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It also has a basis in organizational development (OD) consultancy practice and in theories of communication, theories of psychotherapies and computer sciences. The International Sociological Association has a specialist research committee in the area – RC51 – which publishes the (electronic) Journal of Sociocybernetics.
The idea to study society as a system can be traced back to the origin of sociology when the emergent idea of functional differentiation has been applied for the first time to society by Auguste Comte.
The basic goal for which sociocybernetics was created, is the production of a theoretical framework as well as information technology tools for responding to the basic challenges individuals, couples, families, groups, companies, organizations, countries, international affairs are facing today.
One of the tasks of sociocybernetics is to map, measure, harness, and find ways of intervening in the parallel network of social forces that influence human behavior. Sociocyberneticists' task is to understand the guidance and control mechanisms that govern the operation of society (and the behavior of individuals more generally) in practice and then to devise better ways of harnessing and intervening in them – that is to say to devise more effective ways to operate these mechanisms, or to modify them according to the opinions of the cyberneticist.
General theoretical framework
Sociocybernetics aims to generate a general theoretical framework for understanding cooperative behavior. It claims to give a deep understanding of the general theory of evolution. The outlook that sociocybernetics uses when analyzing any living system lies in a basic law of sociocybernetics. It says: All living systems go through six levels of interrelations (social contracts) of its subsystems:
- A. Aggression: survive or die
- B. Bureaucracy: follow the norms and rules
- C. Competition: my gain is your loss
- D. Decision: disclosing individual feelings, intentions
- E. Empathy: cooperation in one unified interest
- F. Free will: The ability for any species, regardless of type, race, sex, creed, belief, genetics, make, model, or sentience to govern their own existence and not be controlled. "To be free to choose how to live life without discrimination or interference."
Going through these six phases of relationship theoretically gives the framework for the sociocybernetic study of any evolutionary system. It serves as an "equation for life." Sociocybernetics can be defined as "Systems Science in Sociology and Other Social Sciences" – systems science, because sociocybernetics is not limited to theory but includes application, empirical research, methodology, axiology (i.e., ethics and value research), and epistemology. In general use, "systems theory" and "cybernetics" are frequently interchangeable or appear in combination. Hence, they can be considered as synonyms, although the two terms come from different traditions and are not used uniformly in different languages and national traditions. Sociocybernetics includes both what are called first order cybernetics and second order cybernetics. Cybernetics, according to Wiener's original definition, is the science of "control and communication in the animal and the machine". Heinz von Foerster went on to distinguish a first order cybernetics, "the study of observed systems", and a second order cybernetics, "the study of observing systems". Second order cybernetics is explicitly based on a constructivist epistemology and is concerned with issues of self-reference, paying particular attention to the observer-dependence of knowledge, including scientific theories. In the interdisciplinary and holistic spirit of systems science, although sociology is clearly at the centre of interest of sociocybernetics, the other social sciences, such as psychology, anthropology, political science, economics, are addressed as well, with emphases depending on the particular research question to be dealt with.
Issues and challenges
- Luís M. A. Bettencourt, José Lobo, Dirk Helbing, Christian Kühnert, and Geoffrey B. West. Growth, innovation, scaling and the pace of life in cities. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0610172104v1
- 2000, Guided Evolution of Society: A Systems View, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.
- Felix Geyer and Johannes van der Zouwen (1992). "Sociocybernetics" in: Handbook of Cybernetics (C.V. Negoita, ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992, pp. 95–124.
- Felix Geyer (1994). "The Challenge of Sociocybernetics". In: Kybernetes. 24(4):6-32, 1995. Copyright MCB University Press1995
- Felix Geyer (2001). "Sociocybernetics" In: Kybernetes, Vol. 31 No. 7/8, 2002, pp. 1021–1042.
- Raven, J. (1994). Managing Education for Effective Schooling: The Most Important Problem Is to Come to Terms with Values. Unionville, New York: Trillium Press. (OCLC 34483891)
- Raven, J. (1995). The New Wealth of Nations: A New Enquiry into the Nature and Origins of the Wealth of Nations and the Societal Learning Arrangements Needed for a Sustainable Society. Unionville, New York: Royal Fireworks Press; Sudbury, Suffolk: Bloomfield Books. (ISBN 0-89824-232-0)