Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Constitution of the|
|Preamble and Articles|
|Amendments to the Constitution|
It clarifies that the vice president becomes president if the president dies, resigns, or is removed from office, and establishes how a vacancy in the office of the vice president can be filled. It also provides for the temporary transfer of the president's powers and duties to the vice president, either on the initiative of the president alone or on the initiative of the vice president together with a majority of the president's cabinet. In either case, the vice president becomes acting president until the presidential powers and duties are returned to the president.
Text and effect
Section 1: Presidential succession
Section 1 clarifies that in the enumerated situations the vice president becomes president, instead of merely assuming the powers and duties of the presidency as acting president. It operates automatically, without needing to be explicitly invoked.:108
Section 2: Vice presidential vacancy
Section 2 provides a mechanism for filling a vacancy in the vice presidency. Before the Twenty-fifth Amendment a vice presidential vacancy continued until a new vice president took office at the start of the next presidential term; the vice presidency had become vacant several times due to death, resignation, or succession to the presidency, and these vacancies had often lasted several years.
Section 3: President's declaration of inability
Section 3 allows for the voluntary transfer of presidential authority to the vice president (for example, in anticipation of a medical procedure) by the president declaring in writing to be unable to discharge the powers and duties of the presidency. The vice president then assumes those powers and duties as acting president;[note 1] the vice president does not become president and the president remains in office, although without authority. The president regains those powers and duties upon declaring, in writing, to be again able to discharge them.:112-3
Section 4: Declaration by vice president and cabinet members of president's inability
Section 4 addresses the case of a president who is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the presidency but cannot, or does not, execute the voluntary declaration contemplated by Section 3.:117 It allows the vice president, together with a "majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide",[note 3] to issue a written declaration that the president is unable to discharge his duties. Immediately upon such a declaration being sent to Congress, the vice president becomes acting president[note 4] while (as with Section 3) the president remains in office, albeit temporarily divested of authority.
John Feerick, the principal drafter of the amendment,:xii,xx:5 writes that Congress deliberately left the terms unable and inability undefined "since cases of inability could take various forms not neatly fitting into [a rigid] definition ... The debates surrounding the Twenty-fifth Amendment indicate that [those terms] are intended to cover all cases in which some condition or circumstance prevents the President from discharging his powers and duties ..." :112 A survey of scholarship on the amendment found
no specific threshold – medical or otherwise – for the "inability" contemplated in Section 4. The framers specifically rejected any definition of the term, prioritizing flexibility. Those implementing Section 4 should focus on whether – in an objective sense taking all of the circumstances into account – the President is "unable to discharge the powers and duties" of the office. The amendment does not require that any particular type or amount of evidence be submitted to determine that the President is unable to perform his duties. While the framers did imagine that medical evidence would be helpful to the determination of whether the President is unable, neither medical expertise nor diagnosis is required for a determination of inability ... To be sure, foremost in [the minds of the framers] was a physical or mental impairment. But the text of Section 4 sets forth a flexible standard intentionally designed to apply to a wide variety of unforeseen emergencies.:7,20
Among potential examples of such unforeseen emergencies, legal scholars have listed kidnapping of the president and "political emergencies" such as impeachment. Traits such as unpopularity, incompetence, impeachable conduct, poor judgment, or laziness might not in and of themselves constitute inability, but should such traits "rise to a level where they prevented the President from carrying out his or her constitutional duties, they still might constitute an inability, even in the absence of a formal medical diagnosis." In addition, a president who already manifested disabling traits at the time he or she was elected is not thereby immunized from a declaration of inability.:21n63,22n67
- Secretary of State
- Secretary of the Treasury
- Secretary of Defense
- Attorney General
- Secretary of the Interior
- Secretary of Agriculture
- Secretary of Commerce
- Secretary of Labor
- Secretary of Health and Human Services
- Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
- Secretary of Transportation
- Secretary of Energy
- Secretary of Education
- Secretary of Veterans Affairs
- Secretary of Homeland Security
If the president subsequently issues a declaration claiming to be able, then a four-day period begins during which the vice president remains acting president.:118-9:38n137 If by the end of this period the vice president and a majority of the "principal officers" have not issued a second declaration of the president's inability, then the president resumes his powers and duties; but if they do issue a second declaration within the four days, then the vice president remains acting president while Congress considers the matter. Then if within 21 days the Senate and the House determine, each by a two-thirds vote, that the president is unable, then the vice president continues as acting president; otherwise the president resumes his powers and duties.[note 5]
Section 4's requirement of a two-thirds vote of the House and a two-thirds vote of the Senate is more strict than the Constitution's requirement for impeachment and removal of the president for "high crimes and misdemeanors" – a majority of the House followed by two-thirds of the Senate.:120n In addition, an impeached president retains his authority unless and until the Senate votes to remove him or her at the end of an impeachment trial; in contrast, should Congress be called upon to decide the question of the president's ability or inability under Section 4, presidential authority remains in the hands of the vice president (as acting president) unless and until the question is resolved in the president's favor.:118-20
Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the Constitution reads:
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President ...
This provision is ambiguous as to whether, in the enumerated circumstances, the vice president becomes the president, or merely assumes the "powers and duties" of the presidency. It also fails to define what constitutes inability, or how questions concerning inability are to be resolved. The Twenty-fifth Amendment addressed these deficiencies. The ambiguities in Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the Constitution regarding death, resignation, removal, or disability of the president created difficulties several times:
- In 1841, William Henry Harrison died in office. It had previously been suggested that the vice president would become acting president upon the death of the president, but Vice President John Tyler asserted that he had succeeded to the presidency, instead of merely assuming its powers and duties; he also declined to acknowledge documents referring to him as acting president. Although Tyler felt his vice presidential oath obviated any need for the presidential oath, he was persuaded that being formally sworn in would resolve any doubts. Accordingly, he took the oath and title of "President," without any qualifiers, moved into the White House and assumed full presidential powers. Though Tyler was sometimes derided as "His Accidency", both houses of Congress adopted a resolution confirming that he was president. The "Tyler precedent" of succession was thus established, and subsequently Millard Fillmore (1850), Andrew Johnson (1865), Chester A. Arthur (1881), Theodore Roosevelt (1901), Calvin Coolidge (1923), Harry Truman (1945), and Lyndon Johnson (1963) were all deemed to have become president on the death of incumbent presidents.:ix
- Following Woodrow Wilson's stroke in 1919, no one officially assumed his powers and duties, in part because his condition was kept secret by his wife, Edith Wilson, and the White House physician, Cary T. Grayson. By the time Wilson's condition became public knowledge, only a few months remained in his term and Congressional leaders were disinclined to press the issue.:14-16
- Prior to 1967, the office of vice president had become vacant sixteen times when the vice president died, resigned, or succeeded to the presidency. The vacancy created when Andrew Johnson succeeded to the presidency upon Abraham Lincoln's assassination was one of several that encompassed nearly the entire four-year term. In 1868, Johnson was impeached by the House of Representatives and came one vote short of being removed from office by the Senate. Had Johnson been removed, President pro tempore Benjamin Wade would have become acting president in accordance with the Presidential Succession Act of 1792.
- After several periods of incapacity due to severe health problems, President Dwight D. Eisenhower attempted to clarify procedures through a signed agreement with Vice President Richard Nixon, drafted by Attorney General Herbert Brownell Jr. However, this agreement did not have legal authority. Eisenhower suffered a heart attack in September 1955 and intestinal problems requiring emergency surgery in July 1956. Each time, until Eisenhower was able to resume his duties, Nixon presided over Cabinet meetings and, along with Eisenhower aides, kept the executive branch functioning and assured the public the situation was under control. However, Nixon refused to use the president's office in the White House or sit in the president's chair at Cabinet meetings.:22
Proposal, enactment, and ratification
In 1963, Senator Kenneth Keating of New York proposed a Constitutional amendment which would have enabled Congress to enact legislation providing for how to determine when a president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the presidency, rather than, as the Twenty-fifth Amendment does, having the Constitution so provide.:345 This proposal was based upon a recommendation of the American Bar Association in 1960.:27
The text of the proposal read::350
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the said office shall devolve on the Vice President. In case of the inability of the President to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the said powers and duties shall devolve on the Vice President, until the inability be removed. The Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then be President, or, in case of inability, act as President, and such officer shall be or act as President accordingly, until a President shall be elected or, in case of inability, until the inability shall be earlier removed. The commencement and termination of any inability shall be determined by such method as Congress shall by law provide.
Senators raised concerns that the Congress could either abuse such authority,:30 or neglect to enact any such legislation after the adoption of this proposal.:34–35 Tennessee senator Estes Kefauver, the Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments, a long-time advocate for addressing the disability question, spearheaded the effort until he died in August 1963.:28 Senator Keating was defeated in the 1964 election, but Senator Roman Hruska of Nebraska took up Keating's cause as a new member of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments.
By the 1960s, medical advances had made increasingly plausible that an injured or ill president might live a long time while incapacitated. The assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 underscored the need for a clear procedure for determining presidential disability, particularly since the new president, Lyndon Johnson, had once suffered a heart attack and – with the office of vice president to remain vacant until the next term began on January 20, 1965 – the next two people in the line of succession were the 71-year-old speaker of the House John McCormack and the 86-year-old Senate president pro tempore Carl Hayden. Senator Birch Bayh succeeded Kefauver as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments and set about advocating for a detailed amendment dealing with presidential disability.
On January 6, 1965, Senator Birch Bayh proposed S.J. Res. 1 in the Senate and Representative Emanuel Celler (Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee) proposed H.J. Res. 1 in the House of Representatives. Their proposal specified the process by which a president could be declared "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office", thereby making the vice president an acting president, and how the president could regain the powers of their office. Also, their proposal provided a way to fill a vacancy in the office of vice president before the next presidential election. This was as opposed to the Keating–Kefauver proposal, which neither provided for filling a vacancy in the office of vice president prior to the next presidential election, nor provided a process for determining presidential disability. In 1964, the American Bar Association endorsed the type of proposal which Bayh and Celler advocated.:348–350 On January 28, 1965, President Johnson endorsed S.J. Res. 1 in a statement to Congress. Their proposal received bipartisan support.:6
On February 19, the Senate passed the amendment, but the House passed a different version of the amendment on April 13. On April 22 it was returned to the Senate with revisions. There were four areas of disagreement between the House and Senate versions:
- the Senate official who was to receive any written declaration under the amendment
- the period of time during which the vice president and principal officers of the executive departments must decide whether they disagree with the president's declaration that they are fit to resume the duties of the presidency
- the time before Congress meets to resolve the issue
- the time limit for Congress to reach a decision.
On July 6, after a conference committee ironed out differences between the versions, the final version of the amendment was passed by both Houses of the Congress and presented to the states for ratification.:354–358
When President Lyndon B. Johnson underwent planned surgery in 1965, he was unable to temporarily transfer power to Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey because ratification remained incomplete. On February 23, 1967, at the White House ceremony certifying the ratification, Johnson said:
It was 180 years ago, in the closing days of the Constitutional Convention, that the Founding Fathers debated the question of Presidential disability. John Dickinson of Delaware asked this question: "What is the extent of the term 'disability' and who is to be the judge of it?" No one replied. It is hard to believe that until last week our Constitution provided no clear answer. Now, at last, the 25th amendment clarifies the crucial clause that provides for succession to the Presidency and for filling a Vice Presidential vacancy.
Invocations and considered invocations
Sections 1 and 2: Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Nelson Rockefeller
On October 10, 1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned; two days later President Richard Nixon nominated Representative Gerald Ford to be the new vice president pursuant to Section 2. Ford was confirmed by the Senate and the House on November 27 and December 6 respectively, and sworn in December 6.
On August 9, 1974 Nixon resigned and Ford became president under Section 1; Ford is the only president to have been elected neither president nor vice president. The office of vice president was thus again vacant, and on August 20 Ford nominated former New York governor Nelson Rockefeller.:167-169 Rockefeller was confirmed by the Senate and House on December 10 and 19 respectively, and sworn in December 19.:186-187
Feerick writes that the Twenty-fifth Amendment helped pave the way for Nixon's resignation during the Watergate scandal. Nixon and Agnew were Republicans, and in the months immediately following Agnew's resignation, with the vice presidency empty, removal or resignation of Nixon would have transferred the presidential powers to House Speaker Carl Albert, a Democrat. But once Ford (a Republican) became vice president under Section 2, removal of Nixon became more palatable because it would, now, not result in a change in the party holding the presidency, and therefore "the momentum for exposing the truth about Nixon's involvement in Watergate increased." :158
On December 22, 1978, President Jimmy Carter considered invoking Section 3 in advance of hemorrhoid surgery. Since then, presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama also considered invoking Section 3 at various times without doing so.
1985: George H. W. Bush
On July 12, 1985, President Ronald Reagan underwent a colonoscopy and was diagnosed with bowel cancer. He elected to have the lesion removed immediately, and consulted with White House counsel Fred Fielding about whether to invoke Section 3, and in particular about whether doing so would set an undesirable precedent. Fielding and White House Chief of Staff Donald Regan recommended that Reagan transfer power, and two letters were drafted: one specifically invoking Section 3, the other mentioning only that Reagan was mindful of its provisions. On July 13, Reagan signed the second letter before being placed under general anesthesia for a colectomy, and Vice President George H. W. Bush was acting president from 11:28 a.m. until 7:22 p.m., when Reagan transmitted a letter declaring himself able to resume his duties.
In the Fordham Law Review, commentator John Feerick asserted that although Reagan disclaimed any use of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in his letter (likely out of "fear of the reaction of the country and the world to a 'President' who admitted to being disabled, and concern ... [over] set[ting] a harmful precedent"), he followed the process set forth in Section 3. Furthermore, Feerick noted that "no constitutional provision except the Twenty-Fifth Amendment would have allowed" him to designate the vice president as acting president. Reagan later stated in a memoir that he had, in fact, invoked the Twenty-fifth Amendment.
2002: Dick Cheney
On June 29, 2002, President George W. Bush explicitly invoked Section 3 in temporarily transferring his powers to Vice President Dick Cheney before undergoing a colonoscopy, which began at 7:09 a.m. Bush awoke about forty minutes later, but did not resume his presidential powers until 9:24 a.m. to ensure any aftereffects had cleared. During that time, Vice President Cheney (as acting president) held his regular national security and homeland security meetings with aides at the White House, but made no appearances and took no recorded actions, according to his staff.
In the view of commentator Adam Gustafson, this confident application of Section 3 "rectified" President Reagan's "ambivalent invocation" and provided an example of a "smooth and temporary transition" under Section 3 that paved the way for future applications. Together with the 2007 invocation, it established the reasonableness of invocation for relatively minor inabilities, promoting continuity in the Executive Branch.
2007: Dick Cheney
On July 21, 2007, Bush again invoked Section 3 before another colonoscopy. Cheney was acting president from 7:16 a.m. to 9:21 a.m. During that time, Vice President Cheney (as acting president) remained at home. This 2007 invocation and the 2002 invocation received relatively little attention in the press overall.
Section 4 has never been invoked, though on several occasions its use was considered.
1981: Reagan assassination attempt
Following the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1981, Vice President George H. W. Bush did not assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president. Reagan had been rushed into surgery with no opportunity to invoke Section 3; Bush did not invoke Section 4 because he was on a plane at the time of the shooting, and Reagan was out of surgery by the time Bush landed in Washington. In 1995, Birch Bayh, the primary sponsor of the amendment in the Senate, wrote that Section 4 should have been invoked. Physician to the President Daniel Ruge, who supervised Reagan's treatment immediately after the shooting, said he had erred by not having Reagan invoke Section 3 because the president needed general anesthesia and was in an intensive care unit.
1987: Reagan's possible incapacity
From the 1970s onwards, Reagan's political opponents alleged that he showed signs of dementia. According to Reagan biographer Edmund Morris, staffers to White House chief of staff Howard Baker intended to use their first meeting with Reagan in 1987 to evaluate whether he was "losing his mental grip". However, Reagan "came in stimulated by the press of all these new people and performed splendidly".
Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, five years after leaving office. The president told neurosurgeon Daniel Ruge, according to Ruge in 1980, that he expected doctors to test his memory, and promised to resign if it deteriorated. After the 1994 diagnosis, Ruge said he never found any sign of Alzheimer's while talking to him almost every day from 1981 to 1985.
2017: Trump fires James Comey
After President Donald Trump dismissed FBI director James Comey in May 2017, acting FBI director Andrew McCabe claimed that Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein held high-level discussions within the Justice Department about approaching Vice President Mike Pence and the Cabinet about possibly invoking Section 4. Miles Taylor, who anonymously authored "I Am Part of the Resistance Inside the Trump Administration" and A Warning, also wrote that he and other aides considered approaching Pence to invoke the Twenty-fifth Amendment. A spokesperson later said that Rosenstein denied pursuing the Twenty-fifth Amendment, and Pence strongly denied considering invoking Section 4. On March 15, 2019, Senator Lindsey Graham stated the Senate Judiciary Committee would investigate the discussions and seek related documents.
2021: Trump and the storming of the Capitol
After the storming of the United States Capitol on January 6, 2021, President Trump was accused of having incited the incident, leading to several calls for Section 4 to be invoked. Proponents included Representatives Ted Lieu and Charlie Crist, former Defense Secretary William Cohen, and the National Association of Manufacturers (which asked Vice President Pence to "seriously consider" invoking the amendment). By evening, some of Trump's Cabinet members were also reportedly considering invoking Section 4. In a New York magazine article, law professor Paul Campos also supported using Section 4 "immediately" and "for the good of the nation." On January 7, incoming Senate majority leader Chuck Schumer and Speaker of the House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi also called for Section 4 to be invoked.
- As acting president, the vice president may employ "all the powers and tools of the office of the president", taking actions such as moving troops, reporting on the state of the Union, proposing budgets, nominating judges, and removing cabinet secretaries.:44 But it is unclear whether the vice president, while acting president, retains all the powers and duties of the vice presidency; for example, authorities express reservation as to whether the vice president would continue to preside over the Senate, especially since doing so could put him or her in the position of overseeing the Senate's deliberations on the validity of his or her determination, under Section 4, that the president is unable to discharge his or her duties.:44n155 Article I, Section 3, clause 5 of the Constitution provides that, "The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States." :3
- Here the word department should read departments. Freerick has written that on the very day the Senate was to vote on the amendment, "I noticed a scrivener's error in the draft of the conference report. When I reached Senator Bayh's staff by telephone, possibly on July 6, with my observation, I was told that the amendment had just been approved that day by the Senate, 68 to 5, and was on its way to the states for ratification. In other words, the amendment was beyond rescue for correction." :1101
- No such "other body" has ever been designated,:120 though there have been proposals. Congress's discretion in designating such a body and how it would deliberate is "vast" – it could even designate itself:16 – but any designating act would be subject to presidential veto (which in turn can be overridden by two-thirds of both the House and Senate) just like any other statute.:14 Should such a body be created, it would become the only body capable of acting in concert with the vice president under Section 4; the fifteen cabinet officers would no longer have a role.:14-15 However, the vice president's participation is essential, and vacancy in the vice presidency rules out invocation of Section 4.:121
- The transfer of power to the vice president occurs at the moment the declaration is sent to the Speaker and President pro tempore, not at the moment of receipt,:39:118 whether or not Congress is in session at the time of transmittal is immaterial.:118
- If Congress is in session when it receives the second declaration of incapacity, the 21 days begins at that point; otherwise they begin at the end of the 48 hours given for Congress to assemble. The president resumes his powers and duties when either the Senate or the House holds a vote on the question which falls short of the two-thirds requirement, or the 21 days pass without both votes having been taken.:52
- The states ratified as follows:
- Nebraska (July 12, 1965)
- Wisconsin (July 13, 1965)
- Oklahoma (July 16, 1965)
- Massachusetts (August 9, 1965)
- Pennsylvania (August 18, 1965)
- Kentucky (September 15, 1965)
- Arizona (September 22, 1965)
- Michigan (October 5, 1965)
- Indiana (October 20, 1965)
- California (October 21, 1965)
- Arkansas (November 4, 1965)
- New Jersey (November 29, 1965)
- Delaware (December 7, 1965)
- Utah (January 17, 1966)
- West Virginia (January 20, 1966)
- Maine (January 24, 1966)
- Rhode Island (January 28, 1966)
- Colorado (February 3, 1966)
- New Mexico (February 3, 1966)
- Kansas (February 8, 1966)
- Vermont (February 10, 1966)
- Alaska (February 18, 1966)
- Idaho (March 2, 1966)
- Hawaii (March 3, 1966)
- Virginia (March 8, 1966)
- Mississippi (March 10, 1966)
- New York (March 14, 1966)
- Maryland (March 23, 1966)
- Missouri (March 30, 1966)
- New Hampshire (June 13, 1966)
- Louisiana (July 5, 1966)
- Tennessee (January 12, 1967)
- Wyoming (January 25, 1967)
- Washington (January 26, 1967)
- Iowa (January 26, 1967)
- Oregon (February 2, 1967)
- Minnesota (February 10, 1967)
- Nevada (February 10, 1967, at which point ratification was complete)
- Connecticut (February 14, 1967)
- Montana (February 15, 1967)
- South Dakota (March 6, 1967)
- Ohio (March 7, 1967)
- Alabama (March 14, 1967)
- North Carolina (March 22, 1967)
- Illinois (March 22, 1967)
- Texas (April 25, 1967)
- Florida (May 25, 1967)
The following states have not ratified:
- North Dakota
- South Carolina
- Mount, Steve. "Ratification of Constitutional Amendments". ussconstitution.net. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "Interpretation: The Twenty-Fifth Amendment | The National Constitution Center". constitutioncenter.org.
- Feerick, John D. (2014). The Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Its Complete History and Applications. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-5201-5.
- Yale Law School Rule of Law Clinic (2018). The Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution: A Reader's Guide (PDF).
- "Presidential Disability: An Overview" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. July 12, 1999. p. 6. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Feerick, John D. (2017). "The Twenty-Fifth Amendment: A Personal Remembrance". Fordham Law Review. 86 (3). pp. 1075–1110.
- Bayh, Birch and Constitutional Amendments Subcommittee; Committee on the Judiciary. Senate. United States., "Selected Materials on the Twenty-Fifth Amendment, Senate Document No. 93-42." (1973). Congressional Materials. 17.
- "Presidential Vacancy and Disability Twenty-Fifth Amendment" (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, Library of Congress. September 26, 2002. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- Bomboy, Scott (October 12, 2017). "Can the Cabinet "remove" a President using the 25th amendment?". The Constitution Center. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- Saxon, Wolfgang (December 13, 1981). "John D. Feerick named dean of Fordham Law". The New York Times. p. 61.
- "Operation of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment Respecting Presidential Succession" (PDF). United States Department Of Justice.
- Prokop, Andrew (January 2, 2018). "The 25th Amendment, explained: how a president can be declared unfit to serve". Vox. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- Kalt, Brian C. (2012). Constitutional cliffhangers: a legal guide for presidents and their enemies. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300123517. OCLC 842262440.
- United States Constitution, Article I, Section 3, Clauses 6 and 7.
- "The 25th Amendment: The Difficult Process to Remove a President". The New York Times. September 6, 2018.
- Neale, Thomas H. (November 5, 2018). Presidential Disability Under the Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Constitutional Provisions and Perspectives for Congress (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Feerick, John. "Essays on Article II: Presidential Succession". The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Chitwood, Oliver. John Tyler: Champion of the Old South. American Political Biography Press, 1990, p. 206
- "John Tyler". The White House. White House Historical Association. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- "John Tyler, Tenth Vice President (1841)". Senate.gov. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- Schlimgen, Joan (January 23, 2012). "Woodrow Wilson – Strokes and Denial". Arizona Health Sciences Library. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Kalt, Brian C.; Pozen, David. "The Twenty-fifth Amendment". The Interactive Constitution. Philadelphia, PA: The National Constitution Center. Archived from the original on September 4, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- Amar, Akhil Reed; Amar, Vikram David (November 1995). "Is the Presidential Succession Law Constitutional?". Stanford Law Review R. 48 (1): 113–139. doi:10.2307/1229151. ISSN 0038-9765.
- "25th Constitutional Amendment". The Great Society Congress. Association of Centers for the Study of Congress. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
- Bayh, Birch (1968). One Heartbeat Away. ISBN 978-0672511608.
- How JFK’s assassination led to a constitutional amendment Archived January 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, National Constitution Center, Accessed January 6, 2013
- What is the 25th Amendment and When Has It Been Invoked? History News Network, Accessed January 6, 2013
- Presidential Succession During the Johnson Administration Archived January 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine LBJ Library, Accessed January 6, 2014
- "Presidential Inability and Vacancies in the Office of the Vice President" (PDF). The Association of Centers for the Study of Congress.
- "Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation" (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, Library of Congress. August 26, 2017. pp. 3–44. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- Chadwick, John (February 11, 1967). "With Ratification of Amendment Two Gaps In Constitution Plugged". The Florence Times. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2018 – via Google news.
- Johnson, Lyndon B. (February 23, 1967). "Remarks at Ceremony Marking the Ratification of the Presidential Inability (25th) Amendment to the Constitution". Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley. Santa Barbara, CA: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- Hunter, Marjorie (December 7, 1973). "Ford Sworn In As Vice President After House Approves, 387-85; He Vows Equal Justice For All". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- Memorial Services in the Congress of the United States and Tributes in Eulogy of Gerald R. Ford, Late a President of the United States. Government Printing Office. 2007. p. 35. ISBN 978-0160797620.
- "Congressional Record" (PDF). July 15, 1985. pp. 18955–18956, 19008–19009. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- Lipshutz, Robert J. (December 22, 1978). "Documents from Carter's Contemplated Use of Section 3 (1978)". Fordham Law School. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Second Fordham University School of Law Clinic on Presidential Succession (December 1, 2017). "Fifty Years After the Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Recommendations for Improving the Presidential Succession System". Fordham Law School. p. 927. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Altman, Lawrence (July 18, 1985). "Report that Early Test was Urged Stirs Debate on Reagan Treatment". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Historical Invocations of the 25th Amendment". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011.
- Sorensen, Robert H. (July 2014). "President Reagan's Life Saving Colectomy and Subsequent Historical Implications" (PDF). Military Medicine. 179 (7): 704–7. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00034. PMID 25003852. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- "List of Vice-Presidents Who Served as "Acting" President Under the 25th Amendment". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- Feerick, John D. (2010). "Presidential Succession and Inability: Before and After the Twenty-Fifth Amendment". Fordham Law Review. 79 (3): 89–90. Archived from the original on October 11, 2020. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
- Allen, Mike (June 30, 2002). "Bush Resumes Power After Test". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
- Gustafson, Adam R.F. (Spring 2009). "Presidential Inability and Subjective Meaning". Yale Law & Policy Review. 27 (2): 487–490. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
- Baker, James (speaker)."Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan Archived July 11, 2018, at the Wayback Machine". Larry King Live, March 30, 2001.
- Bayh, Birch (April 8, 1995). "The White House Safety Net". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Altman, Lawrence K. (September 6, 2005). "Daniel Ruge, 88, Dies; Cared for Reagan After Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Hart, Benjamin (January 14, 2018). "Reagan's Mental-Health Concerns Handled Very Differently Than Trump's". Intelligencer. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- "WGBH American Experience – Reagan".
- Linkins, Jason (February 10, 2017). "Happy 50th Birthday To The 25th Amendment To The Constitution". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
- Mayer, Jane (February 24, 2011). "Worrying About Reagan". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
- Gordon, Michael R (November 6, 1994). "In Poignant Public Letter, Reagan Reveals That He Has Alzheimer's". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- "McCabe says he ordered the obstruction of justice probe of President Trump". 60 Minutes. CBS News. February 14, 2019. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
- Spiner, Trent (November 17, 2019). "Pence denies he entertained 25th Amendment to remove Trump". POLITICO. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- Devan Cole and Laura Jarrett (February 14, 2019). "McCabe confirms talks held at Justice Dept. about removing Trump". CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- Caitlin Oprysko (March 14, 2019). "Graham says he'll probe 25th Amendment discussions between McCabe, Rosenstein". Politico. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Ting, Eric (January 6, 2021). "After Trump supporters storm Capitol, Rep. Ted Lieu calls for Trump's immediate removal from office". SFGATE. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Kevin Stankiewicz (January 6, 2021). "Ex-Defense secretary: Trump's Cabinet should invoke 25th Amendment to remove him from office". CNBC. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Rachel Tillman (January 6, 2021). "Lawmakers, Business Execs Urge Pence to Invoke 25th Amendment". Spectrum Local News. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Novet, Jordan. "U.S. trade group asks VP Pence to 'seriously consider' invoking 25th Amendment to remove Trump". CNBC. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Wagner, Meg; Macaya, Melissa; Hayes, Mike; Melissa Mahtani, Veronica Rocha, Fernando Alfonso III (January 6, 2021). "Some Cabinet members holding preliminary talks about invoking 25th Amendment to remove Trump from office". CNN. Retrieved January 6, 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Campos, Paul (January 6, 2021). "Pence Should Invoke 25th Amendment to Remove Trump From Office Immediately". New York. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Schumer, Chuck (January 7, 2021). "What happened at the U.S. Capitol yesterday was an insurrection against the United States, incited by President Trump. This president must not hold office one day longer". Twitter. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- Ferris, Sarah (January 7, 2021). "Pelosi calls for Trump's immediate removal from office after deadly riots". Politico. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- Constitution of the United States of America
- Bayh, Birch (1968). One Heartbeat Away. ISBN 978-0672511608.
- Gant, Scott (1999). "Presidential Inability and the Twenty-Fifth Amendment's Unexplored Removal Provisions". Michigan State Law Review: 791.
- Kilman, Johnny; Costello, George (2000). The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008.
- "Transcript of White House press briefing re G.W. Bush temporary transfer of power to VP Cheney". CNN. June 29, 2002. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2006.
- CNN Story of White House statement regarding G.W. Bush temporary transfer of power to VP Cheney July 21, 2007.
- Presidential Inability and Subjective Meaning by Adam R.F. Gustafson, Yale Law & Policy Review, Vol. 27 (2009), p. 459.
- Presidential Succession and Inability: Before and After the Twenty-Fifth Amendment Archived August 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine by John Feerick, Fordham Law Review, Vol. 79 (2011), p. 908.
- The Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Its Complete History and Applications, Third Edition Archived January 14, 2021, at the Wayback Machine by John Feerick (Fordham University Press, 2013).
- 25th Constitutional Amendment Archived April 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine The Great Society Congress, Association of Centers for the Study of Congress (URL accessed April 6, 2016).
- Twenty-Fifth Amendment Archive Fordham Law Archive of Scholarship and History (URL accessed February 22, 2017).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.|
- CRS Annotated Constitution: Twenty-fifth Amendment
- The Great Society Congress
- Twenty-Fifth Amendment Archive
- Presidential Disability Under the Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Constitutional Provisions and Perspectives for Congress – Congressional Research Service