2S1 Gvozdika

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2S1 (SAU-122)
Slovak 2S1 Gvozdika.jpg
TypeSelf-propelled artillery
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1972–present
Used bysee Operators
WarsSoviet–Afghan War
Iran–Iraq War
Gulf War
War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)
Yugoslav Wars
Kosovo War
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
Iraq War
2008 South Ossetia War
Russo-Georgian War
First Libyan Civil War
Second Libyan Civil War
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Production history
DesignerKharkiv Tractor Plant
No. builtmore than 10,000
Variantssee Variants
Mass16 tonnes (35,273 lbs)
Length7.26 m (23 ft 10 in)
Width2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)
Height2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)

Shell122 x 447mm .R
separate loading, cased charge
Caliber122 mm
BreechHorizontal sliding-wedge, semi-automatic
Elevation-3 to +70 degrees
Traverse360 degrees
Rate of fireMaximum: 5 rpm
Sustained: 1-2 rpm
Muzzle velocity680 m/s (2,200 ft/s)
Maximum firing rangeConventional: 15.3 km (9.5 mi)
Extended: 21.9 km (13.6 mi)

Armor20 mm (.78 in)
2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer
EngineYaMZ-238N diesel
220 kW (300 hp)
Suspensiontorsion bar
500 km (310 mi)
Maximum speed Road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off-road: 30 km/h (18 mph)
Swim: 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph)

The 2S1 Gvozdika (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика», "Carnation") is a Soviet self-propelled howitzer based on the MT-LBu multi-purpose chassis, mounting a 122 mm 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of track widths are available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infrared night-vision capability.


The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment the commander sits on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 utilizes a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a power rammer, a double-baffle muzzle brake and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP, armor-piercing HE, flechette and chemical rounds.[1][2]

Production history[edit]

The first prototype was ready in 1958. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). It was designated the M1974 by the U.S. Army and manufactured in Soviet, Polish and Bulgarian state factories.


Former Soviet Union/Russia[edit]

2S8 Astra
  • 2S34 Hosta – Modernisation of the 2S1 with the 122 mm 2A31 gun replaced by the 120 mm 2A80-1 gun-mortar. Further improvements include a new Malakhit fire control system, a battlefield observation system and the ability to fire the Kitolov-2M guided ammunition. One unit, the 21st Mechanized Brigade in Totskoye is currently being equipped with the system.
  • 2S15 Norov – A prototype tank destroyer equipped with a radar-based fire control system and a 100 mm gun.[3]
  • 2S8 Astra


  • Kevlar-EInfantry fighting vehicle based on the 2S1 platform, equipped with Shturm remote weapon station and room for 6 passengers in addition to the 3 crew. The original 300 horsepower V8 diesel engine has been replaced with 420 horsepower diesel engine, produced by Caterpillar, Cummins or Deutz, increasing the maximum road speed to 70 km/h. Additionally, the vehicle is amphibious, includes air conditioning, a fire detection and suppression system, an NBC system, navigation system and night-vision equipment. The variant was first introduced in April 2018.[4]


The 2S1 Gvozdika (as well as other related vehicles such as the MT-LB and Opal) were produced in Poland by Huta Stalowa Wola under the name 2S1 Goździk.

  • 2S1M Goździk – Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
  • 2S1T Goździk – Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the AHS Krab, Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta.


  • OAPR model 89 (Obuzierul autopropulsat românesc, model 89) – Romanian variant combining the 2S1 Gvozdika's turret and a modified version of the MLI-84's chassis. Designed around 1978, produced between 1987-92. Also simply known as Model 89.[5][6]


  • Raad-1 ('thunder') – Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.


  • 2S1U – In March 2019, a Ukrainian company[who?] and the Myanmar military have signed a joint-venture agreement to build a plant capable of manufacturing armored personnel carriers (APCs) and self-propelled howitzers. The types of APCs that will be made in the plant are said to be eight-wheeled BTR-4Us while the howitzers will be 2S1Us, which are based on the MT-LBu multipurpose chassis.[7][8]


Map of 2S1 operators in blue with former operators in red
Croatian Army 2S1 Gvozdika
Polish Land Forces 2S1 Gvozdika at artillery range
Romanian Model 89, using the 2S1's turret on the MLI-84's chassis
An Iraqi M-1974 howitzer lies stranded in the desert after being deserted by Iraqi forces during the Persian Gulf War's Operation Desert Storm.

Current operators[edit]

Former operators[edit]

Combat history[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Marat Kenzhetaev (1998). "Self Propelled Artillery and Mortars". armscontrol.ru. MIPT Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies. Archived from the original on 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
  2. ^ "2S1 M-1974 122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer". GlobalSecurity.org. 2008-11-09. Archived from the original on 2010-03-15. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
  3. ^ "САУ 2С15 "Норов". СССР". Archived from the original on 2014-04-21. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
  4. ^ Foss, Christopher F (29 April 2018). "Ukraine re-roles 2S1 SPH for infantry combat". IHS Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  5. ^ http://www.worldwar2.ro/documents/004-artileria-romana-in-date-si-imagini.pdf, p. 164
  6. ^ https://tanks-encyclopedia.com/coldwar-romania-model-89/
  7. ^ "myanmar-ukrainian firming aims plant deal".
  8. ^ "joint venture to supply ukrainian apcs to myanmar army".
  9. ^ "Belarus Army Equipment" Archived 2017-02-16 at the Wayback Machine, GlobalSecurity
  10. ^ https://www.altair.com.pl/news/view?news_id=14507
  11. ^ IISS Military Balance 2020, p.469
  12. ^ "Deagel.com". Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
  13. ^ https://www.altair.com.pl/news/view?news_id=14507
  14. ^ Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – info@warfare.ru. "2s1 Gvozdika Self-Propelled Howitzer | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  15. ^ Hərbi TV (31 October 2016). "Turkmenistan Military Parade 2016". YouTube (in Turkmen). Ashgabat. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Ground Forces Equipment – Ukraine". Archived from the original on 2017-07-07. Retrieved 2007-09-07.
  17. ^ https://www.defence24.pl/kolejne-haubice-gozdzik-trafia-na-ukraine
  18. ^ http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php
  19. ^ Kočevar, Iztok (August 2014). "Micmac à tire-larigot chez Tito: L'arme blindée yougoslave durant la Guerre froide" [The Yugoslav armored arm during the Cold War]. Batailles et Blindés (in French). No. 62. Caraktère. pp. 66–79. ISSN 1765-0828.
  20. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KeOQb21AsQo
  • Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: Amber Books. p. 124. ISBN 0-7607-1260-3.

External links[edit]