Sturzkampfgeschwader 77

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Sturzkampfgeschwader 77
Schlachtgeschwader 77.svg
Active 1939–1943
Country Nazi Germany
Branch Luftwaffe
Type Dive bomber
Role Close air support
Size Air Force Wing
Insignia
Identification
symbol
Geschwaderkennung
of S2

Sturzkampfgeschwader 77 (StG 77) was a Luftwaffe dive bomber wing during World War II.

History[edit]

Junkers Ju 87Ds of StG 77 on the Eastern Front

Sturzkampfgeschwader 77 was formed on 1 May 1939, I. Group in Brieg, Stab and II. Group in Breslau-Schöngarten (today Copernicus Airport Wrocław). The III. Group was formed from II. Group of Kampfgeschwader 76 on 9 July 1940.

1939–40[edit]

Stab, I and II./StG 77 first saw action in the Polish campaign attacking the towns of Lublinitz and Wielun on the very first day. After the campaign ended the Geschwader transferred to Luftflotte 3 in the west for the preparation of the invasion of France. From May 1940 StG 77 were heavily involved in tactical support of the land campaign as part of VIII. Fliegerkorps. The unit was involved in the attack on Belgium and the Low Countries, commencing with a series of raids supporting the paratroop attack on the fortress at Eben Emael The unit also contributed to the Battle of Sedan, which was critical in the fall of France in 1940. Often flying 6 or 7 missions a day, StG 77 flew a series of shuttle missions bombing fortifications, lines of communication, troop concentrations and defence works, rapidly moving from one airfield to another as the German army advanced through the Netherlands and Northern Belgium. Losses were relatively light. However, Kommodore Oberst Günter Schwartzkopff was killed by French AA fire on 15 May while leading a bombing attack over Sedan. The latter part of May saw operations over France, with raids against Saint Quentin, Calais, and the Dunkirk perimeter. By 18 June StG 77 had supported the crossings at the rivers Marne, Seine and Loire.

Based in the Cherbourg area, StG 77 then participated in early part of the Battle of Britain, suffering high losses in machines and experienced leaders. Commencing with a raid on shipping on 9 July 1940, StG 77 lost I Gruppe Gruppenkommandeur Hpt. Fr. Friedrich-Karl Freiherr von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels to Spitfires of No. 609 Squadron RAF. Hpt. Waldemar Plewig was shot down and taken prisoner on 8 August, while on 18 August 1940, 10 Stukas of I./ StG 77 were lost in an attack on Thorney Island, and a further 6 were damaged.[1]

Soviet Operations 1941–43[edit]

After participation in the Balkans campaigns of spring 1941, StG 77 formed part of the attack against the Soviet Union in June 1941, and supported the Army Group Centre as part of II. Fliegerkorps. Relocating into the Southern Front in November 1941, StG77 then flew supporting Army Group South. In December II. Gruppe was sent for refitting to Kraków. During 1942 StG77, as part of VIII. Fliegerkorps, supported ground actions on the at the Sevastopol front and later, units took part in the Second Battle of Kharkov. By September 1942, III./StG 77 was subordinate to I./StG 1 on the northern front in support of Army Group North.

II./StG 77, under Major Kurt Huhn, was one of the main Stuka ground-attack units supporting the operations at Stalingrad. As the battle for the city intensified, so the unit moved ever closer to the city, reducing flight time and allowing more sorties every day.

II. Group was redesignated as III. Group, Schlachtgeschwader 10 on 18 October 1943, the remaining groups renamed to Schlachtgeschwader 77 the same day.

Commanding officers[edit]

Kommodore[edit]

Gruppenkommandeure[edit]

I./StG 77[edit]

II./StG 77[edit]

  • Hauptmann Clemens Graf von Schönborn-Wiesentheid, 1 May 1939 – 15 May 1940
  • Hauptmann Waldemar Plewig, 15 May 1940 – 8 August 1940
  • Hauptmann Alfons Orthofer, 15 August 1940 – 27 June 1942
  • Major Kurt Huhn, 1 July 1942 – 1 April 1943
  • Hauptmann Helmut Leicht, 1 April 1943 – 18 October 1943

III./StG 77[edit]

See also[edit]

Organization of the Luftwaffe during World War II

References[edit]

Citations

  1. ^ 'Stuka Squadron'; Peter C Smith, 1990

Bibliography

  • Bergstrom, Christer (2007a). Barbarossa – The Air Battle: July–December 1941. London: Chervron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
  • Bergström, Christer (2007b). Stalingrad – The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943. Midland Puplishing, Hinkley. ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4
  • Bergström, Christer (2007c). Kursk – The Air Battle: July 1943. Midland Puplishing, Hinkley. ISBN 978-1-903223-88-8
  • Bergstrom, Christer (2008). Bagration to Berlin: The Final Air Battles in the East: 1944–1945. Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-903223-91-8.
  • Bergström, Christer (2015). The Battle of Britain: An Epic Conflict Revisited. Casemate: Oxford. ISBN 978-1612-00347-4.
  • Bergström, Christer; Mikhailov, Andrey (2001). Black Cross / Red Star Air War Over the Eastern Front, Volume II, Resurgence January–June 1942. Pacifica, California: Pacifica Military History. ISBN 978-0-935553-51-2.
  • Brookes, Andrew. Air War Over Russia. Ian Allen Publishing. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7110-2890-6
  • Christopher Shores (2002). Great Air Battles of World War II. Grub Street. ISBN 0-385-19917-1
  • Christopher Hough and Denis Richard (1990). The Battle of Britain – the Jubilee History. Guild Publishing. Previously published by Hodder & Stoughton, 1989. ISBN 0-340-42903-8
  • Dierich, Wolfgang (2002). Kampfgeschwader 55 "Greif", Eine Chronik aus Dokumenten und Berichten 1937-1945. Motorbuch. ISBN 3-87943-340-2.
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  • Goss, Chris. (2000). The Luftwaffe Bombers' Battle of Britain. Crecy, Manchester. ISBN 0-947554-82-3
  • Franks, Norman. The Air Battle of Dunkirk 26 May – 3 June 1940. Grub Street. ISBN 1-904943-43-8
  • Goss, Chris. (2010). The Luftwaffe's Blitz: The Inside Story, November 1940—May 1941. Crecy, Manchester. ISBN 978-0-85979-148-9
  • Hall and Quinlan (2000). KG55. Red Kite. ISBN 0-9538061-0-3.
  • Hayward, Joel S (1998). A. Stopped At Stalingrad. Univ. of Kansas; Lawrence. ISBN 978-0-7006-1146-1
  • Hooton, E.R. (1994). Phoenix Triumphant: The Rise and Rise of the Luftwaffe. Arms & Armour, ISBN 1854091816.
  • Hooton, E. R (2007b). Luftwaffe at War; Blitzkrieg in the West. London: Chervron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-85780-272-6.
  • Hooton, E. R (2007a). Luftwaffe at War: Gathering Storm 1933-1939 Classic Publications. ISBN 1903223717.
  • Hooton, E.R. (1997). Eagle in Flames: The Fall of the Luftwaffe. Arms & Armour Press. ISBN 1-86019-995-X
  • Hooton, E.R. (2016). War over the Steppes: The air campaigns on the Eastern Front 1941–45. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1472815629
  • Jackson, Robert. Air War Over France, 1939-1940. Ian Allan, London. 1974. ISBN 0-7110-0510-9
  • Mackay, Ron (2003). Heinkel He 111 Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press. ISBN 1-86126-576-X.
  • Mason, Francis (1969). Battle Over Britain. McWhirter Twins, London. ISBN 978-0-901928-00-9
  • Muller, Richard (1992). The German Air War in Russia. Nautical & Aviation Publishing. Baltimore, Maryland. ISBN 1-877853-13-5
  • Smith, Peter C. Ju 87 Stuka, Volume One: Luftwaffe Ju 87 Dive-Bomber Units 1939-1941. London: Classic Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-1-903223-69-7.
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  • Ward, John. Hitler's Stuka Squadrons: The Ju 87 at war, 1936–1945. London: Eagles of War, 2004. ISBN 1-86227-246-8.
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  • Weal, John. Junkers Ju 87 Stukageschwader of the Russian Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84603-308-7.