Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches. This drug class was first introduced in the 1990s. While effective at treating individual headaches, they do not provide preventative treatment and are not considered a cure.
Triptans include sumatriptan (Imitrex, Imigran, Cinie, Illument, Migriptan), rizatriptan (Maxalt), naratriptan (Amerge, Naramig), zolmitriptan (Zomig), eletriptan (Relpax), almotriptan (Axert, Almogran), frovatriptan (Frova, Migard, Frovamig), avitriptan (BMS-180,048), and donitriptan (F-11356).
|Summary of triptan warnings|
|Do not use if these are present:||Consult pharmacist; use with caution if these are present:|
|A history of any of these:
Currently living with any of these:
|This section requires expansion. (March 2013)|
Mechanism of action
Their action is attributed to their agonist effects on serotonin 5‑HT1B and 5‑HT1D receptors in cranial blood vessels (causing their constriction) and subsequent inhibition of pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release. Evidence is accumulating that these drugs are effective because they act on serotonin receptors in nerve endings as well as the blood vessels. This leads to a decrease in the release of several peptides, including CGRP and substance P.
Discovery and development
|This section requires expansion. (July 2010)|
These drugs have been available only by prescription (US, Canada and UK), but sumatriptan became available over-the-counter in the UK in June, 2006. The brand name of the OTC product in the UK is Imigran Recovery. The patent on Imitrex STATDose expired in December 2006, and injectable sumatriptan became available in generic formula in August 2008. Sumavel Dosepro is a needle free delivery of injectable sumatriptan that was approved in the US by the FDA in July 2009. Sumatriptan became available as a generic in the US in late 2009. Sumatriptan used to be sold over-the-counter in Romania, under the Imigran brand; however, as of August 2014 prescription is required. Sumatriptan is also available as a nasal spray and iontophoretic transdermal patch (Zelrix/Zecuity). This patch uses low voltage controlled by a pre-programmed microchip to deliver a single dose of sumatriptan through the skin within 30 minutes. Zecuity was approved by the US FDA in January 2013. A drug-device combination containing sumatriptan powder that is "breath powered" allowing the user to blow 11 mg of sumatriptan powder in to each nostril was approved by the FDA in January 2016 and became available in the U.S. May 2016.
Sumatriptan and related selective serotonin receptor agonists are excellent for severe migraine attacks or those that do not respond to NSAIDs  or other over-the-counter drugs. Triptans are a mid-line treatment suitable for many migraineurs with typical attacks. They may not work for atypical or unusually severe migraine attacks, transformed migraine, or status (continuous) migrainosus.
Triptans are highly effective, reducing the symptoms or aborting the attack within 30 to 90 minutes in 70-80% of patients.
Assessment of efficacy may be contaminated by how the triptan is encapsulated in order to mask active treatment.
A test measuring a person's skin sensitivity during a migraine may indicate whether the individual will respond to treatment with triptans. Triptans are most effective in those with no skin sensitivity; with skin sensitivity, it is best to take triptans within twenty minutes of the headache's onset.
Triptans have few side effects if used in correct dosage and frequency. The most common adverse effect is recurrence of migraine. A systematic review found that "rizatriptan 10 mg was the only triptan with a recurrence rate greater than that of placebo".
There is a theoretical risk of coronary spasm in patients with established heart disease, and cardiac events after taking triptans may rarely occur.
There is the potential for life-threatening serotonin syndrome (a syndrome of changes in mental status, autonomic instability, neuromuscular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal symptoms) in patients taking triptans and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) at the same time.
At least two types of triptans (sumatriptan and rizatriptan) have been listed under the unacceptable medication by the Canadian Blood Services, as a potential risk to the recipient; hence, donors are required not to have taken the medication for the last 72 hours.
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