Stoolball is a sport that dates back to at least the 15th century, originating in Sussex, southern England. It may be an ancestor of cricket (a game it resembles in some respects), baseball, and rounders; stoolball has been called "cricket in the air". There is a tradition that it was played by milkmaids who used their milking stools as a "wicket" and the bittle, or milk bowl as a bat. Hence its archaic name of bittle-battle.
The sport of stoolball is strongly associated with Sussex; it has been referred to as Sussex's 'national' sport and a Sussex game or pastime. The National Stoolball Association was formed in 1979 to promote and expand stoolball. The game was officially recognised as a sport by the Sports Council in early 2008. The National Stoolball Association changed its name to Stoolball England in 2010 on the advice of the Sports Council and was recognised as the national governing body for stoolball in England in 2011.
The game's popularity has faded since the 1960s, but continues to be played at a local league level in Sussex, Kent, Surrey and the Midlands. Some variants are played in some schools. Teams can be ladies only or mixed. There are ladies' leagues in Sussex, Surrey and Kent and mixed leagues in Sussex.
Medieval and Tudor references
Stoolball is attested by name as early as 1450. Nearly all medieval references describe it as a game played during Easter celebrations, typically as a courtship pastime rather than a competitive game. The game's associations with romance remained strong into the modern period. Written by William Shakespeare and the Sussex-born playwright John Fletcher, the comedy, The Two Noble Kinsmen used the phrase "playing stool ball" as a euphemism for sexual behaviour.
Early competitions and establishment of codes
Stoolball makes an appearance in the dictionary of Samuel Johnson, where it is defined as a game played by driving a ball from stool to stool.
Stoolball seems to have been one of the earliest sports in which women participated. Activities for women before about 1870 were recreational rather than sport-specific in nature. They were typically non-competitive, informal, rule-less; they emphasised physical activity rather than competition. In contrast, stoolball allowed women to participate in competitive sport.
A “fine match of stoolball” is recorded as having been played in June 1747 by a total of 28 women at Warbleton. The first inter-county stoolball match took place between the women of Sussex and Kent in 1797 at Tunbridge Wells Common on the historic border between the two counties. Sussex women wore blue ribbons to represent the county while the women of Kent wore pink ribbons.
Andrew Lusted argues that between 1866 and 1887 the Glynde Butterflies stoolball team were the first women in England to be considered sports stars. In 1866 the first recorded stoolball match took place between teams of named women representing villages as the Glynde Butterflies took on the Firle Blues. Other teams included the Chailey Grasshoppers, Selmeston Harvest Bugs, Waldron Bees, Eastbourne Seagulls, Danny Daisies and Westmeston.
The sport's modern rules were codified at Glynde in 1881 where the two slightly different sets of rules in the east and the west of Sussex were brought together. In 1867 the rules in the east of the county were compiled by the Rev William de St Croix, the vicar of Glynde, and were the first rules to be established.
20th century revival
A Sussex Stoolball League was established in 1903. Initially played by women only, men joined in shortly afterwards. Modern stoolball is centred on Sussex where the game was revived in the early 20th century by Major William Grantham. Grantham wore a traditional Sussex round frock and beaver hat to stoolball games. In 1917, Sussex County Cricket Ground in Hove hosted a match between young men who had lost one arm in First World War action at a temporary hospital in Brighton's Royal Pavilion, “damaged by wounds”, and a team of older lawyers, “damaged by age”. The soldiers won and were deemed to be 'heroes'. In 1919 a demonstration match was held at Lord's and the game was also played near the trenches of the battlefields of the First World War.
First played in 1923, the League Championship Challenge Cup is open to the winning teams of the five leagues of the Sussex County Stoolball Association - North, East, West, Mid and Central. By the 1930s stoolball was being played in the Midlands and the north of England. Since 1938 Sussex and Kent have competed annually for the Rose Bowl, which was presented to Sussex by Major William Grantham. This is sometimes a team representing Sussex and sometimes one of Sussex's five leagues may represent the county against Kent. Grantham founded the Stoolball Association of Great Britain at Lord's in 1923. By 1927 over 1,000 clubs were playing stoolball across England, however in 1942 the Stoolball Association of Great Britain ceased to function. The National Stoolball Association was founded on 3 October 1979 at Clair Hall in Haywards Heath attended by 23 people from nine different leagues. On the advice of the Sports Council the governing body was renamed Stoolball England in 2010.
Description and rules
Stoolball is played on grass with a 90-yard (82-metre) diameter boundary, and the pitch is 16 yards (15 metres) long. Each team consists of 11 players, with one team fielding and the other batting. Bowling is underarm from a bowling "crease" 10 yards (9.1 metres) from the batsman's wicket, with the ball reaching the batsman on the full as in rounders or baseball rather than bouncing from the pitch as in cricket. Each over consists of 8 balls. The "wicket" itself is a square piece of wood at head or shoulder height fastened to a post. Traditionally this was the seat of a stool hung from a post or tree; some versions used a tall stool placed upright on the ground.
As it is played today, a bowler attempts to hit the wicket with the ball, and a batsman defends it using a bat shaped like a frying pan. The batsman scores "runs" by running between the wickets or hitting the ball beyond the boundary in a similar way to cricket. A ball hit over the boundary counts for 4 runs if it has hit the ground before reaching the boundary, or 6 runs if it landed beyond the boundary upon first contact with the ground. Fielders attempt to catch the ball or run out the batsman by hitting the wicket with the ball before the batsman returns from his run.
Originally the batsman simply had to defend his stool from each ball with his hand and would score a point for each delivery until the stool was hit. The game later evolved to include runs and bats.
Confusion with the game of Stoball
According to Alice Gomme, the earliest references show that the game was called Stobball or Stoball, and was a game peculiar to North Wiltshire, North Gloucestershire, and a little part of Somerset, near Bath: but although 17th century antiquarian John Aubrey describes a game called "stobball", played in this area, his description of it does not sound like stoolball, and another contemporary text from the same region characterises "stoball" as a game played mainly by men and boys. The Oxford English Dictionary considers it unlikely that "stool ball" could have been corrupted into "stobball". Stobball could very well instead be the game Willughby called "stow-ball," which resembled golf.
- History And Antiquities Of Horsham, Doreathea E. Hurst, Farncombe & Co, Lewes, Sussex 2nd Ed (1889) page 257
- Coates 2010, p. 79
- Gomme 1894, p. 219
- Locke 2011, p. 203
- "History of Stoolball England". United Kingdom: Stoolball England. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
Stoolball England was formed as the National Stoolball Association on 3 October 1979. ... The aims laid down in the inaugural meeting of the National Stoolball Association in 1979 [included]: The promotion and expansion of stoolball; To seek to link together existing associations and to encourage the formation of others.
- "Medieval game gets sport status". BBC News. 31 March 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
- Block, David (2006). Baseball Before We Knew It: A Search for the Roots of the Game. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-6255-3.
- Tony Collins; John Martin; Wray Vamplew, eds. (2005). The Encyclopedia of traditional British Rural Sports. Routledge Sports Reference. ISBN 978-0-415-35224-6.
- Bell, Richard. "A History of Women in Sport Prior to Title IX". The Sport Journal. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "The much-loved Sussex sport of stoolball". Sussex Express. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Matterface Cup and Veterans Cup 2008". 28 July 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "The Glynde Butterflies 1866-1887". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Collins 2005, p. 251
- Locke 2011, p. 203
- Nauright 2012, p. 194
- Collins 2005, p. 252
- "Sussex County Stoolball Association League Championship, 2014 Season". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Russell=Goggs, M.S. "Stoolball in Sussex, by M S Russell-Goggs". Retrieved 30 October 2018.
- Gomme, Alice Bertha (1894). The traditional games of England, Scotland, and Ireland: with tunes, singing-rhymes, and methods of playing according to the variants extant and recorded in different parts of the Kingdom. David Nutt (publisher), London. Archived by archive.org on June 26, 2007 and viewable here
- "Stobball-play is peculiar to North Wilts, North Gloucestershire, and a little part of Somerset near Bath. They smite a ball, stuffed very hard with quills and covered with soale leather, with a staffe, commonly made of withy, about 3 [feet] and a halfe long... A stobball-ball is of about four inches diameter, and as hard as a stone."
- From a Berkeley manuscript of c.1641:"The large and levell playnes..in the vale of this hundred..doe witnes the inbred delight, that both gentry, yeomanry, rascallity, boyes and children, doe take in a game called Stoball... And not a sonne of mine, but at 7. was furnished with his double stoball staves, and a gamster therafter." John Smyth, The Berkeley manuscripts: the lives of the Berkeleys, lords of the honour, castle and manor of Berkeley in the county of Gloucester from 1066 to 1618...: printed for subscribers by John Bellows, Gloucester, 1883–1885.
- It suggests instead an etymology of the latter word from "stob" + ball, where "stob" means a stump or stub of wood, and refers to the club used to play the game."† stow-ball, n.". OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. 21 September 2012 <http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/191080>.
- Coates, Richard (2010). The Traditional Dialect of Sussex. Pomegranate Press. ISBN 978-1-907242-09-0.
- Collins, Tony, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Traditional British Rural Sports. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415352246.
- Gomme, Alice Bertha (1894). The traditional games of England, Scotland and Ireland : with tunes, singing rhymes and methods of playing according to the variants extant and recorded in different parts of the kingdom. London: David Nutt.
- Locke, Tim (2011). Slow Sussex and the South Downs. Buckinghamshire: Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 9781841623436.
- Nauright, John (2012). Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1598843002.