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Sevastopol

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For other uses, see Sevastopol (disambiguation).
Sevastopol
Севастополь Ukrainian / Russian
Aqyar Crimean Tatar
Flag of Sevastopol
Flag
Official seal of Sevastopol
Seal
Orthographic projection of Sevastopol (in green)
Orthographic projection of Sevastopol (in green)
Map of the Crimean Peninsula with Sevastopol highlighted
Map of the Crimean Peninsula with Sevastopol highlighted
Coordinates: 44°36′00″N 33°32′00″E / 44.6°N 33.5333°E / 44.6; 33.5333Coordinates: 44°36′00″N 33°32′00″E / 44.6°N 33.5333°E / 44.6; 33.5333
Country Disputed:
Status within Ukraine City with special status
Status within Russia Federal City
Founded 1783 (232 years ago)
Government
 • Governor Sergei Menyailo[1]
Area
 • Total 864 km2 (334 sq mi)
Elevation 100 m (300 ft)
Population (2007)
 • Total 379,200
 • Density 438.89/km2 (1,136.7/sq mi)
Demonym Sevastopolitan, Sevastopolian
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)
Postal code 99000—99699 (Ukraine),
299000—299699 (Russia)
Area code(s) +380-692 (Ukraine),
+7-8692 (Russia)[2]
Licence plate CH (Ukraine),
92 (Russia)
Website sevastopol.gov.ru (Russian)

Sevastopol or traditionally Sebastopol (/sɛvəˈstpəl, -ˈstɒpəl/[4] or /sɛˈvæstəpəl, -pɒl/[4] Russian: Севасто́поль (same in Ukrainian); Crimean Tatar: Aqyar; Greek: Σεβαστούπολη, Sevastoupoli) is a city located in the southwestern region of the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea. The city is currently a subject of territorial dispute, as a result of annexation of Crimea, between Ukraine, which considers Sevastopol as a city with special status, and Russia, which itself considers it a federal city within the Crimean Federal District.

Sevastopol has a population of 342,451, concentrated mostly near the Bay of Sevastopol and surrounding areas. The location and navigability of the city's harbours have made Sevastopol a strategically important port and naval base throughout history. The city has been a home to the Russian Black Sea Fleet, which is why it was considered as a separate city in Crimea of significant military importance.

Although relatively small at 864 square kilometres (334 sq mi), Sevastopol's unique naval and maritime features provide the basis for a robust economy. The city enjoys mild winters and moderate warm summers; characteristics that help make it a popular seaside resort and tourist destination, mainly for visitors from the former Soviet republics. The city is also an important centre for marine biology; in particular, dolphins have been studied and trained in the city since the end of World War II.

Etymology

The name of Sevastopolis was originally chosen in the same etymological trend as other cities in the Crimean peninsula that was intended to reflect its ancient Greek origins. It is a compound of the Greek adjective, σεβαστός (sebastos, 'venerable') and the noun πόλις (pólis) ('city'). Σεβαστός is the traditional Greek equivalent of the Roman honorific Augustus, originally given to the first emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus and later awarded as a title to his successors.

Despite its Greek origin, the name itself is not from Ancient Greek times. The city was probably named after the Empress ("Augusta") Catherine II of Russia who founded Sevastopol in 1783. She visited the city in 1787 accompanied by Joseph II, the Emperor of Austria, and other foreign dignitaries.

In the west of the city, there are well-preserved ruins of the ancient Greek port city of Chersonesos, founded in the 5th[citation needed] (or 4th) century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica. This name means "peninsula", reflecting its immediate location, and is not related to the ancient Greek name for the Crimean Peninsula as a whole: Chersonēsos Taurikē ("the Taurian Peninsula").

The name of the city is spelled as:

History

The ruins of the ancient Greek theater in Chersonesos Taurica

In the 6th century BC a Greek colony was established in the area of the modern day city. The Greek city of Chersonesus existed for almost two thousand years, first as an independent democracy and later as part of the Bosporan Kingdom. In the 13th and 14th centuries it was sacked by the Mongol Horde several times and was finally totally abandoned. The modern day city of Sevastopol has no connection to the ancient and medieval Greek city, but the ruins are a popular tourist attraction located on the outskirts of the city.

Under the Russian Empire

"Soldier and Sailor" Memorial to Heroic Defenders of Sevastopol
The Monument to the ships scuttled during the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War by Amandus Adamson

Sevastopol was founded in June 1783 as a base for a naval squadron under the name Akhtiar[9] (White Cliff),[10] by Rear Admiral Thomas Mackenzie (Foma Fomich Makenzi), a native Scot in Russian service; soon after Russia annexed the Crimean Khanate. Five years earlier, Alexander Suvorov ordered that earthworks be erected along the harbour and Russian troops be placed there. In February 1784, Catherine the Great ordered Grigory Potemkin to build a fortress there and call it Sevastopol. The realisation of the initial building plans fell to Captain Fyodor Ushakov who in 1788 was named commander of the port and of the Black Sea squadron.[11] It became an important naval base and later a commercial seaport. In 1797, under an edict issued by Emperor Paul I, the military stronghold was again renamed to Akhtiar. Finally, on April 29 (May 10), 1826, the Senate returned the city's name to Sevastopol.

One of the most notable events involving the city is the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55) carried out by the British, French, Sardinian, and Turkish troops during the Crimean War, which lasted for 11 months. Despite its efforts, the Russian army had to leave its stronghold and evacuate over a pontoon bridge to the north shore of the inlet. The Russians chose to sink their entire fleet to prevent it from falling into the hands of the enemy and at the same time to block the entrance of the Western ships into the inlet. When the enemy troops entered Sevastopol, they were faced with the ruins of a formerly glorious city.[citation needed]

A panorama of the siege originally was created by Franz Roubaud. After its destruction in 1942 during WWII, it was restored and is currently housed in a specially constructed circular building in the city. It portrays the situation at the height of the siege, on 18 June 1855.[citation needed]

Under the Soviet Union

During World War II, Sevastopol withstood intensive bombardment by the Germans in 1941–42, supported by their Italian and Romanian allies during the Battle of Sevastopol. German forces were forced to use railway artillery and specialised heavy mortars to destroy Sevastopol's extremely heavy fortifications, such as the Maxim Gorky naval battery. After fierce fighting, which lasted for 250 days, the supposedly untakable[citation needed] fortress city finally fell to Axis forces in July 1942. It was intended to be renamed to "Theodorichshafen" (in reference to Theodoric the Great and the fact that the Crimea had been home to Germanic Goths until the 18th or 19th century) in the event of a German victory against the Soviet Union, and like the rest of the Crimea was designated for future colonisation by the Third Reich. It was liberated by the Red Army on May 9, 1944 and was awarded the Hero City title a year later.

In 1957, the town of Balaklava was incorporated into Sevastopol.

Sevastopol as part of Ukrainian SSR

During the Soviet era, Sevastopol became a so-called "closed city". This meant that any non-residents had to apply to the authorities for a temporary permit to visit the city.

On October 29, 1948 the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Russian SFSR issued an ukase (order) which confirmed the special status of the city.[12] Soviet academic publications since 1954, including the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, indicated that Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast was part of the Ukrainian SSR (Great Soviet Encyclopedia 1976, Vol.23. pp 104).[13]

At the 1955 Ukrainian parliamentary elections on February 27, Sevastopol was split into two electoral districts, Stalinsky and Korabelny (initially requested three Stalinksy, Korabelny, and Nakhimovsky).[12] Eventually Sevastopol received two people's deputies of the Ukrainian SSR elected to the Verkhovna Rada A.Korovchenko and M.Kulakov.[12][14]

After the Soviet dissolution

The Black Sea Fleet Museum

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Moscow refused to recognise Ukrainian sovereignty over Sevastopol as well as over the surrounding Crimean Oblast, using the argument that the city was never practically integrated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic because of its military status.[citation needed]

On December 11, 1992, the President of Ukraine called the attempt of the Russian deputies to charge the Russian parliament with the task of defining the status of Sevastopol as an "imperial disease". On December 17, 1992, the office of the Ukrainian presidential representative in Crimea was created, which caused a wave of protests a month later. Among the protesters who organised the unsanctioned rally were the Sevastopol branches of the National Salvation Front, the Russian Popular Assembly, and the All-Crimean Movement of the Voters for the Republic of Crimea. The protest was held in Sevastopol on January 10 at the Nakhimov Square.[citation needed]

On July 10, 1993, the Russian parliament passed a resolution declaring Sevastopol to be "a federal Russian city".[15] At the time, many supporters of the president, Boris Yeltsin, had ceased taking part in the Parliament's work.[16] On July 20, 1993 the United Nations Security Council denounced the decision of the Russia parliament. According to Anatoliy Zlenko, it was for the first time that the council had to review actions and come up with qualification of them for a legislative body.[12]

On April 14, 1993, the Presidium of the Crimean Parliament called for the creation of the presidential post of the Crimean Republic. A week later, the Russian deputy, Valentin Agafonov, stated that Russia was ready to supervise the referendum on Crimean independence and include the republic as a separate entity in the CIS. On July 28, 1993, one of the leaders of the Russian Society of Crimea, Viktor Prusakov, stated that his organisation was ready for an armed mutiny and establishment of the Russian administration in Sevastopol. In September, Eduard Baltin accused Ukraine of converting some of his fleet and conducting an armed assault on his personnel, and threatened to take countermeasures of placing the fleet on alert.

In May 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed the Peace and Friendship Treaty, ruling out Moscow's territorial claims to Ukraine.[17] A separate agreement established the terms of a long-term lease of land, facilities, and resources in Sevastopol and the Crimea by Russia.[citation needed]

Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001

The ex-Soviet Black Sea Fleet and its facilities were divided between Russia's Black Sea Fleet and the Ukrainian Naval Forces. The two navies co-used some of the city's harbours and piers, while others were demilitarised or used by either country. Sevastopol remained the location of the Russian Black Sea Fleet headquarters with the Ukrainian Naval Forces Headquarters also based in the city. A judicial row periodically continues over the naval hydrographic infrastructure both in Sevastopol and on the Crimean coast (especially lighthouses historically maintained by the Soviet or Russian Navy and also used for civil navigation support).

As in the rest of the Crimea, Russian remained the predominant language of the city, although following the independence of Ukraine there was some attempts at Ukrainisation with very little success. The Russian society in general and even some outspoken government representatives never accepted the loss of Sevastopol and tended to regard it as temporarily separated from the homeland.[18]

In July 2009, the chairman of the Sevastopol city council, Valeriy Saratov (Party of Regions)[19] stated that Ukraine should increase the amount of compensation it is paying to the city of Sevastopol for hosting the foreign Russian Black Sea Fleet, instead of requesting such obligations from the Russian government and the Russian Ministry of Defense in particular.[20]

On April 27, 2010, Russia and Ukraine ratified the Russian Ukrainian Naval Base for Gas treaty, extending the Russian Navy's lease of Crimean facilities for 25 years after 2017 (through 2042) with an option to prolong the lease in 5-year extensions. The ratification process in the Ukrainian parliament encountered stiff opposition and erupted into a brawl in the parliament chamber. Eventually, the treaty was ratified by a 52% majority vote—236 of 450. The Russian Duma ratified the treaty by a 98% majority without incident.[21]

2014 Crimean crisis

Main article: 2014 Crimean crisis

On March 6, 2014, in response to the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the city council of Sevastopol unilaterally declared that it wished to join the Russian Federation as a federal subject.[22] The city council on 11 March released a joint resolution with the Supreme Council of Crimea to unite as an independent republic between the potential passing of the referendum and union with Russia.[23] Ukrainian authorities and the international community strongly criticized the referendum decision.[24]

On March 16, a controversial referendum on leaving Ukraine took place in the city, along with the rest of Crimea. During the voting the Building of the Supreme Council of Crimea was controlled by the Russian military.[24] The official reports by the organizers of the referendum were that a majority of 95.6%[25] voted to become a part of the Russian Federation, albeit these results are contested (see Crimean status referendum, 2014#Alternative estimates of results for details). This referendum resulted in the establishment of the short-lived Republic of Crimea, which consisted of both Sevastopol and Crimea.

On March 18, 2014, the treaty on the adoption of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol to Russia was signed between Russia and the Republic of Crimea, with the following content:[26]

This new status is not internationally recognised. Crimea and Sevastopol is still considered by Ukraine, the European Union, most nations and the United Nations as part of Ukraine.[27]

Geography

Satellite image of the Sevastopol area.
A view of the Bay of Sevastopol.
Fiolent rocks formation on the coast of Sevastopol.

The city of Sevastopol is located at the southwestern tip of the Crimean peninsula in a headland known as Heracles peninsula on a coast of the Black Sea. The city is designated a special city-region of Ukraine which beside the city itself includes several of its outlying settlements. The city itself is concentrated mostly at the western portion of the region and around the long Bay of Sevastopol. This bay is a ria, a river canyon drowned by Holocene sea-level rise, and the outlet of Chorna River. Away in a remote location southeast of Sevastopol is located the former city of Balaklava (since 1957 incorporated within Sevastopol), the bay of which in Soviet times served as a main port for the Soviet diesel-powered submarines.

The coastline of the region is mostly rocky, in a series of smaller bays, a great number of which are located within the Bay of Sevastopol. The biggest of them are the Southern Bay (within Bay of Sevastopol), the Archer Bay, a gulf complex that consist of the Deergrass Bay, the Bay of Cossack, the Salty Bay, and many others. There are over thirty bays in the immediate region.

Through the region flow three rivers: the Belbek, Chorna, and Kacha. All three mountain chains of Crimean mountains are represented in Sevastopol, the southern chain by the Balaklava Highlands, the inner chain by the Mekenziev Mountains, and the outer chain by the Kara-Tau Upland (Black Mountain).

Climate

Sevastopol has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa),[28] bordering on a humid continental climate, with cool winters and warm summers.

The average yearly temperature is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) during the day and around 9 °C (48 °F) at night. In the coldest months, January and February, the average temperature is 5–6 °C (41–43 °F) during the day and around 1 °C (34 °F) at night. In the warmest months, July and August, the average temperature is around 26 °C (79 °F) during the day and around 19 °C (66 °F) at night. Generally, summer/holiday season lasts 5 months, from around mid-May and into September, with the temperature often reaching 20 °C (68 °F) or more in the first half of October.

The average annual temperature of the sea is 14.2 °C (58 °F), ranging from 7 °C (45 °F) in February to 24 °C (75 °F) in August. From June to September, the average sea temperature is greater than 20 °C (68 °F). In the second half of May and first half of October; the average sea temperature is about 17 °C (63 °F). The average rainfall is about 400 millimetres (16 in) per year. There are about 2,345 hours of sunshine duration per year.[29]

Climate data for Sevastopol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5
(41)
6
(43)
9
(48)
15
(59)
20
(68)
24
(75)
27
(81)
27
(81)
22
(72)
16
(61)
11
(52)
7
(45)
15.8
(60.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2
(36)
3
(37)
5
(41)
11
(52)
15
(59)
19
(66)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
12
(54)
8
(46)
4
(39)
11.8
(53.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1
(30)
−1
(30)
1
(34)
6
(43)
10
(50)
14
(57)
17
(63)
17
(63)
13
(55)
8
(46)
3
(37)
2
(36)
7.4
(45.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57
(2.24)
46
(1.81)
42
(1.65)
36
(1.42)
39
(1.54)
54
(2.13)
44
(1.73)
47
(1.85)
46
(1.81)
41
(1.61)
57
(2.24)
74
(2.91)
583
(22.94)
Avg. precipitation days 12 11 10 10 9 9 7 8 7 9 11 13 116
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93 87 155 180 248 300 310 279 240 186 90 62 2,230
Source: weather2travel.com[30]

Politics and government

2012 Navy Day joint celebration (Russian AF)
2012 Navy Day joint celebration (Ukrainian AF)
Ukrainian Navy artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol

In 1954, both Sevastopol and the remainder of the Crimean peninsula were administratively transferred by Nikita Khrushchev from being territories within the Russian SFSR to being territories administered by the Ukrainian SSR. Administratively, Sevastopol was a municipality excluded from the adjacent Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The territory of the municipality was 863.5 km² and it was further subdivided into four raions (districts). Besides the City of Sevastopol proper, it also included two towns—Balaklava (having had no status until 1957), Inkerman, urban-type settlement Kacha, and 29 villages. Until recently, Sevastopol had no elected mayor, instead a "Chairman of the Sevastopol City State Administration", would be appointed by the President of Ukraine, and functioned as a mayor.[31]

As of December 2014 the political status of Sevastopol remains uncertain, with most of the international community recognizing the city as part of Ukraine, while it is de facto controlled by Russia.

Victory Day in Sevastopol, 9 May 2014

On March 18, 2014 the Kremlin announced that Sevastopol will become the third federal city in the Russian Federation. The two others are Moscow and St. Petersburg.

City State Administration

The executive power of Sevastopol is exercised by the Sevastopol City State Administration led by a chairman.[32] Since April 2014 the executive power is held by the Government of Sevastopol, led by the City Governor.

City Council

The Sevastopol City Council is the legislature of Sevastopol. Under Ukrainian law, the mayor of Sevastopol is appointed by the central government in Kyiv. However, during the 2014 Crimean crisis, the pro-Russian City Council threw its support behind Russian citizen Alexei Chaly as the "people's mayor" and said it would not recognise orders from Kyiv.[33][34] After the Accession of Crimea to the Russian Federation, the mayor is appointed by the legislature branch on nomination of the Russian President,[35] and officially the mayor is called the Governor of Sevastopol City

Administrative and municipal divisions

Being a disputed territory, Sevastopol has two sets of laws governing how its administrative and municipal divisions are set up. Under both Ukrainian and Russian laws, the city is administratively divided into four districts.

Districts of Sevastopol:
  Gagarin Raion (Gagarinsky District)
  Lenin Raion (Leninsky District)
  Nakhimov Raion (Nakhimovsky District)
  Balaklava Raion (Balaklavsky District)

Under the Ukrainian laws, the districts have both administrative and municipal status, while under the Russian laws the districts are purely administrative and have no further divisions. Within the Russian municipal framework, however, the territory of the federal city of Sevastopol is divided into nine municipal okrugs and the Town of Inkerman. While individual municipal divisions are contained within the borders of the administrative districts, they are not otherwise related to the administrative districts.

Economy

Apart from navy-related civil facilities, Sevastopol hosts some other notable industries. An example is Stroitel, one of the leading plastic manufacturers in Russia.

The city received millions of US Dollars in compensation for hosting the Russian Black Sea Fleet from the Russian and the Ukrainian government.

Infrastructure

Trolleybuses ZiU-9 in Sevastopol

There are 7 types of transport in Sevastopol:

  • Bus – 337 routes
  • Trolleybus – 19 routes
  • Minibus – 52 routes
  • Cutter – 18 routes
  • Ferry – 2 routes
  • Express-bus – 15 routes
  • HEV-train{local, suburban route} – 1 route
  • Airport - 1

Sevastopol Shipyard comprises three facilities that together repair, modernize, and re-equip Russian Naval ships and submarines.[36] The Sevastopol International Airport is used as a military aerodrome at the moment and being reconstructed to be used by international airlines.

Sevastopol maintains a large port facility in the Bay of Sevastopol and in smaller bays around the Heracles peninsula. The port handles traffic from passengers (local transportation and cruise), cargo, and commercial fishing. The port infrastructure is fully integrated with the city of Sevastopol and naval bases of the Black Sea Fleet.

Panorama of the Sevastopol port entrance (left) with its monument to Russian ships which were sunk in the Crimean war to blockade the harbor (far right side).

Tourism

After World War II, Sevastopol was entirely rebuilt. Many top architects and civil engineers from Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and other cities and thousands of workers from all parts of the USSR took part in the rebuilding process which was mostly finished by the mid-1950s. The downtown core situated on a peninsula between two narrow inlets, South Bay and Artillery Bay, features mostly Mediterranean-style, three-story residential buildings with columned balconies and Venetian-style arches, with retail and commercial spaces occupying the ground level. Some carefully restored landmarks date back to the early 20th century (e.g., the Art Nouveau Main Post Office on Bolshaya Morskaya St and the Art Museum on Nakhimovsky Prospect). It has been a long-time tradition for the residents of surrounding suburbs to spend summer evenings by coming to the downtown area for a leisurely stroll with their families along the avenues and boulevards encircling the Central Hill, under the famous Sevastopol chestnut trees, and usually ending up on the waterfront with its famous Marine Boulevard.

Due to its military history, most streets in the city are named after Russian and Soviet military heroes. There are hundreds of monuments and plaques in various parts of Sevastopol commemorating its military past.

Attractions include:

  • Chersonessos National Archeological Reserve
  • Sevastopol Art Museum named after the N.P.Kroshitskiy
  • Sevastopol Museum of Local History
  • Aquarium-Museum of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • Dolphinarium of Sevastopol
  • Sevastopol Zoo
  • The Monument to the scuttled ships on the Marine Boulevard
  • The Panorama Museum (The Heroic Defence of Sevastopol during the Crimean War)
  • Malakhov Kurgan (Barrow) with its White Tower
  • Admirals' Burial Vault
  • The Black Sea Fleet Museum
  • The Storming of Sapun-gora of May 7, 1944, the Diorama Museum (World War II)
  • Naval museum complex "Balaklava", decommissioned underground submarine base, now opened to the public
  • Cheremetieff brothers museum "Crimean war 1853-1856"
  • Museum of the underground forces of 1942—1944
  • Museum Historical Memorial Complex "35th Coastal Battery"
  • The Naval Museum "Michael's battery"
  • Fraternal (Communal) War Cemetery (Sevastopol)

Demographics

The population of Sevastopol proper is 342,451 (2001), making it the 15th largest city in Ukraine and the largest in Crimea. City agglomeration has population 961,885 (2008). According to the Ukrainian National Census, 2001, the ethnic groups of Sevastopol include Russians (71.6%), Ukrainians (22.4%), Belarusians (1.6%), Tatars (0.7%), Crimean Tatars (0.5%), Armenians (0.3%), Jews (0.3%), Moldovans (0.2%), and Azerbaijanis (0.2%).[37]

Age structure
0–14 years old male 27,856 / female 26,532 (14.3% Increase)
15–64 years old male 126,918 / female 141,304 (70.3% Decrease)
65 years and over male 19,038 / female 39,826 (15.4% Increase)
Source:[citation needed][disputed ]
Median age
Male 36.0 years Increase
Female 44.6 years Steady
Total 40.2 years Increase
Source:[citation needed]

Culture

There are many historical buildings in the central and eastern parts of the city and Balaklava, some of which are architectural monuments. The Western districts have modern architecture. More recently, numerous skyscrapers have been built. Balaklava Bayfront Plaza (On Hold), currently under construction, will be one of the tallest buildings in Ukraine, at 173 m (568 ft) with 43 floors.[38]

After the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea the city's monument to Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny was removed and handed over to Kharkiv.[39]

Sister cities

Gallery

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Севастополь перешел на российскую нумерацию". sevastopol.gov.ru. 
  3. ^ "Русский язык стал государственным в Севастополе, Донецкой и Запорожской обл (Russkiy yazyk stal regional'nym v Sevastopole, Donetskoy i Zaporozhskoy obl)" [Russian became regional in Sevastopol, Donetsk and Zaporizhia region]. Ros Business Consulting (in Russian) (RU). 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Merriam-Webster. 
  5. ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  6. ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  7. ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  8. ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  9. ^ "Sevastopol", The Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia, UK: Leksika 
  10. ^ "Sevastopol", The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, RU: Yandex 
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  12. ^ a b c d "Українське життя в Севастополi Михайло ЛУКІНЮК ОБЕРЕЖНО: МІФИ! Міф про юридичну належність Севастополя Росії". archive.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. 
  13. ^ http://slovari.yandex.ru/~%D0%BA%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%B8/%D0%91%D0%A1%D0%AD/%D0%A1%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C/
  14. ^ "小褌邪褌褜懈 / 谐邪蟹械褌邪 肖谢芯褌 校泻褉邪褩薪懈: 袩袨效孝袠 50 袥袝孝 袧袗袟袗袛. 小袝袙袗小孝袨袩袨袥鞋 袙 1955 袚袨袛校". archive.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. 
  15. ^ Secession as an International Phenomenon: From America's Civil War to Contemporary Separatist Movements edited by Don Harrison Doyle (page 284)
  16. ^ Schmemann, Serge (July 10, 1993), "Russian Parliament Votes a Claim to Russian Port of Sevastopol", The New York Times 
  17. ^ People, CN, December 28, 2005 
  18. ^ http://ua.pravda.com.ua/news/2007/2/21/54793.htm
  19. ^ "Calm sea in Sevastopol", Kyiv Post, September 4, 2009 [dead link]
  20. ^ "Sevastopol authorities asking to raise compensation fees for Russian Black Sea Fleet's basing", Kyiv Post, July 28, 2009 [dead link]
  21. ^ "Parliamentary chaos as Ukraine ratifies fleet deal", World (UK: BBC), 27 April 2010 
  22. ^ "Севастополь принял решение о вхождении в состав РФ : Новости УНИАН". Unian.net. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  23. ^ "Парламент Крыма принял Декларацию о независимости АРК и г. Севастополя [Crimean parliament adopted the Declaration of Independence of the ARC and Sevastopol]" (in Russian). 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  24. ^ a b "ВС Крыма принял незаконное решение о проведении референдума – Турчинов". unian.net. 
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