Generalfeldmarschall Hugo Sperrle
7 February 1885|
Ludwigsburg, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
|Died||2 April 1953
Munich, Bavaria, West Germany
|Allegiance|| German Empire (to 1918)
Weimar Republic (to 1933)
|Years of service||1903–18, 1925–44|
World War II
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Hugo Sperrle (7 February 1885 – 2 April 1953) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II. His forces were deployed solely on the Western Front and the Mediterranean throughout the war. By 1944 he had become Supreme Commander of the Luftwaffe in the West, but was subsequently dismissed when his heavily outnumbered forces were not able to significantly hamper the Allied landings in Western Europe.
World War I and inter-war years
Born in Ludwigsburg, he joined the German Army in 1903 and transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte (German Army Air Service) at the outbreak of World War I, ending the war as commander of the air components of the German 7th Army. After the war, Sperrle joined the Freikorps and then the Reichswehr. He entered the newly formed Luftwaffe in 1935 where he was soon promoted to a Generalmajor. He then was the first commander of the Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War until October 1937, with Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen serving as his chief of staff. Afterwards he was promoted to General der Flieger.
World War II
At the outbreak of World War II he led the German Luftflotte 3 (Air Fleet 3). This unit saw no action during the Poland campaign, but was committed from May onwards in France, playing an important role as tactical bombing support unit. In July 1940, he was made a Generalfeldmarschall of the Luftwaffe during the 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony. Air Fleet 3, stationed in northern France, played a major role in the Battle of Britain, from June 1940 to October 1940 and The Blitz, to May 1941. In September Sperrle engaged in a heated debate with the other Luftwaffe commanders, particularly with its Supreme Commander Hermann Göring, arguing for a continuation of the attack on British airfields and the Royal Air Force to ensure a successful invasion of Britain. However, Göring ordered a change in the Luftwaffe strategy, switching to assault the British cities (which had the unintended effect of relieving German pressure upon the RAF). His forces continued to bomb Britain until the autumn of 1941.
He stayed with his units in France for the next 3 years, living in luxury at the Luxembourg Palace. His major part in the war, however, was over. He supported Erwin Rommel in the North African Campaign and eventually took full command of the German air forces in Western Europe in 1944, shortly before Allied landings in Western Europe. His forces were badly hampered due a massive lack of aircraft, experienced crews, and fuel. Although an initial Nazi supporter, he became increasingly disillusioned with the German war effort. At D-Day he had only 319 operational aircraft left to face the Allied armada of over 9,000 planes. Due to the subsequent inability of his units to thwart the Allied landings, he was dismissed from command in August 1944.
Field Marshal Sperrle was captured by the Allies and charged with war crimes in the High Command Trial at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials but was acquitted. After the war he lived quietly and died in Munich in 1953.
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 17 May 1940 as General der Flieger and chief of Luftflotte 3
- Mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht on 5 October 1940, 15 November 1940, 20 November 1940, 9 April 1941, 13 February 1942 and 15 February 1942
- Williamson (2006), p. 44–45
- Williamson (2006), p. 45
- Williamson (2006), p. 46
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 404.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) . Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Williamson, Gordon; McGregor, Malcolm (2006). German Commanders in World War II (2). Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-597-X.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, 1. Januar 1942 bis 31. Dezember 1943 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 2, 1 January 1942 to 31 December 1943] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2.
- Sperrle, Hugo in the Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Normandy 1944
- US Military Tribunal Nuremberg (1948). "High Command Trial, Judgment of 27 October 1948" (PDF). Retrieved 30 May 2016.
|Commander of 1. Flieger-Division (1934–1935)
1 April 1934 – 31 March 1935
|Commander of Luftflotte 3
1 February 1939 – 23 August 1944
Generaloberst Otto Deßloch