|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2007)|
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction. Arms control is typically exercised through the use of diplomacy which seeks to impose such limitations upon consenting participants through international treaties and agreements, although it may also comprise efforts by a nation or group of nations to enforce limitations upon a non-consenting country.
- 1 Enactment
- 2 Enforcement
- 3 Theory of arms control
- 4 History
- 5 List of treaties and conventions related to arms control
- 6 Arms Control Organizations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Arms control treaties and agreements are often seen as a way to avoid costly arms races which could prove counter-productive to national aims and future peace. Some are used as ways to stop the spread of certain military technologies (such as nuclear weaponry or missile technology) in return for assurances to potential developers that they will not be victims of those technologies. Additionally, some arms control agreements are entered to limit the damage done by warfare, especially to civilians and the environment, which is seen as bad for all participants regardless of who wins a war.
While arms control treaties are seen by many peace proponents as a key tool against war, by the participants, they are often seen as simply ways to limit the high costs of the development and building of weapons, and even reduce the costs associated with war itself. Arms control can even be a way of maintaining the viability of military action by limiting those weapons that would make war so costly and destructive as to make it no longer a viable tool for national policy.
Enforcement of arms control agreements has proven difficult over time. Most agreements rely on the continued desire of the participants to abide by the terms to remain effective. Usually, when a nation no longer desires to abide by the terms, they usually will seek to either covertly circumvent the terms or to simply end their participation in the treaty. This was seen in Washington Naval Treaty (and the subsequent London Naval Treaty), where most participants sought to work around the limitations, some more legitimately than others. The United States developed better technology to get better performance from their ships while still working within the weight limits, the United Kingdom exploited a loop-hole in the terms, the Italians misrepresented the weight of their vessels, and when up against the limits, Japan simply left the treaty. The nations which violated the terms of the treaty did not suffer great consequences for their actions. Within little more than a decade, the treaty was abandoned. The Geneva Protocol has lasted longer and been more successful at being respected, but still nations have violated it at will when they have felt the need. Enforcement has been haphazard, with measures more a matter of politics than adherence to the terms. This meant sanctions and other measures tended to be advocated against violators primarily by their natural political enemies, while violations have been ignored or given only token measures by their political allies.
More recent arms control treaties have included more stringent terms on enforcement of violations as well as verification. This last has been a major obstacle to effective enforcement, as violators often attempt to covertly circumvent the terms of the agreements. Verification is the process of determining whether or not a nation is complying with the terms of an agreement, and involves a combination of release of such information by participants as well as some way to allow participants to examine each other to verify that information. This often involves as much negotiation as the limits themselves, and in some cases questions of verification have led to the breakdown of treaty negotiations (for example, verification was cited as a major concern by opponents of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, ultimately not ratified by the United States).
Nations may remain in a treaty while seeking to break the limits of that treaty as opposed to simply withdrawing from it. This is for two major reasons. To openly defy an agreement, even if one withdraws from it, often is seen in a bad light politically and can carry diplomatic repercussions. Additionally, if one remains in an agreement, competitors who are also participatory may be held to the limitations of the terms, while withdrawal releases your opponents to make the same developments you are making, limiting the advantage of that development.
Theory of arms control
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2014)|
Scholars and practitioners such as John Steinbruner, Jonathan Dean or Stuart Croft worked extensively on the theoretical backing of arms control. Arms control is meant to break the security dilemma. It aims at mutual security between partners and overall stability (be it in a crisis situation, a grand-strategy, or stability to put an end to an arms race). Other than stability, arms control comes with cost reduction and damage limitation. It is different from disarmament since the maintenance of stability might allow for mutually controlled armament and does not take a peace-without-weapons-stance. Nevertheless, arms control is a defensive strategy in principle, since transparency, equality, and stability do not fit into an offensive strategy.
One of the first recorded attempts in arms control was a set of rules laid down in ancient Greece by the Amphictyonic Leagues. Rulings specified how war could be waged, and breaches of this could be punished by fines or by war.
There were few recorded attempts to control arms during the period between this and the rise of the Roman Catholic Church. The church used its position as a trans-national organization to limit the means of warfare. The 989 Peace of God (extended in 1033) ruling protected noncombatants, agrarian and economic facilities, and the property of the church from war. The 1027 Truce of God also tried to prevent violence between Christians. The Second Lateran Council in 1139 prohibited the use of crossbows against other Christians, although it did not prevent its use against non-Christians.
The development of firearms led to an increase in the devastation of war. The brutality of wars during this period led to efforts to formalize the rules of war, with humane treatment for prisoners of war or wounded, as well as rules to protect non-combatants and the pillaging of their property. However during the period until the beginning of the 19th century few formal arms control agreements were recorded, except theoretical proposals and those imposed on defeated armies.
One treaty which was concluded was the Strasbourg Agreement of 1675. This is the first international agreement limiting the use of chemical weapons, in this case, poison bullets. The treaty was signed between France and The Holy Roman Empire
The 1817 Rush–Bagot Treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom was the first arms control treaty of what can be considered the modern industrial era, leading to the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain region of North America. This was followed by the 1871 Treaty of Washington which led to total demilitarisation.
The industrial revolution led to the increasing mechanisation of warfare, as well as rapid advances in the development of firearms; the increased potential of devastation (which was later seen in the battlefields of World War I) led to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia calling together the leaders of 26 nations for the First Hague Conference in 1899. The Conference led to the signing of the Hague Convention of 1899 that led to rules of declaring and conducting warfare as well as the use of modern weaponry, and also led to the setting up of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
20th century to 1945
A Second Hague Conference was called in 1907 leading to additions and amendments to the original 1899 agreement. A Third Hague Conference was called for 1915, but this was abandoned due to the First World War.
After the World War I, the League of Nations was set up which attempted to limit and reduce arms. However the enforcement of this policy was not effective. Various naval conferences such as the Washington Naval Conference were held during the period between the First and Second World Wars to limit the number and size of major warships of the five great naval powers.
The 1925 Geneva Conference led to the banning of chemical weapons (as toxic gases) during war as part of the Geneva Protocol. The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, whilst ineffective, attempted for "providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy".
After World War II, the United Nations was set up as a body to promote world peace. The United States proposed the Baruch Plan in 1946 as a way to impose stringent international control over the nuclear fuel cycle and thereby avert a global nuclear arms race, but the Soviet Union rejected the proposal and negotiations failed. Following President Eisenhower's 1953 Atoms for Peace speech to the UN General Assembly, the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up in 1957 to promote peaceful uses of nuclear technology and apply safeguards against the diversion of nuclear material from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons. The 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed to prevent further spread of nuclear weapons technology to countries outside the five that already possessed them: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China.
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between the United States and Soviet Union in the late 1960s/early 1970s led to further weapons control agreements. The SALT I talks led to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and an Interim Strategic Arms Limitation Agreement (see SALT I), both in 1972. The SALT II talks started in 1972 leading to agreement in 1979. Due to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan the United States never ratified the treaty, however the agreement was honoured by both sides.
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was signed between the United States and Soviet Union in 1987 and ratified in 1988, leading to an agreement to destroy all missiles with ranges from 500 to 5,500 kilometers.
The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties were signed, as START I and START II, by the US and Soviet Union, further restricting weapons. This was further moved on by the Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions, which was in turn superseded by the New START Treaty.
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1996 banning all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes, but it has not entered into force due to the non-ratification of eight specific states.
In 1998 the United Nations founded the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs UNODA. Its goal is to promote nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and the strengthening of the disarmament regimes in respect to other weapons of mass destruction, chemical and biological weapons. It also promotes disarmament efforts in the area of conventional weapons, especially landmines and small arms, which are often the weapons of choice in contemporary conflicts.
In addition to treaties focused primarily on stopping the proliferation of nuclear weapons, there has been a recent movement to regulate the sale and trading of conventional weapons. As of December 2014, the United Nations is preparing for entry into force of the Arms Trade Treaty, which has been ratified by 55 nations.
Some of the more important international arms control agreements follow:
- Washington Naval Treaty, 1922-1939(as part of the naval conferences)
- Geneva Protocol on chemical and biological weapons, 1925
- Antarctic Treaty, signed 1959, entered into force 1961
- Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed and entered into force 1963
- Outer Space Treaty, signed and entered into force 1967
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, signed 1968, entered into force 1970
- Seabed Arms Control Treaty, signed 1971, entered into force 1972
- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), signed and ratified 1972, in force 1972-1977
- Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, signed and entered into force 1972, terminated following U.S. withdrawal 2002
- Biological Weapons Convention, signed 1972, entered into force 1975
- Threshold Test Ban Treaty, signed 1974, entered into force 1990
- SALT II signed 1979, never entered into force
- Environmental Modification Convention, signed 1977, entered into force 1978
- Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, signed 1980, entered into force 1983
- Moon Treaty, signed 1979, entered into force 1984
- Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, signed 1987, entered into force 1988
- Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, (CFE Treaty) signed 1990, entered into force 1992
- Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I (START I), signed 1991, entered into force 1994, expired 2009 
- Chemical Weapons Convention, signed 1993, entered into force 1997
- START II, signed 1993, ratified 1996 (United States) and 2000 (Russia), terminated following Russian withdrawal 2002
- Ottawa Treaty on anti-personnel land mines, signed 1997, entered into force 1999
- Open Skies Treaty, signed 1992, entered into force 2002
- Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT), signed 2002, entered into force 2003, expires 2012
- International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, signed 2002
- Convention on Cluster Munitions, signed 2008, entered into force 2010
- New START Treaty, signed by Russia and the United States in April 2010, entered into force in February 2011
- Arms Trade Treaty, concluded in 2013, entered into force on 24 December 2014
Nuclear weapon free zone treaties
- Treaty of Tlatelolco (Latin America and the Caribbean), signed 1967, entered into force 1972
- Treaty of Rarotonga (South Pacific), signed 1985, entered into force 1986
- Treaty of Bangkok (Southeast Asia), signed 1995, entered into force 1997
- Treaty of Pelindaba (Africa), signed 1996, entered into force 2009
- Treaty of Semipalatinsk (Central Asia), signed 2006, entered into force 2008
Other treaties also envision the creation of NWFZ, among other objectives. These are the following:
- Antarctic Treaty, signed 1959, entered into force 1961
- Outer Space Treaty, signed and entered into force 1967
- Seabed Arms Control Treaty, signed 1971, entered into force 1972
Treaties not entered into force
- Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, signed 1996
- Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty
- Nuclear weapons convention
- Space Preservation Treaty
- Final document in the framework of the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms
Export control regimes
- Zangger Committee 1971-
- Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 1974-
- Australia Group 1985-
- Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), 1987-
- Wassenaar Arrangement, 1996-
- Ayacucho Declaration 1974
Arms Control Organizations
The intergovernmental organizations for arms control are the following:
- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
- Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
- Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) which has other functions besides arms control
- Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO PrepCom)
- Conference on Disarmament (CD)
- United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA)
- United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)
- the now disbanded United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC), the successor to United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM)
- failed proposal for Organisation for the Prohibition of Biological Weapons
There are also numerous non-governmental organizations that promote a global reduction in nuclear arms and offer research and analysis about U.S. nuclear weapons policy. Pre-eminent among these organizations is the Arms Control Association, founded in 1971 to promote public understanding of and support for arms control. Others include:
- Federation of American Scientists (FAS) -- founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists by veterans of the Manhattan Project.
- Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament—a leading disarmament organization in the United Kingdom, founded in 1957.
- Peace Action—formerly SANE (the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy), founded in 1957
- Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) -- founded by Bernard Lown in 1961.
- Council for a Livable World—founded in 1962 by physicist Leó Szilárd and other scientists who believed that nuclear weapons should be controlled and eventually eliminated.
- Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) -- founded in 1966
- Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) -- founded in 1969 by faculty and students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Arms Control Association—founded in 1971.
- Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation—founded in 1980 as a sister organization to the Council for a Livable World.
- International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) -- founded in 1981.
- Alliance for Nuclear Accountability—a national network of organizations working to address issues of nuclear weapons production and waste cleanup, founded in 1987 as the Military Production Network.
- Global Zero—founded in 2008.
- Arms deals
- Arms embargo
- Arms industry
- Arms trafficking
- Guns versus butter model
- List of chemical arms control agreements
- Military funding of science (History of military technology)
- Military Keynesianism
- Naval conference
- Nuclear disarmament
- Offset agreement
- Peace dividend
- Peace and conflict studies
- Private military company
- Permanent war economy
- Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW)
- Small arms trade
- Torture trade
- United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs
- Barry Kolodkin. "What Is Arms Control?" (Article). About.com, US Foreign Policy. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- Anup Shah (6 May 2012). "Arms Control" (Article). Global Issues. http://www.globalissues.org. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "CONFERENCE ON THE LIMITATION OF ARMAMENT, WASHINGTON, NOVEMBER 12 1921-FEBRUARY 6, 1922.". ibiblio. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "INTERNATIONAL TREATY FOR THE LIMITATION AND REDUCTION OF NAVAL ARMAMENT". INTERNATIONAL TREATY FOR THE LIMITATION AND REDUCTION OF NAVAL ARMAMENT. http://www.microworks.net/pacific/road_to_war/london_treaty.htm. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Peter Beisheim MA. "Naval Treaties: Born of the Second London Naval Treaty:A concise investigation of the qualitative limitations of capital ships 1936 – 1941" (Essay). Bismarck & Tirpitz. John Asmussen. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Geneva Protocol". FAS: Weapons of Mass Destruction. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Harald Muller (2005). "WMD: Law instead of lawless self help" (PDF). Briefing paper 37. The Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission. pp. Briefing paper. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Tom Z. Collina; Daniel Salisbury (research assistant) (August 2010). "Chemical and Biological Weapons Status at a Glance" (Briefing summary). Arms Control Today. Arms Control Association. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- A. Walter Dorn and Douglas S. Scott (2000). "COMPLIANCE MECHANISMS FOR DISARMAMENT TREATIES" (Article). Walter Dorn. Verification Research, Training and Information Centre, London: Verification Yearbook 2000. pp. 229–247. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Jonathan Medalia (3 August 2011). "Comprehensive Nuclear Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments" (Report). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- Lawrence J. Korb, Alexander H. Rothman (23 March 2011). "Fukushima: Another reason to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty" (Article). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "British-American Diplomacy Exchange of Notes Relative to Naval Forces on the American Lakes". The Avalon Project. Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Declaration (XIV) Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons. The Hague, 18 October 1907.". Humainitarian Law. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Arms Control and Disarmament - Between the world wars, 1919–1939". Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928". Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928. The Avalon Project. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "History of the UN". United Nations. http://www.un.org. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- Council on Foreign Relations: Global Governance Monitor on Nonproliferation, available at http://www.cfr.org/publication/18985/
- Seiitsu Tachibana (1998). "Seiitsu Tachibana, "Much ado about something : The factors that induced Reagan and Gorbachev to conclude the INF Treaty"" (PDF). Hiroshima Peace Science, Vol.11. Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science. p. Hirospage.151–182. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "Articles of the Chemical Weapons Convention". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. OPCW. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- KIRIT RADIA (24 December 2010). "Nuclear Treaty: A Guide to Disarmament" (News article). ABC News. ABC News Internet Ventures. Yahoo! - ABC News Network. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "Nuclear Testing Is an Acceptable Risk for Arms Control" (Article). Scientific American. Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc. 2 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "What is the CTBT?". Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO). Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO). Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "The Arms Trade Treaty". UNODA. the United Nations. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- The last naval conference treaty was to expire de jure in 1942, but in fact it ceased to be enforced with the start of World War II
- "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies". United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. UNOOSA. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "The Seabed Treaty". TREATY ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE EMPLACEMENT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND OTHER WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION ON THE SEABED AND THE OCEAN FLOOR AND IN THE SUBSOIL THEREOF. US Department of State. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Disarmament:The Biological Weapons Convention". UNOG. UNOG. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- The Moon Treaty entered into force in 1984, but the great majority of states have neither signed nor ratified it, including the major spacefaring nations
- Post–Cold War Amendments to the CFE Treaty were agreed in 1996, but never entered into force. Russia announced its intended suspension of the treaty in 2007.
- START I was a successor to the expired SALT agreements.
- "Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II)". Federation of American Scientists. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- The largest producers of anti-personnel land mines, China, Russia and the United States, have not adhered to the Ottawa Treaty on land mines.
- Office of the Spokesperson (23 March 2012). "Open Skies Treaty: Fact Sheet". U.S. Department of State. U.S. State Department. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "The Convention". Convention on Cluster Munitions – CCM. Convention on Cluster Munitions – CCM. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Cluster bomb treaty reaches ratification, UN says" (News article). BBC World News (BBC). 17 February 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Q&A: Cluster bomb treaty" (News article). BBC World News (BBC). 3 December 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- Stuart Hughes (1 August 2010). "Treaty enacted to ban cluster bombs". BBC World News (BBC). Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- Peter Wilk (19 November 2010). "Don't play politics with new START treaty". CNN (Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "New START: Treaty Text". US Department of State. U.S. State Department. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Key Senate committee passes nuclear arms treaty". CNN (Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.). 7 April 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- PETER BAKER (21 December 2010). "Arms Treaty With Russia Headed for Ratification" (Article). The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Arms Trade Treaty". UNODA. UNODA. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone (SPNFZ) Treaty Treaty of Rarotonga". Federation of American Scientists. (Federation of American Scientists)www.fas.org. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Bangkok,Thailand 15 December 1995". ASEAN. ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Scott Parrish, William C. Potter (8 September 2006). "Central Asian States Establish Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone Despite U.S. Opposition" (Article). James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Draft Fissile Material (Cutoff) Treaty, or FM(C)T". Library: International Panel on Fissile Materials. International Panel on Fissile Materials. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- Kofi Annan, Secretary General UN (10 July 2006). "SECRETARY-GENERAL'S STATEMENT" (Press release). Small Arms Treaty Review Conference 2006. United Nations. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "A-RES-59-86 General Assembly Resolution 59/86". undemocracy.com. United Nations. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- Jeff Abramson. "Small Arms Conference Nets Agreement" (Article). Arms Control Association. Arms Control Association. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- Adelman, Kenneth L. (1986). "Arms control and human rights". World Affairs 149 (3): 157–162. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- "Arms control and human rights". amnesty.org. Amnesty International. 2014.
- "The Arms Trade Treaty at a Glance". armscontrol.org. Arms Control Association. July 2013.
- Randall Forsberg, ed., Arms Control Reporter 1995-2005, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995–2004.
- Giuseppe Gagliano-Maurizio Boni,Sicurezza internazionale e controllo degli armamenti,New Press 2001
- Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John Disarmament and security since Locarno 1925-1931; being the political and technical background of the general disarmament conference, 1932, New York, Howard Fertig, 1973.
- National Counterproliferation Center - Office of the Director of National Intelligence
- UN - Disarmament Affairs
- Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation
- Council for a Livable World
- Disarmament Insight initiative
- Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's Research on Arms Control and Non-Proliferation
- Lecture by Masahiko Asada entitled Nuclear Weapons and International Law in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law