep lead buildup to a minimum in the barrel. In either case, assuming a 4-ounce mass for a 4-bore rifle bullet from this table would be inaccurate, although indicative.
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