User:Nicolas Perrault III/List of Neanderthals

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The following is an attempt at an exhaustive list of Neanderthal specimens. Sites are first ordered by country (by their westernmost site), then within countries by site west-to-east.

The sex is given when known. When in brackets, (♂) or (♀), the sex is presumed based on traits that tend to differ between males and females (e.g., bone robusticity). When not in brackets, ♂ or ♀, the sex has been inferred from associated pelvic remains, the only way of assessing the sex with virtual certainty. [♀] means that I haven't checked whether it's one or the other.

Note that no date younger than 40 ka is recognised as legitimate by prehistorians. Decontamination work from 2011 onwards has revealed that up to 70% of pre-2011 radiocarbon dates are likely contaminated with modern radiocarbon, yielding dates that appear too young. Here, all pre-2011 radiocarbon (but not TL or ESR) dates are square-bracketed, e.g., [40 ka]. Dates that appear younger than 40 ka (calibrated) are additionally marked by an asterisk, e.g., [39* ka], because as of 2017 no date this young is universally recognised as legitimate.

The MNI is the minimum number of identified specimens. Ideally, this number is evaluated by palaeoanthropologists and reported, in which case it appears out of brackets. When in brackets, e.g., (3), it refers to the minimum number of specimens I could identify in the literature. A palaeoanthropologist will sometimes report the "minimum number of human individuals" in a site where the only human bones identified are Neanderthal bones. This is not good enough: Because one cannot assume that undiagnostic human bones are from Neanderthals, to be included here out of brackets, the palaeoanthropologist must explicitly report the minimum number of Neanderthal individuals.

Number of rare monographies I ordered through interlibrary loans at five pounds a piece to compile parts of this list: 7.

Early European Neanderthals (before 130 ka)[edit]

Present-day country (country of discovery) Site Principal Neanderthal finds MNI Geological age (ka) Descriptions Notes
Spain, Basque country Lezetxiki Humerus 1 164 ± 9[1] Basabe (1966)[2]
UK, Jersey La Cotte de St Brelade St. Brelade 1: Adult, 13 teeth

(I2-l, P4-l, M1-l, M1-r, M3-l, M3-r (crown), I1-r, C1-l, P3-l, P4-l, M2-l, M2-r, M3-r)


1 OIS 6[3]:587 Keith and Knowles (1912a,[4] b)[5]

Stringer and Currant (1986)[6]

Three teeth are casts, the originals having been lost.[6] An occipital fragment of a child was found in 1915. Angel and Coon (1954)[7] argued it to be a Neanderthal, but to Stringer and Currant (1986) "it seems preferable to maintain caution about the firm attribution of the occipital fragment to a Neanderthal child, while admitting its possibility".[6]:158
France Biache Saint-Vaast B1: Cranial frags. and 11 teeth (♀)

B2: Cranial frags. (♂)

2 175 ± 13 (TL)

263+53/–37 (ESR)

Perhaps pre-Neanderthals
France Caune de l'Arago More than 100 frags. 26 400-350[8][9]
France Lazaret Fragments 3 ≈130-100[10] de Lumley and Piveteau (1969)

Puech and Albertini (1981)

Resemble pre-Neanderthal remains[10]
Belgium Naulette Toothless partial mandible 1 NA[11] Dupont 1866[12] Shows no characteristic Neanderthal trait, but falls between the metrical variation of Neanderthals and their predecessors.[11]
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
Bulgaria Kozarnika Infant radius[13] 1 200-115[13] Tillier et al. (2017)[13] One of the very rare Neanderthal remains in Eastern Europe to the West of the Black Sea.[13]
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES

Classic European Neanderthals (after 130 ka)[edit]

Present-day country (country of discovery) Site All Neanderthal finds MNI Geological age (ka) Descriptions Notes
UK, Gibraltar Forbes' Quarry G1: Cranium (♀) (1) NA[14] Busk (1865)[15] Second Neanderthal skull found, 1848 (after Engis 2, 1829).
UK, Gibraltar Devil's Tower G2: 3-yr-old skull (1) GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
France La Quina (upstream) LQ-H1: Right and left taluses

LQ-H2: Occipital fragment
LQ-H3: [Note 1] Vertebra
LQ-H4: Two teeth (M2-r, M3-l)
LQ-H5: Adult upper skeleton
LQ-H6: Parietal fragment
LQ-H7: Right frontal fragment
LQ-H8: Left frontal fragment
LQ-H9: Adult hemimandible with five teeth (P1-l, P2-l, M1-l, M2-l, M3-l)[16]
LQ-H18: 6.5-yr cranium[17]

LQ-H1 to LQ-H9 from Martin (1912)[18]

(9) + (2)? [Note 2] > 48[20][3]

MIS 4[21]

LQ5: Martin (1911)

LQ9: Martin (1926)

France Angles-sur-l'Anglin One tooth (I1-l)[22] 1 GEOAGE Patte (1960)[22] NOTES
France La Ferrassie LF1: Adult skeleton ♂

LF2: Adult skeleton ♀
LF3: Partial 10-yr-old skeleton
LF4bis: 12-day-old newborn skeleton[23]:26
LF5: ~7-mo-old fetus[19]:38[24]
LF6: ~3-yr-old skeleton[19]:38
LF8: 22-26-mo-old skeleton[19]:41

7 74-68 LF1: Boule (1921)

LF2: Same as LF1

LF8: Heim (1982)

LF4: Newborn or elderly fetus,[19]:37 likely part of Le Moustier 2.[25]

LF7: A talus bone, thought by Boule (1924) to represent a third adult, is probably part of LF3.[19]:30-31[23]:6

France Las Pélénos
14 fragments

1950 exc.:
3 parietal bone fragments
1 parietal bone fragment?

1 occipital bone fragment?

1 right maxillary fragment (I2 to M2)

1 left mandibular fragment (C1, P1, P2)

1 dental root fragment

2 other teeth (M2-l, I(sup)-l)


1995-2006 exc.:

1 right parietal

1 right parietal fragment.
2 teeth (M2-r, C1-r)

4 + (2)?[26][Note 3] ? Coulonges et al. (1952)[27]

Scolan et al. (2012)[26]

France Roc de Marsal 3-yr-old skeleton

Isolated teeth

2 90-60[28] DESCR
France Le Moustier LM1: Partial 12-yr-old[29] skel.

LM2: Neonate skeleton
LM3: Cranial fragment

3 40 LM1: Klatsch et al. 1909

LM2: Maureille 2002a, b[25]

LM3: Lost with no description[30]

M2 was announced by Peyroni (1921, 1930) but was lost and not found and described until 2002 by Maureille.[25]
France Le Regourdou[Note 4] R1: Adult post-cranial skel.

R2: Foot bones

2 NA (≈70 ka by CS and BSt)[3]:666 R1: Piveteau (1959,[32] 1963,[33] 1964,[34] 1966)[35]

R1 sternum: Vallois (1965)[36]

R1 Pelvis: Meyer et al. (2011)[37]
R2: Vandermeersch et al. (1995)

R1: Sex unknown[37][3]:666
France Malarnaud 12-yr-old mandible 1 150-100 Heim et al. (1995) The first Neanderthal to be found in France (1888).[38]
France La Chapelle-aux-Saints LCAS 1: Adult skeleton ♂
5 teeth

Unnamed mature individual 1: P2-l (Distal root of lower M)?

Unnamed juvenile indiv. 1: ~3 yr-old, di1-r

Unnamed juvenile indiv. 2: 11-12 yr-old, dm2-r (dm1-r)?

4[39] 56-47 Boule (1908)

Boule (1909)

Rendu et al. (2014) for small newly found fragments of LCAS 1 and loose teeth

For historical reasons, LCAS 1 remains the most famous Neanderthal.[40]:15
France Pech de l'Azé P1: 2-yr-old partial skull

Isolated tooth

2 51-41 Patte (1957)
France Saint-Césaire S1: Fragmentary skeleton [♀]

S2: Skeleton

2 40 S2, Crevecoeur et al. team, not yet announced (Aug 2017)
France Moula-Guercy 78 fragments 6 ≈120-100 DESCR NOTES
France Combe-Grenal "Several fragments" ? ≈190-30 DESCR NOTES
France Arcy-sur-Cure (Grotte des Fées) (Arcy 3: Axis) (1) NA[3]:292[Note 5] Hamy (1904)[41] Arcy 3: "Possibly Neanderthaloid" (Leroi-Gourhan, 1958)[42] VERIFY, FIND ORIGINAL RECENT SOURCES FOR AN UPDATE ON THEIR ATTRIBUTION AND WHETHER THERE IS MORE
France Arcy-sur-Cure (Grotte du Renne) Juvenile temporal bone
29 teeth

Individual 1: Three 4-7 yr-old teeth (dm1-r, I2-l, P3-l)
Ind. 2: Three 4-8 yr-old teeth (di2-r, I2-l, P3-l)

Ind. 3: Four 7-12 mo-old teeth (dm2-r, di1-r, di2-r, dm1-l)

Ind. 4: Four 6-15 mo-old teeth (dm2-r, M1-r, dc1-r, dm1-r)
Specimen 4: 12-18 yr-old, P4-l
Sp. 5: > 15 yrs-old, M2-r
Sp 6: Older adult, M3-r
Sp. 7: > 12 yrs-old, C1-l
Sp. 11: >8-yr-old subadult, I2-l
Sp. 13: 15-18 yr-old, P4-r
Sp. 16: Older adult, M2-r
Sp. 17: > 7 yr-old, M12-r [sic]
Sp. 21: 7-9 yr-old, M2-r
Sp. 25: 5-7 yr-old, dm1-r
Sp. 32: > 5 yrs-old, di1-l?
Sp. 35: 6-9 yr-old, M1-r
Sp. 36: Newborn, di1-l
Sp. 37: 3-7 yr-old, dc1-r
Sp. 38: 4-8 mo-old, dc1-l

6 [Note 6] 48-42[44] or 47-40[45][46] Parietal bone: Hublin et al. (1996)[47]

Teeth: Leroi-Gourhan (1958)[42]
Bailey and Hublin (2006) [43]

These Neanderthal remains are controversially argued associated with "symbolic" artefacts (jewellery) normally seen only in anatomically modern humans.
France Arcy-sur-Cure (Grotte du Bison) P11-8: Partial maxillary, older adult
13 teeth

T14: 9-12 yr-old milk tooth (dm2)
J2. U142931: 15-19 yr-old tooth (M2)
Q8-121: 2-4 yr-old milk tooth (di1)
P8-31 & P8: Two 2-4 yr-old teeth (M1, M1)
P8-63: Adult, one tooth (M3)
P7-647-76: Adult, one tooth (M3)
S.15-1: Adult, one tooth (I1)
O11-192: 7-9 yr-old milk tooth (dc1)
P8-101: 8-10 yr-old tooth (M2)
P7-48: M2
(2 TEETH MISSING)

11[48] + (2?)[49] [Note 7] GEOAGE Tillier et al. (2013a, b)[48][49]
France Hortus FINDS 20 ≈115-40[50] de Lumley (1972)[50]

Mann and Trinkaus (1973)[51]

NOTES
France Montgaudier Juvenile mandible [♀] 1 DESCR NOTES
France La Chaise FINDS ? GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
France Les Rochers de Villeneuve Partial femur shaft 1 GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
France SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
France SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
France SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
North Sea, Dutch waters Krijn: Frontal fragment (♂) 1 (≈ 100-40)[52][Note 8] Hublin et al. (2009)[53] This fragment was extracted from sea sediments in 2001 in Dutch territorial waters, 16 km off the coast of Domburg. This is the first Neanderthal found within modern Dutch territory,[53] although Engis 2 was discovered in what is now Belgium before its independence from the Netherlands.

"According to calculations it appears over 3000 times more likely that it is a Neanderthal fossil than a fossil from an anatomically modern human." (translation)[54][Note 9]

Belgium Trou de l’Abîme, Couvin Tooth (dm2-r)[55] 1 [46-44][56] Toussaint et al. (2010)[56]
Belgium Spy "S1" skull (?)[57]

"S1" radius (♀)[58][Note 10]

"S2" skull (?) [57]

"S2" leg bones (♂) [58]
[Note 11]
S6: 18-mo-old mandibular frags. (♂)

(4?)[59][61][60][Note 12] 42-41[60] S1 and S2: J. Fraipont and Lohest (1886,[62] 1887)[63]

S6: Crevecoeur et al. (2010)[61]

"Spy 1" and "Spy 2" are mixed collections of bones from an early (1886) excavation. Each may or may not represent more than one individual, and the skulls must hence be sexed separately from the limb bones.[58]

[Note 13]

Belgium Goyet FINDS MNI 41-40[65] DESCR NOTES
Belgium Scladina S1: Child jaw frags., teeth 1 127 +46/–32 ka [66] Otte et al. (1993)[67]
Belgium (Netherlands) Engis E2: 2-3-yr-old partial cranium and maxilla 1 NA[68] C. Fraipont (1936)[69] First Neanderthal found (1829).
Belgium Fond(s)-de-Fôret[Note 14] F1: Adult left femur 1 ? Twiesselmann (1961)[70]
Belgium Walou Tooth (P3-l) 1 [42-40 ka][71] Draily et al. (1999)[72]


Toussaint (2017)[73]

The Neanderthal attribution used to be stratigraphic, not morphological,[71] but advances in teeth analysis has allowed a morphological attribution.[73]
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
Switzerland Cotencher Adult mandible (♀?) 1 ? Bay (1984)[74]
Switzerland Saint-Brais Adult tooth (I1-l) 1 40?[75]:306 Koby (1956)[76]
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
Germany (N1: Prussia) Neanderthal N1: Adult calotte and 15 postcranial bones.[3]:386

(†N2 (1895) or in older texts "Homo neanderthalensis II":[77]
Both femurs, both tibias, both humeri, a right pelvis fragment, a kneecap, and several rib fragments.)[77]

N2 (2000): This individual was defined for gene-sequencing purposes as four matching splinters (NN 1, 2, 3, 47) of the midshaft of a right humerus. They were given the duplicate name of "Neanderthal 2". These remains are not from Neanderthal 1.[78]

64 new fragments in the 1997-2000 excavations.[78]

3 GEOAGE N1: Fuhlrott and Schaaffhausen (1857)[79]

Schaaffhausen (1888)[80]

N2 (1895): Lost with no description. It is unclear whether this truly was a Neanderthal.

N1: The Neanderthal type specimen specimen discovered in 1856.
Another individual, "Homo neanderthalensis II",[77] was discovered in 1895, presented at a conference in Dusseldorf in 1898, never studied, and last mentioned to exist in 1909.[77] It might have been destroyed in WW2.[77]

64 new fragments, representing at least three individuals, were found in gene-sequencing excavations between 1997 and 2000. At least three fragments belong to Neanderthal 1.

COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
Croatia (Austria-Hungary) Krapina Krapina cranium A, juvenile (?)

KC B, juvenile (♂?)[81]:114

KC C (K3), young adult (♀)[81]:114

KC D, adult (♂)[81]:114

KC E, young adult (♀)[81]:114

Parietal 16, adult (♂)[81]:114

Parietal 17, juvenile (?)[81]:114

Frontal 2, adult (♀)[81]:114

Frontal 3, juvenile (?)[81]:114

191 isolated teeth

I1 (7 r-sup, 2 r-inf, 5 l-sup, 3 l-inf)
I2 (11 r-sup, 2 r-inf, 4 l-sup, 5 l-inf)
C1 (8 r-sup, 4 r-inf, 10 l-sup, 1 l-inf)
P1 (7 r-sup, 4 r-inf, 4 l-sup, 3 l-inf)
P2 (6 r-sup, 3 r-inf, 3 l-sup, 4 l-inf)
M1 (5 r-sup, 6 r-inf, 5 l-sup, 3 l-inf)
M2 (10 r-sup, 3 r-inf, 7 l-sup, 5 l-inf)
M3 (8 r-sup, 3 r-inf, 3 l-sup, 6 l-inf)
di1 (1 r-sup, 0 r-inf, 1 l-sup, 1 l-inf)
di2 (2 r-sup, 2 r-inf, 1 l-sup, 1 l-inf)
dc1 (1 r-sup, 0 r-inf, 1 l-sup, 1 l-inf)
dm1 (2 r-sup, 0 r-inf, 1 l-sup, 1 l-inf)
dm2 (0 r-sup, 1 r-inf, 0 l-sup, 5 l-inf)
1 perm. incisor root
2 root fragments
2 crown fragments
4 germs
Isolated teeth data from Wolpoff (1979)[82]

6 maxillas

A: 8-yr-old (dm1-l, dm2-l)
B: 7-yr-old (all decidious teeth except di1-l)
C: 10-yr-old (I1-l, I1-r, I2-r, M1-l, M2-l, dm2-l)
D: 15-yr-old
E: 16-yr-old
F: 23-yr-old
Maxilla data from Wolpoff (1979)[82]

11 mandibles

A: 6-yr-old
B: 8-yr-old
C: 11-yr-old
D: 15-yr-old

E: 15-yr-old
F: 17-yr-old
G: 18-yr-old
H: 23-yr-old
J: 20-yr-old
K-60: 4-yr-old
K-63: 22-yr-old
Mandible data from Wolpoff (1979)[82]

Unassociated frontal fragments

Unassoc. parietal fragments

Unassoc. temporal fragments

Unassoc. malar fragments

Unassoc. nasal bones

21 scapulas

Krapina 121: Type R2, juvenile[Note 15]
K122: Type R1, juvenile
K123: Type R1, juvenile
K124: Type L2, juvenile
K125: Type L1
K126: Type R2, juvenile?
K127: Type R2
K128: Type R3b
K129: Type R3a
K130: Type L3b
K131: Type L3a
K132: Type R3a
K133: Type R3b
K134: Type R3b
K135: Type R3b
K136: Type L1
K137: Type R1, juvenile
K138: Left
K139: Type L3b?
K140: Left
K141: Left
Scapula data from Smith (1976a)[81]:253-254

17 clavicles

K142: Right, adult
K143: Right, adult
K144: (No data.)
K145: Right, juvenile
K146: Right, juvenile
K147: Right, juvenile
K148: Right, juvenile
K149: Right, adult
K150: Left, juvenile
K151: Left, juvenile
K152: Left, juvenile
K153: Left, adult
K154: Left, adult
K155: Left, adult
K156: Left, adult
Clavicle data from Smith (1976a)[81]:269

20 humeri

K159: Distal articular surface (L), adult
K160: Distal art. surf. and shaft (L), adult
K161: Distal shaft, art. surf, and medial epicondyle (L), adult
K162: Distal art. surf. and medial epicondyle (L), adult
K163:
K164:
K165:
K167:
K168:
K169:
K170:
K171:
K172:
K173:
K174:
K175:
K176:
K177: Shaft (R), juvenile
K178: Damaged distal shaft (R), juvenile
Humerus data from Smith (1976b)[84]

9 ulnas

K179: Shaft (L), adult
K180: Proximal 75% of shaft (R), adult
K181: Proximal shaft and full olecranon (R), adult
K182: Proximal shaft (L), adult
K183: Proximal end (L), adult
K184: Proximal end (L), adult
K185: Coronoid process and radial facet (L), adult[85]
K186: Complete shaft (R), adult
K187: Proximal end (L), adult
K188: Proximal shaft, juvenile
Ulna data except K185 from Smith (1976b)[84] Ulna K185 from nespos.org[85]

11 radiuses

K189: Proximal head and shaft (R), adult
K190: Proximal head and shaft (R), sub-adult
K191: Proximal head and shaft (R), adult
K192: Proximal head and shaft (R), adult
K193: Proximal head and shaft (R), adult
K194: Proximal head and shaft (R), adult
K195: Proximal tuberosity and shaft (R), age not specified
K196: Head and neck (L), adult
K197: Head (R), adult
K198: Neck and prox. 75% of shaft (L), juvenile
K199: Proximal tuberosity and shaft (L), juvenile
Radius data from Smith (1976b)[84]

Wrist and hand bones

K200: Right capitulum
K201-1: Metacarpal?
K201-2: 4th right metacarpal
K201-3: 4th left metacarpal
K201-4: Metacarpal?
K202: Proximal thumb phalanx
K203-(1-4): Distal thumb phalanx
K204-(1-8): Proximal phalannges, fingers 2-5
K205-(1-26): Proximal phalanges, f. 2-5
K206-(1-13): Distal phalanges, f. 2-5
Wrist and hand bone data from Smith (1976b)[84]

12[81] [Note 16] ≈130[3]:421
[Note 17]
General:

Gorjanović-Kramberger (1899-1929, 42 publications) [Note 18] [Note 19]
Smith (1976)[81]
Radovčić et al. (1988)[129]

Crania:
Klaatsch (1902)[130]
Schaeffer (1959, 1964)

Dentition and jaws:
Adloff (1907-1910, 5 publications)[Note 20]
Kallay (1949-1970, 12 publications)[Note 21]
Wolpoff (1979)[82]

Shoulder blades:
Trinkaus (2006)[148]

Upper limbs:
Fischer (1906)[149]
Smith (1976b)[84]
Musgrave (1977)[150]

Lower limbs:
Trinkaus (1975)[86]

Krapina is an enormous collection of broken Neanderthal bones (over 850 fragments).[151] Excavated from 1899 to 1905,[151] it probably represents more than 20 individuals,[86][81]:325 and possibly more than 70.[3]:421
"All of the Krapina hominid remains are fragmentary. The cause is not the use of dynamite in the excavation of the material, as some [Coon (1962)] have suggested, but is most likely due to the practice of cannibalism." (Smith, 1976)[81]:325
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
COUNTRY SITE FINDS MNI GEOAGE DESCR NOTES
European Russia Mezmaiskaya M1: Partial neonate skeleton

M2: 1-2-yr-old cranial frags.

2 73-36 ka[152] Golovanova et al. (1999)[153] M1: Second Neanderthal whose mtDNA was studied[154]
Total (83)

Southwest Asian Neanderthals (from 150 ka)[edit]

Present-day country (country of discovery) Site Principal Neanderthal finds MNI Geological age (ka) Descriptions Notes
Turkey Karain Four teeth 1 Senyürek (1949)[155][156]

Yalçınkaya (1988)[157][156]

Lebanon Ksâr 'Akil K2: Teeth and partial maxilla 1 Ewing (1963)[158] Ewing lost this specimen while transferring Ksar Akil material from Boston College to Fordham University.[159]
Lebanon El Masloukh Upper second molar[160] (1) ? Neanderthal attribution is stratigraphic, not morphological.[161]
Israel Kebara KMH1: 7-9 mo. old partial skel.

KMH2: Post-cranial adult ♂

Various fragments

KMH3: Milk tooth (m1-r)[162]
KMH4: 9 milk teeth, germ of 1 permanent tooth [163][162]
KMH5: Child mandibular symphysis fragment, no teeth[162]
KMH6: Right maxillary fragment with M1 and M2[162]
KMH7: Milk tooth (m?-r)[162]
KMH8: Milk tooth (m2-l)[162]
KMH9: Foot bone (4th right metatarsal)[162]
KMH10: Foot bone (1st toe distal phalanx)[162]
KMH11: Right clavicle fragment[162]
KMH12: Milk tooth (m?-r)[162]
KMH13: Milk tooth germ (m1-l)[162]
KMH14: Tooth (M2-l)[162]
KMH15: Milk tooth (m1-r)[162]
KMH16: Milk tooth (left i1)[162]
KMH17: Clavicle fragment[162]
(KMH18: Mandibular fragment with tooth [M2-r])[162]
(KMH19: Fragmentary tooth crown [M?-r])[162]
(KMH20: Parietal bone fragment)[162]
(KMH21: Germ of tooth [M1-l])[162]
(KMH22: Milk tooth [upper c-l])[162]
(KMH23: Milk tooth [i2-r])[162]
KMH24: Tooth (M3-l)[162]
(KMH25: 3 milk teeth germs [upper c-l, m1, m2])[162]
(KMH26: Tooth germ [i2-r])[162]
KMH27: Tooth (I2)[164][164]
KMH28: Tooth (I2)[164][164]
(KMH29: Milk tooth [i2-l])[162]
KMH30: Milk tooth (m1)[162][164]
(KMH31: Tooth [lower c])[164]

21 + (10) 64-59[165][166] KMH1: Smith et al. (1977)[167]

KMH2: Arensburg et al. (1985)[168]
KMH5-17, 24-31 : Tillier et al. (2003) [162]

Neanderthal attribution uncertain in KMH18-23, 25, 29, and 31[162][164]
West Bank (Mandatory Palestine) Shuqba S-D1: Tooth and cranial frags.[160] 1 Keith (1931)[169]
Israel (Mandatory Palestine) Tabun T C1: Nearly complete adult ♀

T C2: Toothed mandible missing I1 (♂)

Various fragments

T E1: Right femur shaft (♂?)
T E2: Tooth (M1 or M2, ♀?)
T C3: Right femur shaft (♀)
T C4: Distal right radius frag. (♀)
T C5: Right hamate bone
T C6: Right pisiform bone
T C7: Distal thumb phalanx
T B1: 10-11 year-old maxilla (♂?) with I2-r, M2-r
T BC2: Four teeth
(I2-l, M1-l, P3-r, M1-r)
T B3: One tooth (I2-r)
T B4: Four teeth
(I1-l, I2-l, M1-l, M3-r)
T B5: Two teeth (M2-l, M2-r)
T BC6: Two teeth (I1-l, M2-l)

15 ≈170-90

[170][171][172]

McCown (1936)
McCown and Keith (1939)
T C1: Neanderthal attribution is not universally accepted.[173]

As of 1975, the whereabouts of T BC2, B3, and BC6 are unknown.[160]:146

Israel Ein Qashish (EQH-2: Third molar)

EQH-3: Adult lower limbs

1 + (1)[174] 70-60[174] Been et al. (2017)[174] Discovered in 2013, these were the first diagnostically Neanderthal remains in Southwest Asia not found in a cave.[174]

EQH-2: 70% posterior probability that Neanderthal attribution is correct.[174]

Israel Shovakh (Tooth, M(3)-l[175][Note 22]) (1) S. Binford (1966)[176]


Trinkaus (1987)[175]

"[A]lthough within archaic and modern human ranges of variation, this complex occlusal morphology may suggest that it is more likely to have derived from a Neandertal than an early modern human". (Trinkaus 1987)[175]
Israel Amud A1: Adult full skeleton ♂

A2: Maxillary fragment

A7: 10-mo.-old partial skel.

3[Note 23][177] 61-53[177] A1: Suzuki et al. (1970)[178]

A7: Rak et al. (1994)[179]

Syria Dederiyeh D1: 19-30-month-old full skel.

D2: 21-30-month-old full skel.

17 D1: Akazawa et al. (1993)[180]

D2: Akazawa et al. (1999) [181]

Iraq Shanidar S1: Adult partial skel. ♂

S2: Adult crushed skel. ♂
S3: Post-cranial adult ♂
S4: Adult partial skel. (♂)
S5: Adult partial skel. (♂)
S6: Adult partial skel. (♀)
S7: 6-9-mo.-old crushed skel.
S8: Adult skeletal fragments (♀)
S9: 6-12-month-old vertebrae
S10: 17-25-month-old skel.

10 S2, S4: > 100

Others: 60

S1: Stewart (1959)[182]

S2: Stewart (1961)[183]
S3: Solecki (1960)[184]
S4: Stewart (1963)[185]
S5: Trinkaus (1977)[186]
Pomeroy et al. (2017)[187] S6: Same as S4
S7: Senyürek (1957)[188][189]
S8: Same as S4
S9: ?
S10: Cowgill et al. (2007)[190]

Shanidar 2 and 4 are sometimes not treated as Neanderthals.

All but Shanidar 3 and 10 (and fragments of 5 excavated in 2015-2016)[187] may have been destroyed in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[3]

Iran Bisitun Adult radius shaft 1 Trinkaus (2006)[191]
Total 70 + (13)
  1. ^ Martin (1912) describes the 1908-1912 finds that he names H1 (1908), H2 (1908), H2 (1910) [sic], H4 (1911), H5 (1911), H6 (1912), H7 (1912), H8 (1912), H9 (1912). Later in the same article, Martin discusses "H3", which he had not listed. It is apparent that the second H2 in his list is an error and was meant as H3.
  2. ^ Martin found nine groups of fragments (assumed "individuals") in Neanderthal layers dated 43-48 ka and older. Two more (LQ28 and LQ34) were discovered in 1988 and 1993, and are described in Verna (2006, a hard-to-find PhD thesis) and Verna et al. (2010). Heim (1976)[19]:40 in his book on the La Ferrassie skeletons (vol. 1) claims that the La Quina remains belonged to a minimum of 27 individuals. Yet because he gives this figure in passing and does not cite his sources this figure cannot be used.
  3. ^ The MNI in the 1950 excavations was of 4. In the 1995-2006 excavations, it was of 2. Yet, the material of both excavations have not been compared, and these figures can therefore not be summed.
  4. ^ Alternatively written Le Régourdou and Le Regourdou (even in French).[31][32]
  5. ^ "[P]ossibly Middle Pleistocene" in the Catalogue of Fossil Hominids (1971)
  6. ^ The six come from the teeth alone. ("The preponderance of evidence, therefore, supports Neandertal affinity for the Châtelperronian-associated teeth at the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure. These teeth are fully Neandertal in their morphology, with no indication of evolution towards or admixture with anatomically modern humans", Bailey and Hublin, 2006).[43] There is a parietal bone that could increase the minimum number of individuals to 7, but nowhere is it written that it could be ascertained this parietal bone was not from the same individual as some of the teeth.
  7. ^ It is unclear whether the two new teeth discovered in 2012 and described in Tillier (2013b) can count towards new individuals or might be teeth of the known 11.
  8. ^ This geological age assignment is purely morphological.[52] To extract enough radiocarbon for direct dating would have required destroying the bone.[53]
  9. ^ In the original Dutch: "Volgens berekeningen blijkt het zelfs meer dan 3000 keer waarschijnlijker dat het gaat om een Neanderthaler fossiel dan om het fossiel van een anatomisch moderne mens."
  10. ^ Trinkaus (1980)[58]:385 writes: "There has been considerable confusion regarding the sexing of the Spy Neanderthals. This is due in part to the difficulties involved in assigning sex to fossil crania (Genovés 1954; Smith, this volume) and in part to the mixed state of the Spy remains. Around the time of excavation the Spy Neanderthals became largely mixed, so that Fraipont & Lohest (1887) had to sort the bones on the basis of size and morphology. Hrdlička (1930) subsequently re-sorted the bones, and further analysis (Trinkaus, 1978) has shown that at least three adults plus a child are represented in the Spy sample. Furthermore, whereas it is possible to assign most of the limb bones to two adult skeletons (referred to as Spy 1 and 2), there is no necessary association between the Spy 1 cranium and the Spy 1 postcrania nor between the Spy 2 cranium and the Spy 2 postcrania."
  11. ^ Spy 3 is a child[59] that has recently been argued (by morphology and radiocarbon dating, Semal 2013)[60] not a Neanderthal, contrary to it's orignial attribution. Spy 4 is a modern human discovered in 1952 by Twiesselman (Semal 2013).[60] I could not find anything on Spy 5.
  12. ^ This number is a patchwork. Twiesselmann found a tibia that he called Neanderthal, but more recent morphological studies suggest it is anatomically modern and radiocarbon dating (2013) found the bone to be less than 5000 years old. Trinkaus (1978) claims three adults in the Spy 1 and 2 remains and Crevecoeur et al. (2010) claim to have found an additional child within the bones examined by Trinkaus. But Crevecoeur et al. do not discuss or recognise Trinkaus (1978)'s assessment of at least three adults in Spy 1 and 2. Nor does Trinkaus appear to have commented on Crevecoeur et al. (2010)'s article. At face value: At least three adults in Spy 1 and 2 plus the Spy 3 child (Trinkaus 1978) minus the Spy 3 child (Semal 2013). Spy 6 description in 2010 (Crevecoeur 2010). These figures add up to 4.
  13. ^ The 1886 discovery of S1 and S2 showed unlikely the early theory that Neanderthal 1 was a diseased modern human.[64]
  14. ^ Alternatively written Fond-de-Forêt, Fonds-de-Forêt, Fond de Forêt, and Fonds de Forêt.
  15. ^ Types are defined in Gorjanović-Kramberger (1926)[83]. R means right, L means left.
  16. ^ According to Smith (1976),[81]:325 "[t]he exact number of individuals in the Krapina sample cannot be less than twelve. Estimates vary from twelve to over fifty. Most estimates are in the range of twenty-three to twenty-eight individuals. [...] The twenty-three to twenty-eight estimate seems reasonable but may be conservative because of the amount of material present." According to Trinkaus (1975),[86] who only worked on the lower limbs, "[a]ssociations of the bones by individual according to morphology and size suggest that at least 13 and probably between 20 and 30 individuals are represented by the Krapina lower limb remains". Without explaining himself or citing a source, Heim (1976:40) claims at least 14 individuals for the whole site of Krapina,[19]:40 and so does the Catalogue of Fossil Hominids (1971).[87]:339 According to the Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution (2013), Krapina represents "a probable minimum of 70 individuals".[3]:421 It's not clear what this means. By definition a "probable minimum" is not a minimum.
  17. ^ The large number of remains from Krapina may span as much as 50,000 years. Most remains are of unknown stratigraphic position. The following are of known position: Cranium A (Stratum 8, Würm I/II), Mandible C, Maxilla B (Str. 7, Würm I/II), Mandible G (Str. 6, Würm I), Maxilla C, Mandibles E and K (Str. 5, Würm I), Crania B, C, D, and E, Mandibles D and J, Maxilla D, E, and F (Str. 4, Riss-Würm), Parietal 16, Ramus 64, and Mandible H (Str. 3, Riss-Würm).[81]:26
  18. ^ These are Gorjanović-Kramberger (1899,[88] 1900a,[89] b,[90] 1901,[91] 1902,[92] 1904,[93] 1905a,[94] b,[95] c,[96] d,[97] e,[98] f,[99] 1906a,[100] b,[101] c,[102] d,[103] 1907a,[104] b,[105] c,[106] d,[107] 1908a,[108] b,[109] c,[110] d,[111] e,[112] f,[113] 1909a,[114] b,[115] c,[116] d,[117] 1910a,[118] b,[119] c,[120] 1912,[121] 1913,[122] 1914a,[123] b,[124] c,[125] 1925,[126] 1926a,[127] b,[83] 1929).[128]
  19. ^ To Smith (1976)[81]:8, "[t]he most valuable aspect of [Gorjanović-Kramberger's 1906] monograph is undoubtedly the excellent descriptions of the Krapina hominid remains. These detailed and careful descriptions rank Gorjanović's monograph as one of the best ever published in hominid paleontology."
  20. ^ These are Adloff (1907a,[131] b,[132] 1908,[133] 1909,[134] 1910)[135]
  21. ^ These are Kallay (1949,[136] 1951,[137] 1952,[138] 1955a,[139] b,[140] c,[141] 1963,[142] 1969,[143] 1970a,[144] b,[145] c,[146] d)[147]
  22. ^ M?-r according to S. Binford (1966)[176].
  23. ^ Valladas, Mercier, and Froget (1999) write that "[o]f the remains of 18 individuals recovered at the Amud Cave, 15 were derived from unambiguous Middle Palaeolithic contexts, all of them located in the northern area of the excavation (Hovers et al., 1995). The stratigraphic distribution of these remains encompasses the layers B1 and B2, with only a single specimen derived from layer B4 (Sakura, 1970). Three individuals bear diagnostic characteristics which define them as Neanderthals. Amud I, the skeleton of an adult male was found at the top of layer B1, while the partial skeleton of the baby Amud 7 (Rak, Kimbet & Hovers, 1994) was recovered from the top of layer B2, just under the contact with the base of layer B1. Amud II, represented by a fragment of the right maxilla, was excavated from layer B2."


Central Asian Neanderthals[edit]

Country Site Principal Neanderthal finds MNI Geological age (ka) Descriptions Notes
Uzbekistan (Soviet Union) Teshik-Tash 1 T-T1: 8-11-yr-old skeleton 1 Okladnikov (1949)
Uzbekistan Obi-Rakhmat OR-1: Subadult skull frag. and teeth 1 74[192] Glantz et al. (2008)[193]
Asian Russia Chagyrskaya cave Partial mandible 1 (Announced in Viola 2012)
Asian Russia Okladnik'ov Sub-adult humerus and femur 1 (Announced in Krause et al. 2007)[194] mtDNA sampled
Asian Russia Denisova Cave Altai 1: Toe phalanx♀

D11: Bone fragment

2 Mednikova (2011)

Brown, et al. (2016)[195]

Altai 1: Full genome sequenced[196]

D11: mtDNA sampled

Total 6

Dubious attribution or previously attributed to Neanderthals[edit]

Country Site Previously attributed to Neanderthals MNI Geological age (ka) Descriptions Notes
France Arcy-sur-Cure (Grotte des Fées) Mandible 1 NA Parat (1903) Originally attributed to a Neanderthal (Parat 1903), the mandible was argued more recently to be from a modern human (Leroi-Gourhan 1950, 1958).
Belgium Spy S3: Juvenile tibial shaft 1 5.6 - 5.3[197] S3: Twiesselman (1953)[198] Originally described as a Neanderthal, its radiocarbon date is much after the extinction


Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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