Tetragnatha

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Tetragnatha
Temporal range: Palaeogene– Present
Tetragnatha.extensa.female.jpg
female T. extensa
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Tetragnathidae
Genus: Tetragnatha
Latreille, 1804[1]
Type species
T. extensa
Species

323, see text

Synonyms[1]
  • Arundognatha Wiehle, 1963[2]
  • Eucta Simon, 1881[2]
  • Prionolaema Simon, 1894[3]

Tetragnatha is a genus of long-jawed orb-weavers found all over the world. It was first described by Pierre André Latreille in 1804,[4] and it contains hundreds of species. Most occur in the tropics and subtropics, and many can run over water. They are commonly called stretch spiders in reference to their elongated body form and their ability to hide on blades of grass or similar elongated substrates by stretching their front legs forward and the others behind them. The name Tetragnatha is derived from Greek, tetra- a numerical prefix referring to four and gnatha meaning "jaw". On the Hawaiian islands, a shift of cursorial behavior occurred long ago, when their ancestors first arrived on the island chain.[5]

One of the biggest and most common species is T. extensa, which has a holarctic distribution. It can be found near lakes, river banks or swamps.[6] Large numbers of individuals can often be found in reeds, tall grass, and around minor trees and shrubs.

Species[edit]

As of November 2019 it contains 323 species and ten subspecies, found all over the world, including Greenland:[1]

In synonymy:

  • T. aduncata Wang, 1991 = Tetragnatha hasselti Thorell, 1890
  • T. alba F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903 = Tetragnatha laboriosa Hentz, 1850
  • T. amplidens Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. andina Taczanowski, 1878 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. anirensis Strand, 1915 = Tetragnatha biseriata Thorell, 1881
  • T. antillana Simon, 1897 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. apheles Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Tetragnatha mexicana Keyserling, 1865
  • T. aptans Chamberlin, 1920 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. banksi McCook, 1894 = Tetragnatha guatemalensis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889
  • T. bemalcuei Mello-Leitão, 1939 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. borealis L. Koch, 1879 = Tetragnatha dearmata Thorell, 1873
  • T. boydi O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. boydi Tullgren, 1910 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. caporiaccoi Platnick, 1993 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. casula Walckenaer, 1841 = Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. cliens Chamberlin, 1924 = Tetragnatha nigrita Lendl, 1886
  • T. conformans Chamberlin, 1924 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. confraterna Banks, 1909 = Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. convexa Banks, 1898 = Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. coreana Seo & Paik, 1981 = Tetragnatha vermiformis Emerton, 1884
  • T. culicivora Walckenaer, 1841 = Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. decipiens Badcock, 1932 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. dentigera F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903 = Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. earmra Levi, 1981 = Tetragnatha gracilis (Bryant, 1923)
  • T. eitapensis Strand, 1913 = Tetragnatha ceylonica O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869
  • T. elmora Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. ethodon Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. festina Bryant, 1945 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. filiformis (Audouin, 1826) = Tetragnatha flava (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. foliifera Simon, 1898 = Tetragnatha demissa L. Koch, 1872
  • T. fraterna Banks, 1898 = Tetragnatha guatemalensis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889
  • T. fuerteventurensis Wunderlich, 1992 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. galapagoensis Banks, 1902 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. graciliventris Schenkel, 1963 = Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. grenda Roberts, 1983 = Tetragnatha demissa L. Koch, 1872
  • T. groenlandica Thorell, 1872 = Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • T. haitiensis Bryant, 1945 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. harrodi Levi, 1951 = Tetragnatha dearmata Thorell, 1873
  • T. heatwolei Chrysanthus, 1975 = Tetragnatha bituberculata L. Koch, 1867
  • T. hotingchiehi Schenkel, 1963 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. huahinensis Berland, 1942 = Tetragnatha macilenta L. Koch, 1872
  • T. infuscata Benoit, 1978 = Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. intermedia Banks, 1898 = Tetragnatha guatemalensis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889
  • T. japonica Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. kaestneri (Crome, 1954) = Tetragnatha reimoseri (Rosca, 1939)
  • T. kochi Thorell, 1895 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. kovblyuki Marusik, 2010 = Tetragnatha shoshone Levi, 1981
  • T. laudativa Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936 = Tetragnatha guatemalensis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889
  • T. limnocharis Seeley, 1928 = Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. listeri Gravely, 1921 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. mackenziei Gravely, 1921 = Tetragnatha vermiformis Emerton, 1884
  • T. maderiana Schenkel, 1938 (described as subspecies of T. extensa) = Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • T. mandibulata Gravely, 1921 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. manitoba Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • T. marianna Archer, 1940 = Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. maxillosa Thorell, 1895 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. maxillosa Strand, 1911 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. modesta Hirst, 1911 = Tetragnatha ceylonica O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869
  • T. munda Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1929 = Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. necatoria Tullgren, 1910 = Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. nigrita Strand, 1906 = Tetragnatha praedonia L. Koch, 1878
  • T. nitens (Hogg, 1911) = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. nitens Wiehle, 1962 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. numa Levi & Levi, 1955 = Tetragnatha laboriosa Hentz, 1850
  • T. obtusa Kulczyński, 1891 = Tetragnatha dearmata Thorell, 1873
  • T. pelusia (Audouin, 1826) = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. peninsulana Banks, 1898 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. peruviana Taczanowski, 1878 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. petrunkevitchi Caporiacco, 1947 = Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. pinea Seeley, 1928 = Tetragnatha viridis Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. potanini Schenkel, 1963 = Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • T. producta (Franganillo, 1930) = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. propioides Schenkel, 1936 = Tetragnatha keyserlingi Simon, 1890
  • T. punctipes Westring, 1874 = Tetragnatha dearmata Thorell, 1873
  • T. qiuae Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003 = Tetragnatha shoshone Levi, 1981
  • T. quadridens Dondale, 1966 = Tetragnatha demissa L. Koch, 1872
  • T. ramboi Mello-Leitão, 1943 = Tetragnatha bogotensis Keyserling, 1865
  • T. recurva Schenkel, 1936 = Tetragnatha squamata Karsch, 1879
  • T. rusticana Chickering, 1959 = Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • T. sanctitata Walckenaer, 1841 = Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. seminola Gertsch, 1936 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. seneca Seeley, 1928 = Tetragnatha guatemalensis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889
  • T. shikokiana Yaginuma, 1960 = Tetragnatha vermiformis Emerton, 1884
  • T. siduo Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. soaresi Camargo, 1950 = Tetragnatha longidens Mello-Leitão, 1945
  • T. steckleri Gertsch & Ivie, 1936 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
  • T. trapezoides Walckenaer, 1841 = Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. tropica O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889 = Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer, 1841
  • T. valoka Chrysanthus, 1975 = Tetragnatha biseriata Thorell, 1881
  • T. vermiventris Schenkel, 1963 = Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890)
  • T. vicina Simon, 1897 = Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Gen. Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804". World Spider Catalog Version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern. 2019. doi:10.24436/2. Retrieved 2019-12-01.
  2. ^ a b Levi, H. W. (1981). "The American orb-weaver genera Dolichognatha and Tetragnatha north of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae, Tetragnathinae)". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 149: 282.
  3. ^ Dimitrov, D.; Álvarez-Padilla, F.; Hormiga, G. (2008). "Until dirt do us apart: On the unremarkable palp morphology of the spider Sternospina concretipalpis Schmidt & Krause, 1993, with comments on the genus Prionolaema Simon, 1894 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae)". Zootaxa. 1698: 51.
  4. ^ Latreille, P. A. (1804). "Tableau methodique des Insectes". Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 24: 129–295.
  5. ^ Gillespie, R.G.; Croom, H.B.; Palumbi, S.R. (1994). "Multiple origins of a spider radiation in Hawaii". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 91 (6): 2290–2294. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.6.2290. PMC 43356. PMID 8134390.
  6. ^ Hänggi, Ambros; Stöckli, Edi; Nentwig, Wolfgang (1995). Lebensräume Mitteleuropäischer Spinnen. Miscellanea Faunistica Helvetiae – Centre suisse de cartographie de la faune, Neuchatel. ISBN 2-88414-008-5.

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