2S12 Sani

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2S12 "Sani"
2S12 Sani (heavy mortar system).jpg
2S12 Sani
Type Heavy mortar
Place of origin Soviet Union / Russia
Service history
In service 1981 – present
Wars Soviet war in Afghanistan, First and Second Chechen Wars
Production history
Designed 1981
Manufacturer Uraltransmash Works (Ekaterinburg, Russia)
Motovilikha Plants Corporation (Perm, Russia)
No. built 1500+ pieces
Specifications
Weight 190.5 kg (420 lb) without transport chassis
Crew 4 gunners, 1 commander (plus 2 prime mover crew)

Shell 120 mm HE mortar bombs
Carriage 2F510 2x1 wheeled transport chassis, GAZ-66 4×4 truck (prime mover)
Elevation 45°–80°
Traverse ±5° from center
Rate of fire 12 rds per minute[1]
Effective firing range Minimum: 0.5 km (0.31 mi)
Maximum: 7.1 km (4.4 mi)
Sights MPM-44M graduated sight

The 2S12 "Sani" (GRAU index) is a 120 mm heavy mortar system used by the Russian Army and other former Soviet states.[2] First fielded in 1981, the 2S12 is a continued development on the towed mortars first used in World War II.

Design[edit]

2S12 and the GAZ transport truck as described, shown in a US Army manual.

2S12 is in fact the designator for the combination of the 2B11 "Sani" heavy mortar with its transport vehicle 2F510, a GAZ-66-15 4x4 truck. The 2B11 weighs nearly 500 lb when fully assembled, and thus must be mounted to the 2x1 wheeled chassis 2L81 and towed to the emplacement site by the truck. The GAZ-66 prime mover also transports the ammo load: 24 70-lb crates of 120mm HE mortar bombs, 2 bombs per crate, for a total of 48 available rounds.[3]

Once on site, it is unloaded from the transport chassis and manually emplaced by the crew of 5. It is the largest caliber indirect artillery employed at the battalion level.

There is also an improved model, the 2B11M, that can fire the laser-guided round "Gran" with a range of 7,500 m.[4] 2S12A and 2S12B improved models are in service now.[5] 2S12A got a new "Ural" family transport vehicle with high power diesel engine and electric hoist for loading the mortar and a new base plate with a hinge that allows for pointing horizontally without turning the heavy support.[6][7][8][9]

Variants[edit]

Some countries have developed self-propelled versions of the 2B11:

  • SMM 74 B1.10 "Tundzha-Sani" – Bulgarian version on MT-LB.
  • SM120 – Belarusian version on MT-LBu.
  • Aybat – Kazakh version on MT-LB.

Operators[edit]

Map with 2S12 operators in blue and former operators in red

Current operators[edit]

Former operators[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]