|Born||December 16, 1901|
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US
|Died||November 15, 1978 (aged 76)|
New York City, US
|Children||Mary C. Bateson (born 1939)|
|Awards||Kalinga Prize (1970)|
|Part of a series on the|
|Anthropology of kinship|
Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her bachelor's degree at Barnard College in New York City and her MA and PhD degrees from Columbia University. Mead served as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1975.
Mead was a communicator of anthropology in modern American and Western culture and was often controversial as an academic. Her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution. She was a proponent of broadening sexual conventions within the context of Western cultural traditions.
Birth, early family life, and education
Margaret Mead, the first of five children, was born in Philadelphia, but raised in nearby Doylestown, Pennsylvania. Her father, Edward Sherwood Mead, was a professor of finance at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and her mother, Emily (née Fogg) Mead, was a sociologist who studied Italian immigrants. Her sister Katharine (1906–1907) died at the age of nine months. This was a traumatic event for Mead, who had named the girl, and thoughts of her lost sister permeated her daydreams for many years. Her family moved frequently, so her early education was directed by her grandmother until, at age 11, she was enrolled by her family at Buckingham Friends School in Lahaska, Pennsylvania. Her family owned the Longland farm from 1912 to 1926. Born into a family of various religious outlooks, she searched for a form of religion that gave an expression of the faith that she had been formally acquainted with, Christianity. In doing so, she found the rituals of the United States Episcopal Church to fit the expression of religion she was seeking. Mead studied one year, 1919, at DePauw University, then transferred to Barnard College.
Mead earned her bachelor's degree from Barnard in 1923, then began studying with professor Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict at Columbia University, earning her master's degree in 1924. Mead set out in 1925 to do fieldwork in Samoa. In 1926, she joined the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, as assistant curator. She received her PhD from Columbia University in 1929.
Before departing for Samoa, Mead had a short affair with the linguist Edward Sapir, a close friend of her instructor Ruth Benedict. But Sapir's conservative stances about marriage and the woman's role were unacceptable to Mead, and as Mead left to do field work in Samoa the two separated permanently. Mead received news of Sapir's remarriage while living in Samoa, where, on a beach, she later burned their correspondence.
Mead was married three times. After a six-year engagement, she married her first husband (1923–1928) American Luther Cressman, a theology student at the time who eventually became an anthropologist. Between 1925 and 1926 she was in Samoa returning wherefrom on the boat she met Reo Fortune, a New Zealander headed to Cambridge, England, to study psychology. They were married in 1928, after Mead's divorce from Cressman. Mead dismissively characterized her union with her first husband as "my student marriage" in her 1972 autobiography Blackberry Winter, a sobriquet with which Cressman took vigorous issue. Mead's third and longest-lasting marriage (1936–1950) was to the British anthropologist Gregory Bateson, with whom she had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson, who would also become an anthropologist.
Mead's pediatrician was Benjamin Spock, whose subsequent writings on child rearing incorporated some of Mead's own practices and beliefs acquired from her ethnological field observations which she shared with him; in particular, breastfeeding on the baby's demand rather than a schedule. She readily acknowledged that Gregory Bateson was the husband she loved the most. She was devastated when he left her, and she remained his loving friend ever after, keeping his photograph by her bedside wherever she traveled, including beside her hospital deathbed. : 428
Mead also had an exceptionally close relationship with Ruth Benedict, one of her instructors. In her memoir about her parents, With a Daughter's Eye, Mary Catherine Bateson implies that the relationship between Benedict and Mead was partly sexual.: 117–118 Mead never openly identified herself as lesbian or bisexual. In her writings, she proposed that it is to be expected that an individual's sexual orientation may evolve throughout life.
She spent her last years in a close personal and professional collaboration with anthropologist Rhoda Metraux, with whom she lived from 1955 until her death in 1978. Letters between the two published in 2006 with the permission of Mead's daughter clearly express a romantic relationship.
Mead had two sisters and a brother, Elizabeth, Priscilla, and Richard. Elizabeth Mead (1909–1983), an artist and teacher, married cartoonist William Steig, and Priscilla Mead (1911–1959) married author Leo Rosten. Mead's brother, Richard, was a professor. Mead was also the aunt of Jeremy Steig.
Career and later life
During World War II, Mead was executive secretary of the National Research Council's Committee on Food Habits. She was curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History from 1946 to 1969. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1948. She taught at The New School and Columbia University, where she was an adjunct professor from 1954 to 1978 and was a professor of anthropology and chair of the Division of Social Sciences at Fordham University's Lincoln Center campus from 1968 to 1970, founding their anthropology department. In 1970, she joined the faculty of the University of Rhode Island as a Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Anthropology.
Following Ruth Benedict's example, Mead focused her research on problems of child rearing, personality, and culture. She served as president of the Society for Applied Anthropology in 1950 and of the American Anthropological Association in 1960. In the mid-1960s, Mead joined forces with communications theorist Rudolf Modley, jointly establishing an organization called Glyphs Inc., whose goal was to create a universal graphic symbol language to be understood by any members of culture, no matter how "primitive". In the 1960s, Mead served as the Vice President of the New York Academy of Sciences. She held various positions in the American Association for the Advancement of Science, notably president in 1975 and chair of the executive committee of the board of directors in 1976. She was a recognizable figure in academia, usually wearing a distinctive cape and carrying a walking-stick.
Mead was featured on two record albums published by Folkways Records. The first, released in 1959, An Interview With Margaret Mead, explored the topics of morals and anthropology. In 1971, she was included in a compilation of talks by prominent women, But the Women Rose, Vol.2: Voices of Women in American History.
In 1976, Mead was a key participant at UN Habitat I, the first UN forum on human settlements.
Coming of Age in Samoa (1928)
Courtesy, modesty, good manners, conformity to definite ethical standards are universal, but what constitutes courtesy, modesty, very good manners, and definite ethical standards is not universal. It is instructive to know that standards differ in the most unexpected ways.
Mead's findings suggested that the community ignores both boys and girls until they are about 15 or 16. Before then, children have no social standing within the community. Mead also found that marriage is regarded as a social and economic arrangement where wealth, rank, and job skills of the husband and wife are taken into consideration.
In 1970, National Educational Television produced a documentary in commemoration of the 40th anniversary of Dr. Margaret Mead's first expedition to New Guinea. Through the eyes of Dr. Mead on this her final visit to the village of Peri, the film records how the role of the anthropologist has changed in the forty years since 1928.
In 1983, five years after Mead had died, New Zealand anthropologist Derek Freeman published Margaret Mead and Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth, in which he challenged Mead's major findings about sexuality in Samoan society. Freeman's book was controversial in its turn: later in 1983 a special session of Mead's supporters in the American Anthropological Association (to which Freeman was not invited) declared it to be "poorly written, unscientific, irresponsible and misleading."
In 1999, Freeman published another book, The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead: A Historical Analysis of Her Samoan Research, including previously unavailable material. In his obituary in The New York Times, John Shaw stated that his thesis, though upsetting many, had by the time of his death generally gained widespread acceptance. Recent work has nonetheless challenged his critique. A frequent criticism of Freeman is that he regularly misrepresented Mead's research and views. In a 2009 evaluation of the debate, anthropologist Paul Shankman concluded that:
There is now a large body of criticism of Freeman's work from a number of perspectives in which Mead, Samoa, and anthropology appear in a very different light than they do in Freeman's work. Indeed, the immense significance that Freeman gave his critique looks like 'much ado about nothing' to many of his critics.
While nurture-oriented anthropologists are more inclined to agree with Mead's conclusions, there are other non-anthropologists who take a nature-oriented approach following Freeman's lead, among them Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker, biologist Richard Dawkins, evolutionary psychologist David Buss, science writer Matt Ridley and classicist Mary Lefkowitz. The philosopher Peter Singer has also criticized Mead in his book A Darwinian Left, where he states that "Freeman compiles a convincing case that Mead had misunderstood Samoan customs".
In 1996, author Martin Orans examined Mead's notes preserved at the Library of Congress, and credits her for leaving all of her recorded data available to the general public. Orans point out that Freeman's basic criticisms, that Mead was duped by ceremonial virgin Fa'apua'a Fa'amu (who later swore to Freeman that she had played a joke on Mead) were equivocal for several reasons: first, Mead was well aware of the forms and frequency of Samoan joking; second, she provided a careful account of the sexual restrictions on ceremonial virgins that corresponds to Fa'apua'a Fa'auma'a's account to Freeman, and third, that Mead's notes make clear that she had reached her conclusions about Samoan sexuality before meeting Fa'apua'a Fa'amu. Orans points out that Mead's data support several different conclusions, and that Mead's conclusions hinge on an interpretive, rather than positivist, approach to culture. Orans goes on to point out, concerning Mead's work elsewhere, that her own notes do not support her published conclusive claims. However, there are still those who claim Mead was hoaxed, including Peter Singer and zoologist David Attenborough.[failed verification] Evaluating Mead's work in Samoa from a positivist stance, Martin Orans' assessment of the controversy was that Mead did not formulate her research agenda in scientific terms, and that "her work may properly be damned with the harshest scientific criticism of all, that it is 'not even wrong'."
The Intercollegiate Review , published by the Intercollegiate Studies Institute which promotes conservative thought on college campuses, listed the book as No. 1 on its The Fifty Worst Books of the Century list.
Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935)
Another influential book by Mead was Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. This became a major cornerstone of the feminist movement, since it claimed that females are dominant in the Tchambuli (now spelled Chambri) Lake region of the Sepik basin of Papua New Guinea (in the western Pacific) without causing any special problems. The lack of male dominance may have been the result of the Australian administration's outlawing of warfare. According to contemporary research, males are dominant throughout Melanesia (although some believe that female witches have special powers). Others have argued that there is still much cultural variation throughout Melanesia, and especially in the large island of New Guinea. Moreover, anthropologists often overlook the significance of networks of political influence among females. The formal male-dominated institutions typical of some areas of high population density were not, for example, present in the same way in Oksapmin, West Sepik Province, a more sparsely populated area. Cultural patterns there were different from, say, Mt. Hagen. They were closer to those described by Mead.
Mead stated that the Arapesh people, also in the Sepik, were pacifists, although she noted that they do on occasion engage in warfare. Her observations about the sharing of garden plots among the Arapesh, the egalitarian emphasis in child rearing, and her documentation of predominantly peaceful relations among relatives are very different from the "big man" displays of dominance that were documented in more stratified New Guinea cultures—e.g. by Andrew Strathern. They are a different cultural pattern.
In brief, her comparative study revealed a full range of contrasting gender roles:
- "Among the Arapesh, both men and women were peaceful in temperament and neither men nor women made war.
- "Among the Mundugumor, the opposite was true: both men and women were warlike in temperament.
- "And the Tchambuli were different from both. The men 'primped' and spent their time decorating themselves while the women worked and were the practical ones—the opposite of how it seemed in early 20th century America."
Deborah Gewertz (1981) studied the Chambri (called Tchambuli by Mead) in 1974–1975 and found no evidence of such gender roles. Gewertz states that as far back in history as there is evidence (1850s) Chambri men dominated the women, controlled their produce and made all important political decisions. In later years there has been a diligent search for societies in which women dominate men, or for signs of such past societies, but none have been found (Bamberger, 1974). Jessie Bernard criticised Mead's interpretations of her findings, arguing that Mead was biased in her descriptions due to use of subjective descriptions. Bernard argues that while Mead claimed the Mundugumor women were temperamentally identical to men, her reports indicate that there were in fact sex differences; Mundugumor women hazed each other less than men hazed each other, they made efforts to make themselves physically desirable to others, married women had fewer affairs than married men, women were not taught to use weapons, women were used less as hostages and Mundugumor men engaged in physical fights more often than women. In contrast, the Arapesh were also described as equal in temperament, yet Bernard states that Mead's own writings indicate that men physically fought over women, yet women did not fight over men. The Arapesh also seemed to have some conception of sex differences in temperament, as they would sometimes describe a woman as acting like a particularly quarrelsome man. Bernard also questioned if the behaviour of men and women in these societies differed as much from Western behaviour as Mead claimed it did, arguing that some of her descriptions could be equally descriptive of a Western context.
Other research areas
In 1926, there was much debate about race and intelligence. Mead felt the methodologies involved in the experimental psychology research supporting arguments of racial superiority in intelligence were substantially flawed. In "The Methodology of Racial Testing: Its Significance for Sociology" Mead proposes that there are three problems with testing for racial differences in intelligence. First, there are concerns with the ability to validly equate one's test score with what Mead refers to as racial admixture or how much Negro or Indian blood an individual possesses. She also considers whether this information is relevant when interpreting IQ scores. Mead remarks that a genealogical method could be considered valid if it could be "subjected to extensive verification". In addition, the experiment would need a steady control group to establish whether racial admixture was actually affecting intelligence scores. Next, Mead argues that it is difficult to measure the effect that social status has on the results of a person's intelligence test. By this she meant that environment (i.e., family structure, socioeconomic status, exposure to language) has too much influence on an individual to attribute inferior scores solely to a physical characteristic such as race. Lastly, Mead adds that language barriers sometimes create the biggest problem of all. Similarly, Stephen J. Gould finds three main problems with intelligence testing, in his 1981 book The Mismeasure of Man, that relate to Mead's view of the problem of determining whether there are racial differences in intelligence.
In 1929 Mead and Fortune visited Manus, now the northernmost province of Papua New Guinea, travelling there by boat from Rabaul. She amply describes her stay there in her autobiography and it is mentioned in her 1984 biography by Jane Howard. On Manus she studied the Manus people of the south coast village of Peri. "Over the next five decades Mead would come back oftener to Peri than to any other field site of her career.
Mead has been credited with persuading the American Jewish Committee to sponsor a project to study European Jewish villages, shtetls, in which a team of researchers would conduct mass interviews with Jewish immigrants living in New York City. The resulting book, widely cited for decades, allegedly created the Jewish mother stereotype, a mother intensely loving but controlling to the point of smothering, and engendering guilt in her children through the suffering she professed to undertake for their sakes.
Mead worked for the RAND Corporation, a US Air Force military funded private research organization, from 1948 to 1950 to study Russian culture and attitudes toward authority.
After her death, Mead's Samoan research was criticized by anthropologist Derek Freeman, who published a book which argued against many of Mead's conclusions in Coming of Age in Samoa. Freeman argued that Mead had misunderstood Samoan culture when she argued that Samoan culture did not place many restrictions on youths' sexual explorations. Freeman argued instead that Samoan culture prized female chastity and virginity and that Mead had been misled by her female Samoan informants. Freeman found that the Samoan islanders whom Mead had depicted in such utopian terms were intensely competitive and had murder and rape rates higher than those in the United States. Furthermore, the men were intensely sexually jealous, which contrasted sharply with Mead’s depiction of “free love” among the Samoans.
Freeman's critique was met with a considerable backlash and harsh criticism from the anthropology community, whereas it was received enthusiastically by communities of scientists who believed that sexual mores were more or less universal across cultures. Some anthropologists who studied Samoan culture argued in favor of Freeman's findings and contradicted those of Mead, whereas others argued that Freeman's work did not invalidate Mead's work because Samoan culture had been changed by the integration of Christianity in the decades between Mead's and Freeman's fieldwork periods. While Mead was careful to shield the identity of all her subjects for confidentiality Freeman was able to find and interview one of her original participants, and Freeman reported that she admitted to having wilfully misled Mead. She said that she and her friends were having fun with Mead and telling her stories.
On the whole, anthropologists have rejected the notion that Mead's conclusions rested on the validity of a single interview with a single person, finding instead that Mead based her conclusions on the sum of her observations and interviews during her time in Samoa, and that the status of the single interview did not falsify her work. Some anthropologists have however maintained that even though Freeman's critique was invalid, Mead's study was not sufficiently scientifically rigorous to support the conclusions she drew.
In her 2015 book Galileo's Middle Finger, Alice Dreger argues that Freeman's accusations were unfounded and misleading. A detailed review of the controversy by Paul Shankman, published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2009, supports the contention that Mead's research was essentially correct, and concludes that Freeman cherry-picked his data and misrepresented both Mead and Samoan culture.
On January 19, 1979, President Jimmy Carter announced that he was awarding the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously to Mead. UN Ambassador Andrew Young presented the award to Mead's daughter at a special program honoring Mead's contributions, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History, where she spent many years of her career. The citation read:
Margaret Mead was both a student of civilization and an exemplar of it. To a public of millions, she brought the central insight of cultural anthropology: that varying cultural patterns express an underlying human unity. She mastered her discipline, but she also transcended it. Intrepid, independent, plain spoken, fearless, she remains a model for the young and a teacher from whom all may learn.
In addition, there are several schools named after Mead in the United States: a junior high school in Elk Grove Village, Illinois, an elementary school in Sammamish, Washington and another in Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn, New York.
Publications by Mead
Note: See also Margaret Mead: The Complete Bibliography 1925–1975, Joan Gordan, ed., The Hague: Mouton.
- Coming of Age in Samoa (1928)
- Growing Up In New Guinea (1930)
- The Changing Culture of an Indian Tribe (1932)
- Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935)
- And Keep Your Powder Dry: An Anthropologist Looks at America (1942)
- Male and Female (1949)
- New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation in Manus, 1928–1953 (1956)
- People and Places (1959; a book for young readers)
- Continuities in Cultural Evolution (1964)
- Culture and Commitment (1970)
- The Mountain Arapesh: Stream of events in Alitoa (1971)
- Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years (1972; autobiography)
- Balinese Character: A Photographic Analysis, with Gregory Bateson, 1942, New York Academy of Sciences.
- Soviet Attitudes Toward Authority (1951)
- Cultural Patterns and Technical Change, editor (1953)
- Primitive Heritage: An Anthropological Anthology, edited with Nicholas Calas (1953)
- An Anthropologist at Work, editor (1959, reprinted 1966; a volume of Ruth Benedict's writings)
- The Study of Culture at a Distance, edited with Rhoda Metraux, 1953
- Themes in French Culture, with Rhoda Metraux, 1954
- The Wagon and the Star: A Study of American Community Initiative co-authored with Muriel Whitbeck Brown, 1966
- A Rap on Race, with James Baldwin, 1971
- A Way of Seeing, with Rhoda Metraux, 1975
- Tim Asch
- Gregory Bateson
- Ray Birdwhistell
- Macy Conferences
- Elsie Clews Parsons
- Visual anthropology
- Zora Neale Hurston
- 75½ Bedford St
- "Margaret Mead As a Cultural Commentator". Margaret Mead: Human nature and the power of culture. Library of Congress. November 30, 2001. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- "AAAS Presidents". aaas.org. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- Horgan, John. "Margaret Mead's bashers owe her an apology". Scientific America.
- Popova, Marie (February 6, 2014). "Legendary Anthropologist Magaret Mead on the Fluidity of Human Sexuality in 1933". brainpickings.
- "Shaping Forces – Margaret Mead: Human Nature and the Power of Culture (Library of Congress Exhibition)". Loc.gov. November 30, 2001. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- ""Margaret Mead" by Wilton S. Dillon" (PDF). Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Howard 1984.
- Stella, Nicole and Jenifer (2005). New Hope, Lahaska, and Buckingham (PA) (Images of America). Arcadia Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7385-3796-2.
- "National Historic Landmarks & National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania" (Searchable database). CRGIS: Cultural Resources Geographic Information System. Note: This includes Jeffrey L. Marshall (October 1999). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Longland" (PDF). Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Mead 1972, pp. 76–77
- "Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Women's History". Britannica.com. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Mead 1977
- "Margaret Mead". Webster.edu. December 18, 1901. Archived from the original on May 19, 2000. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Liukkonen, Petri. "Margaret Mead". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015.
- Darnell, Regna (1989). Edward Sapir: linguist, anthropologist, humanist. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-520-06678-6.
- "Luther Cressman on Margaret Mead".
- "Manus: Childhood Thought – Margaret Mead: Human Nature and the Power of Culture | Exhibitions – Library of Congress". November 30, 2001.
- Moore 2004: 105.
- Bateson 1984; Lapsley 1999.
- Caffey and Francis 2006.
- "The greatest LGBT love letters of all time". pinknews.co.uk. March 2, 2016.
- Banner, Lois W. (2010). Intertwined Lives: Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Their Circle. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-77340-1.
- Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Lipka, Richard P. (2002). Understanding Early Adolescent Self and Identity: Applications and Interventions. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-5334-6.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter M" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
- p. 94 in: Wheaton, J., and R. Vangermeersch, 1999. University of Rhode Island. Arcadia Publishing Company, Charleston, SC. ISBN 978-0-7385-0214-4 Web version.
- The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 1993.
- "List of Past Presidents". Society for Applied Anthropology. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
- Bresnahan, Keith (2011). ""An Unused Esperanto": Internationalism and Pictographic Design, 1930–70". Design and Culture. 3 (1): 5–24. doi:10.2752/175470810X12863771378671. S2CID 147279431.
- Baatz, Simon (1990). "Knowledge, Culture, and Science in the Metropolis: The New York Academy of Sciences, 1817–1970". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 584: 1–256. doi:10.1111/nyas.1990.584.issue-1. PMID 2200324.
- Wendy Kolmar. "Margaret Mead". Depts.drew.edu. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- "Smithsonian Folkways – Not found". Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.
- Thomas A. Sebeok; Alfred S. Hayes; Mary Catherine Bateson, eds. (1964). Approaches to Semiotics.
- Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 31891). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
- Franz Boas, "Preface" in Margaret Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa
- NET Festival; 49; Margaret Mead's New Guinea Journal. Part 1, retrieved December 16, 2020
- on YouTube. Documentary about the Mead-Freeman controversy, including an interview with one of Mead's original informants.
- Shaw, John (August 5, 2001). "Derek Freeman, Who Challenged Margaret Mead on Samoa, Dies at 84". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- John Shaw, 'Derek Freeman, Who Challenged Margaret Mead on Samoa, Dies at 84,' The New York Times August 5, 2001.
- Paul Shankman,[The Trashing of Margaret Mead: Anatomy of an Anthropological Controversy,] University of Wisconsin Press, 2009 esp. pp. 47–71.
- Shankman, Paul 2009 The Trashing of Margaret Mead: Anatomy of an Anthropological Controversy. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press
- See Appell 1984, Brady 1991, Feinberg 1988, Leacock 1988, Levy 1984, Marshall 1993, Nardi 1984, Patience and Smith 1986, Paxman 1988, Scheper-Hughes 1984, Shankman 1996, Young and Juan 1985
- "The Trashing of Margaret Mead – How Derek Freeman Fooled us all on an Alleged Hoax" (PDF). Retrieved November 2, 2013.
- Singer, Peter, A Darwinian Left, Yale University Press, 1999, p. 33.
- "Big Thinkers Within Psychology. BBC Documentary" (in Swahili). Urplay.se. May 4, 2013. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2013.
- Orans, Martin (1996), Not Even Wrong: Margaret Mead, Derek Freeman, and the Samoans.
- Honan, William H. (September 6, 1998). "A Right-Wing Slant on Choosing the Right College". The New York Times.
- Clymer, Adam (November 9, 2014). "Philip M. Crane, Former Illinois Congressman and Conservative Leader, Dies at 84". The New York Times.
- Margaret Mead (1928). "Coming of Age in Samoa" (PDF). The Intercollegiate Review (Fall).
- Mead, Margaret (2003). Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1st Perennial ed.). New York: Perennial an impr. of HarperCollins Publ. ISBN 978-0-06-093495-8.
- Mead, Margaret (May 22, 2001). Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1st Perennial ed.). HarperCollins Publ. ISBN 978-0-06-093495-8. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- Bamberger, Joan, The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society, in M. Rosaldo & L. Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1974), p. 263.
- Kaplan, David, and Robert Alan Manners. Culture theory. Prentice Hall, 1972, pp. 175–180
- Friedan, Betty (1963). "The Functional Freeze, The Feminine Protest, and Margaret Mead". The Feminine Mystique. W.W.Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-32257-6.
- Mead, Margaret, "The Methodology of Racial Testing: Its Significance for Sociology" American Journal of Sociology 31, no. 5 (March 1926): 657–667.
- Gould, Stephen J. The Mismeasure of Man, New York City: W. W. Norton & Company, 1981.
- Jane Howard, Margaret Mead: A Life, New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 117.
- "The Jewish Mother", Slate, June 13, 2007, p. 3
- Nancy Lutkehaus (2008). Margaret Mead: The Making of an American Icon. Princeton University Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-691-00941-4.
margaret mead RAND corporation.
- Derek Freeman (1983). Margaret Mead and Samoa. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-54830-5.
- Frank Heimans (1987). Margaret Mead and Samoa. Event occurs at 20:25.
Roger Fox, Professor of Anthropology, Rutgers: '[What Freeman did was to] attack the goddess ... she couldn't be wrong because if she was wrong then the doctrine was wrong and the whole liberal humanitarian scheme was wrong'
- Frank Heimans (1987). Margaret Mead and Samoa. Event occurs at 21:20.
Marc Swartz, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, San Diego: "one of the leading anthropologists came out immediately after Derek's book was out and said I haven't read the book but I know he's wrong"
- Frank Heimans (1987). Margaret Mead and Samoa. Event occurs at 26:125.
Anthropologists Richard Goodman and Tim Omera talk about their work in Samoa and how it supports Freeman's findings
- Frank Heimans (1987). Margaret Mead and Samoa. Event occurs at 41:20.
We girls would pinch each other and tell her we were out with the boys. We were only joking but she took it seriously. As you know, Samoan girls are terrific liars and love making fun of people, but Margaret thought it was all true.
- Shankman, Paul (December 3, 2009). The Trashing of Margaret Mead. The University of Wisconsin Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-299-23454-6.
- Orans, Martin 1996. Not Even Wrong: Margaret Mead, Derek Freeman, and the Samoans.
- Shankman, Paul (2009). The Trashing of Margaret Mead: Anatomy of an Anthropological Controversy. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-23454-6.
- Robert A. Levine (May 28, 2010). "Cutting a Controversy Down to Size". Science. 328 (5982): 1108. doi:10.1126/science.1189202. S2CID 162343521.
- "The Trashing of Margaret Mead". Savage Minds. October 13, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- National Women's Hall of Fame, Margaret Mead
- "Jimmy Carter: Presidential Medal of Freedom Announcement of Award to Margaret Mead". The American Presidency Project. January 19, 1979. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- Wulf, Steve (March 23, 2015). "Supersisters: Original Roster". Espn.go.com. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- King, Lily (2014). Euphoria: A Novel. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-1-4434-3529-1.
- Eakin, Emily (June 6, 2014). "Going Native: 'Euphoria', by Lily King". The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- "Margaret Mead Junior High School". Mead.sd54.org. Retrieved November 2, 2013.
- "Margaret Mead Elementary (Washington)". Lwsd.org. August 16, 2010. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- "P.S. 209 Margaret Mead". Schools.nyc.gov. April 19, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- "Women Subjects on United States Postage Stamps". usps.com. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- "Margaret Mead [Hair Original Broadway Cast] – My Conviction Lyrics". Genius Lyrics. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- Margaret Mead; with an introduction by Mary Pipher (2004). Coming of Age in Samoa: a psychological study of primitive youth for western civilisation (1st Perennial Classics, ed.). New York: Perennial Classics. ISBN 978-0-688-05033-7.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Mead, Margaret (2001). Growing Up in New Guinea: a comparative study of primitive education (1st Perennial Classics ed.). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-688-17811-6.
- The changing culture of an Indian tribe. OCLC 847822.
- Mead, Margaret (2001). Male and Female (1st Perennial ed.). New York: Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-093496-5.
- Lutkehaus, Margaret Mead; with a new introduction by Nancy (1995). Blackberry Winter: my earlier years. New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 978-1-56836-069-0.
- Acciaioli, Gregory, ed. (1983). "Fact and Context in Ethnography: The Samoa Controversy (special edition)". Canberra Anthropology. 6 (1): 1–97. ISSN 0314-9099.
- Appell, George (1984). "Freeman's Refutation of Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa: The Implications for Anthropological Inquiry". Eastern Anthropology. 37: 183–214.
- Bateson, Mary Catherine. (1984) With a Daughter's Eye: A Memoir of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, New York: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-03962-2
- Brady, Ivan (1991). "The Samoa Reader: Last Word or Lost Horizon?" (PDF). Current Anthropology. 32 (4): 263–282. doi:10.1086/203989. JSTOR 2743829. S2CID 146338555.
- Caffey, Margaret M., and Patricia A. Francis, eds. (2006). To Cherish the Life of the World: Selected Letters of Margaret Mead. New York: Basic Books.
- Caton, Hiram, ed. (1990) The Samoa Reader: Anthropologists Take Stock, University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-8191-7720-9
- Feinberg, Richard (1988). "Margaret Mead and Samoa: Coming of Age in Fact and Fiction". American Anthropologist. 90 (3): 656–663. doi:10.1525/aa.1988.90.3.02a00080.
- Foerstel, Leonora, and Angela Gilliam, eds. (1992). Confronting the Margaret Mead Legacy: Scholarship, Empire and the South Pacific. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Freeman, Derek. (1983) Margaret Mead and Samoa, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-54830-5
- Freeman, Derek. (1999) The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead: A Historical Analysis of Her Samoan Research, Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3693-0
- Goldfrank, Esther Schiff (1983). "Another View. Margaret and Me". Ethnohistory. 30 (1): 1–14. doi:10.2307/481499. JSTOR 481499.
- Holmes, Lowell D. (1987). Quest for the Real Samoa: the Mead/Freeman Controversy and Beyond. South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey.
- Howard, Jane. (1984). Margaret Mead: A Life, New York: Simon and Schuster.
- Keeley, Lawrence (1996). War Before Civilization: the Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford University Press). ISBN 978-0-19-511912-1
- Lapsley, Hilary. (1999). Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-181-6
- Leacock, Eleanor (1988). "Anthropologists in Search of a Culture: Margaret Mead, Derek Freeman and All the Rest of Us". Central Issues in Anthropology. 8 (1): 3–20. doi:10.1525/cia.19184.108.40.206.
- Levy, Robert (1984). "Mead, Freeman, and Samoa: The Problem of Seeing Things as They Are". Ethos. 12: 85–92. doi:10.1525/eth.1984.12.1.02a00060.
- Lutkehaus, Nancy C. (2008). Margaret Mead: The Making of an American Icon. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00941-4
- Mageo, Jeannette (1988). "Malosi: A Psychological Exploration of Mead's and Freeman's Work and of Samoan Aggression". Pacific Studies. 11 (2): 25–65.
- Mandler, Peter (2013). Return from the Natives: How Margaret Mead Won the Second World War and Lost the Cold War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Marshall, Mac. (1993). "The Wizard from Oz Meets the Wicked Witch of the East: Freeman, Mead, and Ethnographic Authority". American Ethnologist. 20 (3): 604–617. doi:10.1525/ae.1993.20.3.02a00080.
- Mead, Margaret (1972). Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-00051-6.
- Mead, Margaret. 1977. The Future as Frame for the Present. Audio recording of a lecture delivered July 11, 1977.
- Metraux, Rhoda (1980). "Margaret Mead. A Biographical Sketch". American Anthropologist. 82 (2): 262–269. doi:10.1525/aa.1980.82.2.02a00010. JSTOR 675870.
- Nardi, Bonnie; Mead, Margaret; Freeman, Derek (1984). "The Height of Her Powers: Margaret Mead's Samoa". Feminist Studies. 10 (2): 323–337. doi:10.2307/3177870. JSTOR 3177870.
- Moore, Jerry D. (2004). Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists. Rowman Altamira. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7591-0411-2.
- Patience, Allan; Josephy Smith (1987). "Derek Freeman in Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of a Biobehavioral Myth". American Anthropologist. 88: 157–162. doi:10.1525/aa.1986.88.1.02a00160.
- Paxman, David B. (1988). "Freeman, Mead, and the Eighteenth-Century Controversy over Polynesian Society". Pacific Studies. 11 (3): 1–19.
- Pinker, Steven A. (1997). How the Mind Works. ISBN 978-0-393-04535-2
- Sandall, Roger. (2001) The Culture Cult: Designer Tribalism and Other Essays. ISBN 978-0-8133-3863-7
- Scheper-Hughes, Nancy (1984). "The Margaret Mead Controversy: Culture, Biology, and Anthropological Inquiry". Human Organization. 43 (1): 85–93. doi:10.17730/humo.43.1.362253166r6173m4. Archived from the original on January 28, 2013.
- Shankman, Paul (1996). "The History of Samoan Sexual Conduct and the Mead-Freeman Controversy". American Anthropologist. 98 (3): 555–567. doi:10.1525/aa.1996.98.3.02a00090.
- Shankman, Paul (2009). The Trashing of Margaret Mead: Anatomy of an Anthropological Controversy. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-23454-6.
- Shore, Brad. (1982) Sala'ilua: A Samoan Mystery. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Stassinos, Elizabeth (1998). "Response to Visweswaren, 'Race and the culture of anthropology'". American Anthropologist. 100 (4): 981–983. doi:10.1525/aa.19220.127.116.111.
- Stassinos, Elizabeth (2009). "An Early Case of Personality: Ruth Benedict's Autobiographical Fragment and the Case of the Biblical "Boaz"". Histories of Anthropology Annual. 5: 28–51. doi:10.1353/haa.0.0063. ISSN 1557-637X. S2CID 144198222.
- Virginia, Mary E. (2003). Benedict, Ruth (1887–1948). DISCovering U.S. History online edition, Detroit: Gale.
- Young, R.E.; S. Juan (1985). "Freeman's Margaret Mead Myth: The Ideological Virginity of Anthropologists". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology. 21 (1): 64–81. doi:10.1177/144078338502100104. S2CID 143970272.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Margaret Mead|
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Margaret Mead.|
- Online video: on YouTube. Documentary about the Mead-Freeman controversy, including an interview with one of Mead's original informants.
- Creative Intelligence: Female – "The Silent Revolution: Creative Man In Contemporary Society" Talk at UC Berkeley, 1962 (online audio file)
- The Institute for Intercultural Studies– ethnographic institute founded by Mead, with resources relating to Mead's work
- . Visited on May 15, 2014.
- Library of Congress, Margaret Mead: Human Nature and the Power of Culture
- American Museum of Natural History, Margaret Mead Film & Video Festival
- Works by or about Margaret Mead in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- "Margaret Mead, 1901–1978: A Public Face of Anthropology": brief biography, Voice of America. Visited on May 15, 2014.
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
- The Dell Paperback Collection at the Library of Congress has first edition paperbacks of Mead's works.