Somnath temple

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Somnath temple
Image of temple
Front view of the present Somnath Temple
DistrictGir Somnath
DeitySomnath (Shiva)
FestivalsMaha Shivaratri
Governing bodyShree Somnath Trust of Gujarat
Somnath temple is located in Gujarat
Somnath temple
Location within Gujarat
Geographic coordinates20°53′16.9″N 70°24′5.0″E / 20.888028°N 70.401389°E / 20.888028; 70.401389Coordinates: 20°53′16.9″N 70°24′5.0″E / 20.888028°N 70.401389°E / 20.888028; 70.401389
TypeHindu temple architecture
Completed1951 (present structure)

The Somnath temple located in Prabhas Patan near Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat, is believed to be the first among the twelve jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva.[1] It is an important pilgrimage and tourist spot of Gujarat. Reconstructed several times in the past after repeated destruction by several Muslim invaders and rulers,[2][3][4][5][6] the present temple was reconstructed in Chaulukya style of Hindu temple architecture and completed in May 1951. The reconstruction was started under the orders of the Home Minister of India Vallabhbhai Patel and completed after his death.[7][8]


The temple is considered sacred due to the various legends connected to it. Somnath means "Lord of the Soma", an epithet of Shiva.

The Somnath temple is known as "the Shrine Eternal", following a book of K. M. Munshi by this title and his narration of the temple's destruction and reconstruction many times in history.[9]


According to tradition, the Shivalinga in Somnath is one of the 12 jyotirlingas in India, where Shiva is believed to have appeared as a fiery column of light. The jyotirlingas are taken as the supreme, undivided reality out of which Shiva partly appears.[10][11]

Each of the 12 jyotirlinga sites take the name of a different manifestation of Shiva.[12] At all these sites, the primary image is a lingam representing the beginning-less and endless stambha (pillar), symbolizing the infinite nature of Shiva.[12][13][14] In addition to the one at Somnath, the others are at Varanasi, Rameswaram, Dwarka, etc.[15][16]


The site of Somnath has been a pilgrimage site from ancient times on account of being a Triveni sangam (the confluence of three rivers: Kapila, Hiran and Sarasvati). Soma, the Moon god, is believed to have lost his lustre due to a curse, and he bathed in the Sarasvati River at this site to regain it. The result is the waxing and waning of the moon, no doubt an allusion to the waxing and waning of the tides at this seashore location. The name of the town Prabhas, meaning lustre, as well as the alternative names Someshvar and Somnath ("The lord of the moon" or "the moon god") arise from this tradition.[17]

History of the temple[edit]

Accoring to popular tradition documented by J. Gordon Melton, the first Shiva temple at Somnath is believed to have been built at some unknown time in the past. The second temple is said to have been built at the same site by the "Yadava kings" of Vallabhi around 649 CE. In 725 CE, Al-Junayd, the Arab governor of Sindh is said to have destroyed the second temple as part of his invasions of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The Gurjara-Pratihara king Nagabhata II is said to have constructed the third temple in 815 CE, a large structure of red sandstone.[18]

However, there is historical record of an attack on Somnath by Al-Junayd. Nagabhata II is known to have visited tirthas in Saurashtra, including Someshvara (the Lord of the Moon), which may or may not be a reference to a Shiva temple because the town itself was known by that name.[19] The Chaulukya (Solanki) king Mularaja possibly built the first temple at the site sometime before 997 CE, even though some historians believe that he may have renovated a smaller earlier temple.[20]

Ruined Somnath temple, 1869

In 1024, during the reign of Bhima I, the prominent Turkic ruler Mahmud of Ghazni raided Gujarat, plundering the Somnath temple and breaking its jyotirlinga despite pleas by Brahmins not to break it.[21] He took away a booty of 20 million dinars.[2][3] Historians expect the damage to the temple by Mahmud to have been minimal because there are no records of pilgrimages to the temple till 1038, for 12 years no pilgrim due to damages [22] However, powerful legends with intricate detail developed in the Turko-Persian literature regarding Mahmud's raid,[23] which "electrified" the Muslim world according to scholar Meenakshi Jain.[24] They later boasted that Mahmud had killed 50,000 devotees. The devotees had tried to defend the temple from being vandalised and looted.[4][25]

The temple at the time of Mahmud's attack appears to have been a wooden structure, which is said to have decayed in time (kalajirnam). Kumarapala a Jain king, (r. 1143–72) rebuilt it in "excellent stone and studded it with jewels," according to an inscription in 1169.[26][27]

The temple was again destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.[28] During its 1299 invasion of Gujarat, Alauddin Khalji's army, led by Ulugh Khan, defeated the Vaghela king Karna, and sacked the Somnath temple.[29] Legends in the later texts Kanhadade Prabandha (15th century) and Khyat (17th century) state that the Jalore ruler Kanhadadeva later recovered the Somnath idol and freed the Hindu prisoners, after an attack on the Delhi army near Jalore.[30] However, other sources state that the idol was taken to Delhi, where it was thrown to be trampled under the feet of Muslims.[31] These sources include the contemporary and near-contemporary texts including Amir Khusrau's Khazainul-Futuh, Ziauddin Barani's Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi and Jinaprabha Suri's Vividha-tirtha-kalpa. It is possible that the story of Kanhadadeva's rescue of the Somnath idol is a fabrication by the later writers. Alternatively, it is possible that the Khalji army was taking multiple idols to Delhi, and Kanhadadeva's army retrieved one of them.[32]

The temple was rebuilt by Mahipala I, the Chudasama king of Saurashtra in 1308 and the lingam was installed by his son Khengara sometime between 1331 and 1351.[33] As late as the 14th century, Gujarati Muslim pilgrims were noted by Amir Khusrow to stop at that temple to pay their respects before departing for the Hajj pilgrimage.[34]

In 1395, the temple was destroyed for the third time by Zafar Khan, the last governor of Gujarat under the Delhi Sultanate and later founder of Gujarat Sultanate.[35] In 1451, it was desecrated by Mahmud Begada, the Sultan of Gujarat.[36]

By 1665, the temple, one of many, was ordered to be destroyed by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.[37] In 1701, he ordered the destruction of temple in such a manner that it can't be reconstructed again.[38] So, the temple was destroyed and a mosque was built at its place in 1706.[38][39][40]

'Proclamation of the Gates' incident during the Maratha period[edit]

In 1782–83, Maratha Shinde king of Gwalior, Mahadaji Shinde, victoriously brought back three silver gates from Lahore after defeating Mahmud Shah Abdali, to Somnath. After refusal from priests of Gujarat and the then ruler Gaekwad to put them back on Somnath temple, these silver gates were placed in the temples of Ujjain. Today they can be seen in two temples of India, Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga and Gopal Mandir of Ujjain.[41][42][43]

The Gates from the tomb of Mahmud of Ghazni stored in the Arsenal of Agra Fort – Illustrated London News, 1872

In 1842, Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough issued his Proclamation of the Gates, in which he ordered the British army in Afghanistan to return via Ghazni and bring back to India the sandalwood gates from the tomb of Mahmud of Ghazni in Ghazni, Afghanistan. These were believed to have been taken by Mahmud from Somnath. Under Ellenborough's instruction, General William Nott removed the gates in September 1842. A whole sepoy regiment, the 6th Jat Light Infantry, was detailed to carry the gates back to India[44] in triumph. However, on arrival, they were found not to be of Gujarati or Indian design, and not of Sandalwood, but of Deodar wood (native to Ghazni) and therefore not authentic to Somnath.[42][45] They were placed in the arsenal store-room of the Agra Fort where they still lie to the present day.[46][47] There was a debate in the House of Commons in London in 1843 on the question of the gates of the temple and Ellenbourough's role in the affair.[48][49] After much crossfire between the British Government and the opposition, all of the facts as we know them were laid out.

In the 19th century novel The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins, the diamond of the title is presumed to have been stolen from the temple at Somnath and, according to the historian Romila Thapar, reflects the interest aroused in Britain by the gates.[50]

Reconstruction during 1950–1951[edit]

K. M. Munshi with archaeologists and engineers of the Government of India, Bombay, and Saurashtra, with the ruins of Somnath Temple in the background, July 1950.

Before independence, Veraval was part of the Junagadh State, whose ruler had acceded to Pakistan in 1947. After India refused to accept his decision, the state was made a part of India and Deputy Prime Minister Patel came to Junagadh on 12 November 1947 to direct the stabilization of the state by the Indian Army and at the same time ordered the reconstruction of the Somnath temple.[51]

When Patel, K. M. Munshi and other leaders of the Congress went to Mahatma Gandhi with their proposal to reconstruct the Somnath temple, Gandhi blessed the move, but suggested that the funds for the construction should be collected from the public and the temple should not be funded by the state. He expressed that he was proud to associate himself to the project of renovation of the temple.[52] However, soon both Gandhi and Sardar Patel died and the task of reconstruction of the temple continued under Munshi, who was the Minister for Food and Civil Supplies, Government of India headed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.[52]

The ruins were pulled down in October 1950 and the mosque present at that site was shifted few kilometres away by using construction vehicles.[53] In May 1951, Rajendra Prasad, the first President of the Republic of India, invited by K M Munshi, performed the installation ceremony for the temple.[54] The President said in his address, "It is my view that the reconstruction of the Somnath Temple will be complete on that day when not only a magnificent edifice will arise on this foundation, but the mansion of India's prosperity will be really that prosperity of which the ancient temple of Somnath was a symbol.".[55] He added: "The Somnath temple signifies that the power of reconstruction is always greater than the power of destruction."[55]

Architecture of the present temple[edit]

Bāṇastambha (Arrow Pillar)

The present temple is built in the Chaulukya style of temple architecture or "Kailash Mahameru Prasad" style[56] and reflects the skill of the Sompura Salats, one of Gujarat's master masons. The temple's śikhara, or main spire, is 15 metres in height, and it has an 8.2-metre tall flag pole at the top.[56]

The temple is situated at such a place that there is no land in a straight line between Somnath seashore until Antarctica, such an inscription in Sanskrit is found on the Bāṇastambha (Sanskrit: बाणस्तम्भ, lit. arrow pillar) erected on the sea-protection wall. The Bāṇastambha mentions that it stands at a point on the Indian landmass that is the first point on land in the north to the South Pole at that particular longitude.[citation needed]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Somnath darshan". Official website of Somnath Temple. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b Yagnik & Sheth 2005, pp. 39–40.
  3. ^ a b Thapar 2004, pp. 36–37.
  4. ^ a b Catherine B. Asher, Cynthia Talbot. India before Europe. Sterling Publishers. p. 42.
  5. ^ Thapar 2004, pp. 68–69
  6. ^ Yagnik & Sheth 2005, p. 47-50.
  7. ^ Gopal, Ram (1994). Hindu culture during and after Muslim rule: survival and subsequent challenges. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 148. ISBN 81-85880-26-3.
  8. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996). The Hindu nationalist movement and Indian politics: 1925 to the 1990s. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 1-85065-170-1.
  9. ^ Ranjan Ghosh (30 June 2012). A Lover's Quarrel with the Past: Romance, Representation, Reading. Berghahn Books. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-85745-485-0.
  10. ^ Eck 1999, p. 107
  11. ^ See: Gwynne 2008, Section on Char Dham
  12. ^ a b Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 324–325
  13. ^ Harding 1998, pp. 158–158
  14. ^ Vivekananda Vol. 4
  15. ^ Venugopalam 2003, pp. 92–95.
  16. ^ Chaturvedi 2006, pp. 58–72.
  17. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 18.
  18. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 516, 547, 587. ISBN 1610690265.
  19. ^ Dhaky & Shastri 1974, p. 32 cited in Thapar 2004, p. 23
  20. ^ Thapar 2004, pp. 23–24.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 75.
  23. ^ Thapar 2004, Chapter 3.
  24. ^ Meenakshi Jain (21 March 2004). "Review of Romila Thapar's "Somanatha, The Many Voices of a History"". The Pioneer. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  25. ^ Thapar 2004, pp. 68–69: But Mahmud’s legitimacy in the eyes of established Islam also derived from the constant reiteration that he was a Sunni who attacked the heretics, the Ismai‘ilis and Shi‘as in India and Persia. The boast is always that their mosques were closed or destroyed and that invariably 50,000 of them were killed. The figure becomes formulaic, a part of the rhetoric for killing, irrespective of whether they were Hindu kafirs or Muslim heretics.
  26. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 79.
  27. ^ Yagnik & Sheth 2005, p. 40.
  28. ^ Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University
  29. ^ Yagnik & Sheth 2005, p. 47.
  30. ^ Ashok Kumar Srivastava (1979). The Chahamanas of Jalor. Sahitya Sansar Prakashan. pp. 39–40. OCLC 12737199.
  31. ^ Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290–1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. p. 85. OCLC 685167335.
  32. ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1959). Early Chauhān Dynasties. S. Chand / Motilal Banarsidass. p. 162. ISBN 9780842606189. OCLC 3624414.
  33. ^ Temples of India. Prabhat Prakashan. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  34. ^ Flood, Finbarr Barry (2009). Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval "Hindu-Muslim" Encounter. Princeton University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780691125947.
  35. ^ Yagnik & Sheth 2005, p. 49.
  36. ^ Yagnik & Sheth 2005, p. 50.
  37. ^ Satish Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals, (Har-Anand, 2009), 278.
  38. ^ a b [ Hindu Culture During and After Muslim Rule: Survival and Subsequent Challenges by Ram Gopal pg 148
  39. ^ [ Atrocitology: Humanity's 100 Deadliest Achievements by Matthew White
  40. ^
  41. ^ Amitabh Mishra (1 January 2007). Heritage Tourism in Central India: Resource Interpretation and Sustainable Development Planning. Kanishka Publishers, Distributors. p. 42. ISBN 978-81-7391-918-3.
  42. ^ a b "Mosque and Tomb of the Emperor Sultan Mahmood of Ghuznee". British Library. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  43. ^ 101 pilgrimages. Outlook India Pub. 2006. p. 79.
  44. ^ "Battle of Kabul 1842". Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  45. ^ Havell, Ernest Binfield (2003). A Handbook to Agra and the Taj. Asian Educational Services. pp. 62–63. ISBN 8120617118. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  46. ^ John Clark Marshman (1867). The History of India, from the Earliest Period to the Close of Lord Dalhousie's Administration. Longmans, Green. pp. 230–231.
  47. ^ George Smith (1878). The Life of John Wilson, D.D. F.R.S.: For Fifty Years Philanthropist and Scholar in the East. John Murray. pp. 304–310.
  48. ^ The United Kingdom House of Commons Debate, 9 March 1943, on The Somnath (Prabhas Patan) Proclamation, Junagadh 1948. 584–602, 620, 630–32, 656, 674.
  49. ^ "The Gates of Somnauth, by Thomas Babington Macaulay, a speech in the House of Commons, March 9, 1843". Columbia University in the City of New York. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  50. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 170
  51. ^ Hindustan Times, 15 Nov, 1947
  52. ^ a b Marie Cruz Gabriel, Rediscovery of India, A silence in the city and other stories, Published by Orient Blackswan, 1996, ISBN 81-250-0828-4, ISBN 978-81-250-0828-6
  53. ^ Mir Jaffar Barkriwala, The Glorious Destruction of Hindoo Temples in Kathiawar and their replacement, Ul Akbari Publications, Bharuch, 1902
  54. ^ Peter Van der Veer, Ayodhya and Somnath, eternal shrines, contested histories, 1992
  55. ^ a b Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Indian constitutional documents, Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1967
  56. ^ a b "Shree Somnath Trust :: Jay Somnath". Retrieved 1 November 2014.


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