T-12 antitank gun
|2A19 (T-12) 100mm anti-tank gun|
T-12 displayed in the Artillery Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1955 – present|
|Used by||See Operators|
Invasion of Dagestan
War in Donbass
|Weight||2,750 kg (6,060 lb)|
|Length||9.48 m (31 ft 1 in)|
|Barrel length||63 calibers|
|Width||1.795 m (5 ft 11 in)|
|Height||1.565 m (5 ft 2 in)|
|Caliber||100 millimetres (3.9 in)|
|Carriage||Transport: Ural-375D (6x6)
On road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off road: 15 km/h (9 mph)
|Elevation||−6° to +20°|
|Traverse||27° left or right|
|Rate of fire||14 rpm (max possible)
10 rpm (max likely)
4 to 6 rpm (typical)
|Muzzle velocity||See Ammunition|
|Maximum firing range||See Ammunition|
The T-12 entered service in 1955, replacing the BS-3 100 mm field gun. It was typically deployed in the anti-tank units of armoured and motor rifle regiments to protect flanks against counter-attacks during rapid advances.
In 1970, it was replaced in production by the T-12A or MT-12 "Rapira", which features a new smooth bore gun, the 100 mm 2A29 gun, as well as a redesigned carriage and gun-shield to protect the crew from machine gun fire and shell splinters. Thanks to the redesigned carriage, which has a bigger wheel base, the MT-12 can be towed by the MT-LB, at speeds up to 60 km/h on road or 25 km/h cross-country.
The 2A29R "Ruta" or MT-12R is a version with a RLPK-1 radar for engaging targets in a poor visibility environment (smoke/fog). From 1981, the gun could fire laser beam-riding guided missiles 9M117 Kastet (weapon system 9K116) and carried the new designator 2A29K "Kastet" or MT-12K.
The weapon was planned to be superseded by the 2A45 Sprut-B 125 mm smooth bore anti-tank gun. Modern western tanks' frontal armour protection is in excess of what can be penetrated by a 100 mm gun from anything but point-blank range – even using the most modern APFSDS round. For a tank that can manoeuvre to take advantage of the enemy's weaknesses this is less of a problem – but for a weapon that is primarily defensive, this is a serious problem. Today, the T-12 is applied mostly in the role of ordinary artillery, using FRAG-HE shells.
The gun requires a crew of six: commander, driver of the towing vehicle, gun layer, loader, and two ammunition crewmen. When the MT-LB is used as the transporter, 20 rounds are typically carried (10 APFSDS, 4 HE-Frag, 6 HEAT). Since the weapon is a smoothbore, all the ammunition is finned for accuracy during flight.
The standard equipment consists of the panoramic PG-1M sight for indirect fire, and an OP4M-40U telescope for direct fire. The APN-5-40 or APN-6-40 are used for direct fire by night.
The gun can be fitted with the LO-7 ski gear for travel across snow or swampy ground.
Note: penetration numbers for RHA at 90 degrees.
- Round weight: 19.34 kg (42.6 lb)
- Projectile weight: 5.65 kg (12.5 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 1,575 m/s (5,170 ft/s)
- Maximum range: 3,000 m (3,300 yd)
- 230 mm at 500 m (9 in at 550 yd)
- 180 mm at 2,000 m (7 in at 2,200 yd)
- 140 mm at 3,000 m (5.5 in at 3,300 yd)
- Round weight: 19.9 kg (44 lb)
- Projectile weight: 4.55 kg (10.0 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 1,548 m/s (5,080 ft/s)
- Maximum range: 3,000 m (3,300 yd)
- Penetration: 225 mm at 1000 m (8.8 in at 1100 yd)
- Interestingly the 3BM6 HVAPDS ammunition, fired out of the otherwise identical D-10 tank gun, could penetrate 290 mm of armour at 2000 m.
- Round weight: 23.1 kg (51 lb)
- Projectile weight: 9.5 kg (21 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 975 m/s (3,200 ft/s)
- Maximum range: 1,000 m (1,100 yd)
- Penetration: 400 mm (16 in) 
- Round weight: 28.9 kg (64 lb)
- Projectile weight: 16.7 kg (37 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 700 m/s (2,300 ft/s)
- Maximum range (indirect): 8,200 m (9,000 yd)
- 9K117 Kastet 3UBK10/3UBK10M
Beam riding laser guided projectile.
- Round weight: 24.5 kg (54 lb)
- Projectile weight: 17.6 kg (39 lb)
- Average speed: 300 m/s (980 ft/s)
- Range: 100–5,000 m (110–5,470 yd)
- Penetration: 550–600 mm (22–24 in)
According to Jane's Armour and Artillery, the following countries have or had the T-12 and/or MT-12 in service:
- Algeria - 12
- Armenia - 36
- Azerbaijan - 30
- Belarus - 40
- Bosnia-Herzegovina - 90
- Bulgaria - 200
- Croatia - 133
- Georgia - 50
- Hungary - 106
- Kazakhstan - 125
- Kyrgyzstan - 15
- Moldova - 36
- Mongolia - 25+
- Russia - est. 6,000
- Turkmenistan - 48
- Ukraine - 400
- Uzbekistan - 39
- Soviet Union - passed onto successor states.
- Yugoslavia - 138, passed onto successor states.
- Iraq - most destroyed in 1991 Gulf War or 2003 Invasion, none remain in service after 2003.
- A407 - This artillery system was designed by Arsenal-Resita and is very similar to the MT-12. It can fire the same range of ammunition as the T-54/55 tank and has a maximum range of 2,200 m (HEAT) or 4,000 m (APC-T). Subversions are the A407M1 and the A407M2. In Romanian Army service, the A407 is known as the 100 mm anti-tank gun M1977 (Romanian: Tun antitanc calibrul 100-mm Model 1977) and is normally towed by the DAC 887R truck. It can also be towed with the DAC 665T truck. The Model 2002 is an improved version, fitted with the automatic fire control system TAT-100.
People's Republic of China
- Type 73 - This appears to be a copy of the Soviet T-12.
- Type 86 - This is a 100mm smoothbore anti-tank gun that has some similarities with the 85mm Type 56 (D-44). It fires ammunition of the fixed type, including the Type 73 HE, Type 73 HEAT, Type 73 APFSDS and Type 86 APFSDS to a maximum range of 1,800 m.
- List of anti-tank guns
- List of military equipment of Croatia
- List of artillery of the Soviet Union and Russia
- Hull, A.W., Markov, D.R., Zaloga, S.J. (1999). Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.
- Foss, F., Christopher, Artillery of the World
- USA Today article - http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-25-war-zone_x.htm
- 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/698.pdf
- 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/697.pdf
- 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/696.pdf
- MT-12 http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/99.pdf
- Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006
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