Timeline of Portuguese history (Lusitania and Gallaecia)

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This is a historical timeline of Portugal.

Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia[edit]

3rd century BC[edit]

  • 237 BC - The Carthaginian General Hamilcar Barca enters Iberia with his armies through Gadir.
  • 228 BC - Hamilcar Barca dies in battle. He is succeeded in command of the Carthaginian armies in Iberia by his son-in-law Hasdrubal, who extends the newly acquired empire by skillful diplomacy, and consolidates it by the foundation of Carthago Nova (Cartagena) as the capital of the new province.
  • 226 BC - Treaty of the Ebro between Carthage and Rome, by which Carthage grants the Greek colonies in eastern Iberia all the lands north of the Ebro river.
  • 221 BC - Hasdrubal is killed by a Celtic assassin. Hannibal Barca, Hamilcar Barca's older son, is acclaimed commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed in his appointment by the Carthaginian Senate.
  • 221 BC-219 BC - Hannibal Barca expands Carthaginian conquests in Iberia. He goes as far as to penetrate in the territory of the Vacceos (north of central Iberia) and captures the cities of Salmantica (Salamanca) and Arbucela (region of Zamora). He is also credited as having founded the Port of Hannibal (possibly Portimão in the Algarve).
  • 219 BC - Hannibal Barca attacks the city of Saguntum (eastern Iberia). The Roman Senate sends envoys to declare the city under Roman protection, which is disregarded by Hannibal.
Carthaginian conquests in Iberia
1st division of Roman Hispania

2nd century BC[edit]

  • 197 BC- The Romans created the Roman provinces of Hispania Citerior (nearer Spain, on the east coast) and Hispania Ulterior (further Spain, in the south). The praetors Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus and Marcus Helvius are appointed as their first Governors with a mandate of one year.
  • 194 BC- First mention of the Lusitanians as enemies of Rome by Livy. They entered Hispania Ulterior and sack several cities in the valley of the River Baetis (modern Guadalquivir). they were deefeated by the praetor Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica near Ilipa while returning to Lusitania loaded with booty.
  • 191/190 BC - The Lusitanians penetrated into Bastetania and defeated a Roman Garrison. Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus defeated them. He founded a Roman colony of Turris Lascutana thanks of local support against the Lusitanians.
  • 188/186 BC - Lusitanian and Celtiberian raids into Hispania Ulterior. The praetors of Hispania Ulterior and Citerior, Gaius Atinius and Lucius Manlius Acidinus, asked Rome for reinforcements, but this was ignored.
  • 186 BC - The Lusitanians crossed the River Baetis and took Hasta, near Gades (modern Cadiz). Atinius defeated them, but he is killed in battle.
  • 181 BC - Several small pitched battles between the Lusitanians and the praetors Pulbius Manlius are recorded without details.
  • 180 BC - Lucius Postimius Albinus and Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus consolidated a defensive line along the River Tagus and extended Hispania Ulterior further north. Albinus pacified the Lusitanians by force. Central Hispania was (for now) under Roman control.
  • 163 BC - Lusitanian rebellion. No details recorded.
  • 155 BC - The Lusitanians and Vettones raided Hispania Ulterior under Punicus, a Lusitanian chieftain. They crossed the plain of the River Baetis and reached the Mediterranean coast. Punicus was killed in battle by a stone to his head.
  • 154 BC
    • Caesarus succeeded Punicus. He defeated the praetor Lucius Mummius. According to legend Caesarus was killed in an ambush near Braganca.
    • The new Lusitanian leader, Caucenus marched south, attacked the Conii (in modern Algarve and Lower Alentejo) because they were allied with Rome. He took their main city, Conistorgis. He crossed into modern Morocco and besieged Ocile.
  • 152 BC The praetor, Marcus Atilius penetrated into Lusitania and seized its largest city, Oxthacae.
  • 150 BC
    • The praetor of Hispania Ulterior, Servius Sulpicius Galba, was defeated and lost 7000 men.
    • Galba and the consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus (commander in Hispania Citerior) conducted a pincer operation into Lusitania. The Lusitanians sued for peace.
    • Galba butchered by treachery Lusitanians who had gone to him to ask for peace; 9000 people were killed and 20,000 were sold into slavery.
  • 147 BC
    • The Lusitanians suffer severe losses at the hands of the Roman army led by Caius Vetilius, appointed governor of Hispania Ulterior.
    • Caius Vetilius promises the Lusitanians lands in the south if they abide by Roman rule. Viriathus, a survivor of Servius Sulpicius Galba's massacre, urges the tribes not to trust the Romans and fight back.
    • Viriathus is acclaimed leader of the Lusitanians.
    • The Lusitanians successfully resist Roman offensive.
    • Caius Vetilius, appointed governor of Hispania Ulterior, is killed in an ambush led by Viriathus.
  • 146 BC
  • 145 BC
  • 143 BC
  • 142 BC - The governor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus attacks the territory of the Vettones, but is not able to take the cities of Numancia and Termancia.
  • 142 BC
    • Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus, new Consul of Hispania Ulterior, after having sacked several cities loyal to Viriathus in Baetica and southern Lusitania, is defeated by the Lusitanians in Erisane (in Baetica).
    • 141 BC - Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus, after the defeat, concluded a peace treaty. Viriatus is declared a friend of the Roman people]] and his followers are granted land.
  • 140 BC * The new consul who was assigned the command of Hisania Ulterior, Quintus Sevilius Caepio pressured the senate to declare the peace unworthy of the dignity of the Roman people.
    • In Hispania Ulterior, Servilius Cipianus, with the aid of Marcus Pompilius Lenas' armies, severely defeat the Lusitanians and oblige Viriathus to take refuge north of the Tagus river and surrender hostages, such as his son father-in-law, Astolpas.
    • Servilius Caepio armies also attack the Vettones and the Gallaecians.
    • Servilius Caepio founds the Roman cities of Castra Servilia and Caepiana (in the territory of the Celtici).
    • Viriathus send emissaries to negotiate the peace with Servilius Caepio.
    • Viriathus is betrayed and killed in his sleep by his companions (that had been sent as emissaries to Servilius Caepio), Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus, bribed by Marcus Pompilius Lenas.
    • When Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus return to receive their reward by the Romans, the Consul Servilius Cipianus orders their execution, declaring, "Rome does not pay traitors".
    • Viriathus' Lusitanian armies, now led by Tautalus, still tries a southern incursion against the Romans, but are defeated. End of the Lusitanian War.
    • The Romans grant the Lusitanians lands in the south of Lusitania (in modern Alentejo).
  • 138 BC
    • First big Roman campaign deep inside present Portuguese territory led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. Decimus Junius Brutus, having in his back a pacified southern Lusitania (modern Alentejo and Algarve), established headquarters in the Valley of the Tagus (probably in the site of the Castle of Almourol) and had the allied city of Olisipo (modern Lisbon) fortified before advancing north, destroying settlements as he went. His defeat of a combined army of 60,000 Lusitanians, Gauls, and Callaici earned Decimus a "triumph" and the cognomen Callaicus.
    • The city of Olisipo (modern Lisbon) sends men to fight alongside the Roman legions against the Celtic tribes of the Northwest.
  • 137 BC
    • Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus advances further north, mainly along the coastline, and establishes a fortified position in the area of modern Viseu.
    • The Roman legions cross the Douro river and enter the territory of the Gallaecians.
    • The Roman legions reluctantly cross the Lima river (Lethe, the river of forgetfulness), only after Decimus Junius Brutus crossed alone and called for them, thus proving he had not lost his memory.
  • 136 BC
    • Roman legions under Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus reach the Minho river, but do not cross it for fear of losing their memories, again feraing they had reached the Lethe, the river of forgetfulness.
    • Decimus Junius Brutus lays siege and conquers the city of Talabriga, thus defeating the Gallaecians. After the military campaigns, the Roman legions departed south and left no garrisons.
    • The Roman Senate grants Praetor Decimus Junius Brutus the title Callaicus for his campaigns in Gallaecia.
  • 133 BC
    • The Celtiberians are defeated ending the Numantian War
  • 132 BC
    • A delegation of Roman Senators visits the new conquered territories in Iberian Peninsula so as to see what needs to be accomplished so Hispania could be incorporated into the growing empire.
  • 114 BC
    • Praetor Gaius Marius is sent to govern Lusitania and has to deal with minor Lusitanian unruliness.
  • 113 BC
    • Romans score victories against Lusitanian attacks with Praetor Gaius Marius and Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus (who replaced Marius), but still the Lusitanians resist with a long guerrilla war. Eventually they are defeated.
    • Beginning of the progressive consolidation of Roman administration and control.
  • 105 BC-102 BC - After the Battle of Arausio, the Germanic Teutons and Cimbri plunder through all north Iberia as far as Gallaecia, before moving out and being defeated in the battles of Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae.

1st century BC[edit]

  • 97 BC - The General Quintus Sertorius serves in Iberia for the first time.
  • 96 BC-94 BC - Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (father of Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives) Governor of Hispania Ulterior, leads a military expedition to the Northwest and finds the source mines of Tin.
  • 83 BC - Quintus Sertorius goes to Iberia for a second time, where he represented the Marian party (of Gaius Marius) against Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the Roman Republican civil wars.
  • 83 BC-72 BC - Quintus Sertorius Hispanic revolt, where he is joined by the Lusitanians.
  • 81 BC - Generalized Roman Republican war in all of Iberia.
  • 80 BC
  • 79 BC
    • Quintus Sertorius' armies control most of Hispania Ulterior and parts of Hispania Citerior.
    • The appointed governor of Hispania Ulterior, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, attacks the positions of Quintus Sertorius' armies, namely the city of Lacobriga (probably Lagos in the Algarve), but is unable to take it.
  • 77 BC
    • Quintus Sertorius is joined by the General Marcus Perperna Vento from Rome, with a following of Roman nobles.
    • Quintus Sertorius defeats the generals Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius at the Battle of Saguntum.
    • In this period Quintus Sertorius, through pacts of hospitability and clientele, establishes strong solidarity with local indigenous populations.
    • Quintus Sertorius founds a Roman school for the children of its local allies in Lusitania.
  • 76 BC
  • 75 BC
    • Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius again defeats Hirtuleius and is able to join his armies with those of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
    • Battle of the Sucro where Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Lucius Afranius defeat Quintus Sertorius.
  • 74 BC - Probable expedition to Cale (in Gallaecia, near the modern city of Porto?) promoted by Marcus Perperna Vento.
  • 73 BC - Quintus Sertorius loses all the region of Celtiberia (north central Iberia).
  • 72 BC
    • Quintus Sertorius is assassinated at a banquet, Marcus Perperna Vento, it seems, being the chief instigator of the deed due to his grudge against the privileges of non-Roman military commanders.
    • Marcus Perperna Vento assumes the command of Quintus Sertorius' armies, but is swiftly defeated by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. This marks the end of the Sertorian War.
    • Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius pacifies and submits Hispania Ulterior. The regions north of the Tagus river are still not effectively occupied by the Roman Republic.
  • 69 BC - Julius Caesar was elected Quaestor by the Assembly of the Roman People, at the age of 30, as stipulated in the Roman Cursus honorum, having been assigned with a quaestorship in Lusitania (part of Hispania Ulterior, whose governor was then Antistius Vetus).
  • 61 BC
    • Julius Caesar is assigned to serve as the Propraetor governor of Hispania Ulterior.
    • Julius Caesar attacks the Lusitanian areas between the Tagus and the Douro rivers, from his headquarters in Scallabis (modern Santarém).
    • Julius Caesar personally conducts an important naval expedition to the shores of Gallaecia.
  • 60 BC - Julius Caesar wins considerable victories over the Gallaecians and Lusitanians. During one of his victories, his men hailed him as Imperator in the field, which was a vital consideration in being eligible for a triumph back in Rome.
  • 59 BC - Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus make an agreement by which they establish the First Triumvirate.
  • 56 BC - The agreement establishing the First Triumvirate is renewed.
  • 53 BC
  • 50 BC
    • Open hostility between Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, the first favouring the Populares and the second the Optimates in their struggle for power.
    • Julius Caesar is asked by the Roman Senate to give up his troops, but he refuses.
  • 49 BC
    • January 1, The Roman Senate receives a proposal from Julius Caesar that he and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus should lay down their commands simultaneously. The Senate rejects Julius Caesar's final peace proposal and declares him a Public Enemy.
    • January 10, Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, pronouncing the famous phrase Alea iacta est ("The die has been cast"). Beginning of the Roman Civil War.
    • Julius Caesar goes into Hispania and defeats the legions of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus' legates, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marcus Petreius and Lucius Afranius, leaving Gaius Cassius Longinus as legate and facing growing difficulties in maintaining local populations obedient to Rome.
  • 48 BC
    • Julius Caesar is elected Dictator, but only serves the office for 11 days.
    • Julius Caesar is named Consul for a period of five years.
    • September 29, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus is assassinated.
    • Gaius Cassius Longinus, Caesar's legate in Hispania, leads a campaign against the city of Medobrega and other regions of northern Lusitania, where he installs military garrisons that face a lot of local resistance.
  • 46 BC
  • 45 BC
    • Battle of Munda, in southern Hispania, where, in his last victory, Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius.
    • Sextus Pompeius, departing from his garrison at Corduba (in Baetica), roams Hispania Ulterior fighting against its governor (appointed by Julius Caesar), before fleeing for Sicily. End of the Roman Civil War.
    • Julius Caesar, before going back to Rome, leaves his legate governors with the mission of pacifying Hispania and punish the local tribes for their disloyalty. Once again resistance grows and the Romans will have to deal with small local uprising in the years to come.
    • Julius Caesar adopts Gaius Octavianus who becomes Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
    • Julius Caesar returns to Rome victorious and is Named Pater Patriae and Dictator (3rd time) by the Roman Senate.
    • Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus is deified by the Roman Senate through the request of Julius Caesar.
  • 44 BC
  • 42 BC - Julius Caesar is formally deified as "the Divine Julius" (Divus Julius).
  • 39 BC-29 BC - Several Roman governor of Hispania Ulterior celebrate Roman triumphs in Rome for their victories in submitting the rebellious local tribes and nations.
  • 27 BC
  • 28-24 BC
    • Augustus' military campaigns pacificate all Hispania under Roman rule.
    • Foundation of the Roman cities of Asturica Augusta (Astorga) and Bracara Augusta (Braga), to the north, and, to the south, Emerita Augusta (Mérida) (settled with the emeriti of the 5th and 10th legions).
  • 23 BC - The emperor Augustus establishes the Principate and the Pax Romana.

1st century[edit]

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

  • 303 – Emperor Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.
  • 305 – Diocletian and Maximian abdicated. Constantius and Galerius becomes Augusti. Maximinus is appointed Caesar in the east and Severus in the west. Partition of the Roman Empire. Multiplication of Emperors.
  • 318 – Excommunication of Arius.
  • 325 – The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
  • 366-383 - Damasus, son of Antonius and Laurentia, born in the Conventus Bracarensis of Gallaecia (near the modern city of Guimarães), is the reigning Pope under the name Damasus I.
  • 385 - Paulus Orosius, historian, theologian and disciple of St. Augustine, is probably born in Braga.
  • 388 - Paternus becomes bishop of the Episcopal see of Braga.

See also[edit]

References[edit]