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11th century (1001–1100 CE / 391–494 AH)
- 1001: Mahmud of Ghazni defeats the Hindu Shahis at Peshawar.
- 1004: Mahmud of Ghazni captures Bhatiya.
- 1005: Mahmud of Ghazni captures Multan and Ghur.
- 1008: Mahmud of Ghazni defeats the Rajput confederacy.
- 1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad II.
- 1011: In Spain Muhammad II is overthrown by Sulaiman II.
- 1012: In Spain, power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha' al-Dawla, accession of Sultan al-Dawla.
- 1016: Death of the Zirid ruler Nasir al-Dawla Badis; accession of Al Muizz.
- 1018: In Spain, power is captured by Abd-ar-Rahman IV.
- 1019: Conshest of the Punjab by Mahmud of Ghazni.
- 1020: The Buwayhid Sultan al-Dawla is overthrown by Musharrif al-Dawla. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Ali az-Zahir.
- 1024: In Spain, assassination of Abd-ar-Rahman IV.
- 1025: Death of the Buwayhid Musharrif al-Dawla, accession of Jalal al-Dawla.
- 1029: In Spain, death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.
- 1030: Death of Mahmud of Ghazni.
- 1031: In Spain, deposition of Hisham III, and end of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Qadir, accession of al-Qa'im.
- 1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ali az-Zahir, accession of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah Toghrül is crowned as the king of the Seljuqs.
- 1037: Seljuq Turks under Tuğrul Bey sack the city of Ghazni.
- 1040: Battle of Dandanaqan, the Seljuqs defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Mas'ud I of Ghazni Sultan, accession of Mohammad Ghaznavi. Al Moravids come to power in North Africa.
- 1041: The Ghaznavid Sultan Mohammad Ghaznavi is overthrown by Maw'dud Ghaznavi.
- 1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal al-Dawla, accession of Abu Kalijar.
- 1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.
- 1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to the Abbasids.
- 1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik al-Rahim.
- 1050: Yusuf ibn Tashfin comes to power in the Maghrib.
- 1055: Tuğrul Bey overthrows the Buwayhids.
- 1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al-Qa'im and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.
- 1059: Tuğrul Bey recaptures power in Baghdad, Al-Qa'im is restored as the Caliph.
- 1060: Ibrahim of Ghazna becomes the Sultan. Yusuf ibn Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie.
- 1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin.
- 1063: Death of the Seljuq Sultan Tuğrul Bey accession of Alp Arslan.
- 1064 Seljuk army under Alp Arslan captured Ani and slaughtered its population
- 1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor Romanos IV is taken captive by the Seljuq Turks.
- 1073: Death of Alp Arslan, accession of Malik Shah. Badr al-Jamali takes power as the vizier of the Fatimid Caliphate.
- 1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Qa'im, accession of Al-Muqtadi.
- 1077: Seljuq Turks found Sultanate of Rûm in Turkey.
- 1082: The Almoravids conquer Algeria.
- 1085: After a four-year siege, Toledo delivers itself up to Alfonso VI.
- 1086: Battle of Zallakha. The Almoravids defeat the Christians in Spain.
- 1086: Death of Suleyman I of Rum, accession of Kilij Arslan I.
- 1090: Hassan-i Sabbah captures Alamut, making it an Isma'ilite stronghold.
- 1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.
- 1092: Death of the Seljuq Sultan Malik Shah I, accession of Mahmud I of Great Seljuq.
- 1094: Death of Seljuq Sultan Mahmud I; accession of Barkiyaruq. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.
- 1095: The first crusade.
- 1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 5 per cent of the total.
Timeline of Muslim history
- ^ Pradeep Barua, The State At War In South Asia, (University of Nebraska Press, 2009), 25.