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In Spanish grammar, voseo (Spanish pronunciation: [boˈse.o]) is the use of vos as a second-person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects. In dialects that have it, it is used either instead of tú, or alongside it. Voseo is seldom taught to students of Spanish as a second language, and its precise usage varies across different regions. Nevertheless, in recent years it has become more accepted across the Spanish-speaking world as a valid part of regional dialects. Use of tú for the second-person singular (the form that is considered standard) is known as tuteo.
The voseo was the predominant form of second-person address for politeness or social distance when the discovery and conquest of America took place in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, but soon after tuteo became more widely used and prescribed in colonial centers and in Spain. More peripheral areas of the Spanish Empire continued using voseo up until the present day.
Vos is used extensively as the second-person singular in Rioplatense Spanish (Argentina and Uruguay), Eastern Bolivia, Paraguayan Spanish, and Central American Spanish (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, southern parts of Chiapas and some parts of Oaxaca in Mexico).
Vos had been traditionally used even in formal writing in Argentina, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Paraguay, the Philippines and Uruguay. In the dialect of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (known as 'Rioplatense Spanish'), vos is also the standard form of use, even in mainstream media; in Argentina, particularly since the last years of the 20th century, it is very common to see billboards and other advertising media using voseo. Vos had historically been used in the Philippines, notwithstanding direct rule from Madrid during the final decades of colonial rule.
Vos is present in other countries as a regionalism, for instance in the Maracucho Spanish of Zulia State, Venezuela (see Venezuelan Spanish), in the Azuero peninsula of Panama, in various departments in Colombia, and in parts of Ecuador (Sierra down to Esmeraldas). In Peru, voseo is present in some Andean regions and Cajamarca, but the younger generations have ceased to use it. It is also present in Ladino (spoken by Sephardic Jews throughout Israel, Turkey, the Balkans, Morocco, Latin America and the United States), where it replaces usted. In the United States, Salvadoran Americans are by far the largest voseo users followed by other Central Americans, including Guatemalans, Hondurans, Nicaraguans, and Costa Ricans.
Voseo can also be found in the context of using verb conjugations for vos with tú as the subject pronoun (verbal voseo), as in the case of Chilean Spanish, where this form coexists with the ordinary form of voseo.
It has been claimed that the countries that use voseo today have in common that they were geographically isolated during colonial times, cut off from the colonial capitals of the Viceroyalties, and therefore did not have good direct communication with Spain and were not affected by linguistic innovations happening in Spain, including the loss of voseo. In regions with good communications with Spain at that time, however, such as Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Peru, do not use voseo, or its use is confined to extremely remote areas within the countries, again separated from the colonial capitals by distance and natural features such as mountain ranges, such as is the case in Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador. Voseo, however, had been observed by writers such as José Rizal to persist in the Philippines even after the imposition of direct rule from Madrid.
In colonial times, there was no regular direct communication between Spain and today's Argentina and Uruguay, as they were also originally administered as a peripheral region of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with the capital of that vast Viceroyalty, in Lima, being cut off by distance and the Andes mountains before the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was finally organized as the last and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.
The Ladino variety of Spanish spoken by Sephardic refugees and their descendants, primarily North African Sephardim and Eastern Sephardim settled in Greece, Turkey and the Balkans, following the Alhambra Decree’s expulsion of Spain’s unconverted Jewish population in 1492, also served as a severing of linguistic contact with Spain and thereby Ladino retained vos.
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Originally a second-person plural, Vos came to be used as a more polite second-person singular pronoun to be used among one's familiar friends. The following extract from a late-18th century textbook is illustrative of usage at the time:
We seldom make use in Spanish of the second Person Singular or Plural, but when through a great familiarity among friends, or speaking to God, or a wife and husband to themselves, or a father and mother to their children, or to servants.
O Dios, sois vos mi Padre verdadéro, O God, thou art my true Father; Tú eres un buen amígo, Thou art a good friend.— Raymundo del Pueyo, A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language
The standard formal way to address a person one was not on familiar terms with was to address such a person as vuestra merced ("your grace", originally abbreviated as v.m.) in the singular and vuestras mercedes in the plural. Because of the literal meaning of these forms, they were accompanied by the corresponding third-person verb forms. Other formal forms of address included vuestra excelencia ("your excellence", contracted phonetically to ussencia) and vuestra señoría ("your lordship/ladyship", contracted to ussía). Today, both vos and tú are considered to be informal pronouns, with vos being somewhat synonymous with tú in regions where both are used. This was the situation when the Spanish language was brought to the Río de la Plata area (around Buenos Aires and Montevideo) and to Chile.
In time, vos lost currency in Spain but survived in a number of areas in Spanish-speaking America: Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia (east), Uruguay, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and some smaller areas; it is not found, or found only in internally remote areas (such as Chiapas) in the countries historically best connected with Spain: Mexico, Panama, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Colombia, Perú, and Equatorial Guinea. Vuestra merced evolved into usted (vuestra merced > usarced > usted; in fact, usted is still abbreviated as either Vd or Ud). Note that the term vosotros is a combined form of vos otros (meaning literally "ye/you others"), while the term nosotros comes from nos otros ("we/us others").
In the first half of the 19th century the use of vos was as prevalent in Chile as it was in Argentina. The current limitation of the use of vos in Chile is attributed to a campaign to eradicate it by the Chilean education system. The campaign was initiated by Andrés Bello who considered the use of vos a manifestation of lack of education.
Vos in relation to other forms of tú
The independent disjunctive pronoun vos also replaces ti, from the tuteo set of forms. That is, vos is both nominative and the form to use after prepositions. Therefore, para vos ("for you") corresponds to the tuteo form para ti, etc.
The preposition-pronoun combination con vos ("with you") is used for the tuteo form contigo.
The direct and indirect object form te is used in both voseo and tuteo.
|subject||direct object||indirect object||prepositional object||fused with con||direct/indirect object||prepositional object||fused with con|
|vos||te||te||vos||con vos||te||vos||con vos|
|usted||lo / la||le||usted||con usted||se||sí||consigo|
|vosotros||os||os||vosotros||con vosotros||os||vosotros||con vosotros|
The possessive pronouns of vos also coincide with tú <tu(s), tuyo(s), tuya(s)> rather than with vosotros <vuestro(s), vuestra(s)>.
Voseo in Chavacano
Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole, employs voseo. Spain indirectly governed the archipelago through the Viceroy of Mexico in Mexico City until 1821. By then, voseo had been fully integrated and incorporated in the Chavacano Spanish creole as well as in the local dialect of standard Spanish. When Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 and the Philippines fell under the direct rule of Madrid, the use of vos persisted not only in Chavacano but also in the local Spanish dialect, until the latter had been abolished as an official language in 1973. Today, the peninsular dialect has largely displaced the local historical one.
The Chavacano language below in comparison of other Chavacano dialects and level of formality with Voseo in both subject and possessive pronouns. Note the mixed and co-existing usages of vos, tú, usted, and vosotros.
|2nd person singular||vos/vo/evo/evos (common/informal)
|2nd person plural||kamó (common)
|Zamboangueño||Davaoeño (Castellano Abakay)|
|2nd person singular||de vos (common)
de tu (familiar)
de tuyo/di tuyo (familiar)
de usted (formal)
|2nd person plural||de iño/di inyo (common)
de vosotros (familiar)
de ustedes (formal)
Conjugation with vos
All modern voseo conjugations derive from Old Spanish second person plural -ades, -edes, -ides, and -odes (as in sodes, "you are"). The 14th and 15th centuries saw an evolution of these conjugations, with -ades originally giving -áis, -edes giving -és (or -ís), -ides giving -ís, and -odes giving -óis. Soon analogous forms -ás and -éis appeared. Hence the variety of forms the contemporary American voseo adopts, some varieties featuring a generalized monophthong (most of them), some a generalized diphthong (e.g. Venezuela), and some combining monophthongs and diphthongs, depending on the conjugation (e.g. Chile). In the most general, monophthongized, conjugation paradigm, a difference between voseo forms and respective tuteo forms is visible exclusively in the present indicative, imperative and subjunctive, and, most of the time, in the preterite. Below is a comparison table of the conjugation of several verbs for tú and for vos, and next to them the one for vosotros, the informal second person plural currently used orally only in Spain; in oratory or legal language (highly formal forms of Spanish) it is used outside of Spain. Verb forms that agree with vos are stressed on the last syllable, causing the loss of the stem diphthong in those verbs, such as poder and venir, which are stem-changing.
|Tú / Vos
Southeastern Cuba and
Northeastern Colombia1, 2
|Vosotros 2. Pl
And Vos formal 2.Sg
|ser||eres||sos||erís/ sois||sois||sox סוֹש /soʃ/||son||you are|
|comer||comes||comés||comís||coméis||comex קוֹמֵיש /koˈmeʃ/||comen||you eat|
|poder||puedes||podés||podís||podéis||podex פּוֹדֵיש /poˈdeʃ/||pueden||you can / may|
|hablar||hablas||hablás||habláis||favlax פֿאבֿלאש /faˈvlaʃ/||hablan||you speak|
|recordar||recuerdas||recordás||recordáis||recordax רֵיקוֹרדאש /rekorˈdaʃ/||recuerdan||you remember|
|vivir||vives||vivís||vivix בִּיבִֿיש /biˈviʃ/||viven||you live|
|venir||vienes||venís||venix בֵּינִיש /beˈniʃ/||vienen||you come|
|1 Because of the general aspiration of syllable-final [s], the -s of this ending is usually heard as [h] or not pronounced.|
2 In Colombia, the rest of the country that uses vos follows the General Conjugation.
3 In the state of Zulia
4 in Azuero
General conjugation is the one that is most widely accepted and used in various countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia, as well as Central American countries.
Some Uruguayan speakers combine the pronoun tú with the vos conjugation (for example, tú sabés). Conversely, speakers in some other places where both tú and vos are used combine vos with the tú conjugation (for example, vos sabes). This is a frequent occurrence in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero.
The verb forms employed with vos are also different in Chilean Spanish: Chileans with voseo delete the final -s from the final diphthong -áis (and -ois): (vos/tú soi /erís; vos/tú estái).
In the case of the ending -ís (such as in comís, podís, vivís, erís, venís), the final -s is not totally dropped. Rather, in most cases, especially before a consonant, an aspiration similar to the 'h' sound in English is still audible.
Both Chilean Spanish and Venezuelan Maracucho Spanish are notable in that they preserve the diphthongized plural verb forms in all tenses, as still used with vosotros in Spain.
In Ladino, the -áis, -éis, -ís, & -ois endings are pronounced /aʃ/, /eʃ/, /iʃ/, & /oʃ/.
In Chile, it is much more usual to use tú + vos verb conjugation (tú sabís). The use of pronominal vos (vos sabís) is reserved for very informal situations and may even be considered vulgar in some cases.
- General conjugation: the final -r of the infinitive is replaced by -s; in writing, an acute accent is added to the last vowel (i.e. the one preceding the final -s) to indicate stress position.
- the -ar ending of the infinitive is replaced by -ái
- both -er and -ir are replaced by -ís, which sounds more like -íh.
- Venezuelan (Zulian): practically the same ending as modern Spanish vosotros, yet with the final -s being aspirated so that: -áis, -éis, -ís sound like -áih, -éih, -íh (phonetically resembling Chilean).
|1 in Zulia; identical ending to modern vosotros|
Unlike tú, which has many irregular forms, the only voseo verbs that are conjugated irregularly in the indicative present are ser, ir and haber. However, haber is seldom used in the indicative present, since there is a strong tendency to use preterite instead of present perfect.
Vos also differs in its affirmative imperative conjugation from both tú and vosotros. Specifically, the vos imperative is formed by dropping the final -r from the infinitive, but keeping the stress on the last syllable. The only verb that is irregular in this regard is ir; its vos imperative is not usually used, with andá (the vos imperative of andar, which is denoted by *) being generally used instead; except for the Argentine province of Tucumán, where the imperative ite is used. For most regular verbs ending in -ir, the vos imperatives use the same conjugations as the yo form in the preterite; almost all verbs that are irregular in the preterite (which are denoted by ‡) retain the regular vos imperative forms.
|estar||to be||está / estate||está / estate||estad|
|ir||to go||ve||id / ite *(andá / andate)||id|
|callar||to become silent||calla||callá||callad|
|soltar||to release/let go||suelta||soltá||soltad|
|venir||to come||ven||vení ‡||venid|
|decir||to say||di||decí ‡||decid|
Again, the conjugation of tú has far more irregularities, whereas vos has only one irregular verb in the affirmative imperative.
In Chile, the general vos conjugation is not used in the affirmative imperative.
In most places where voseo is used, it is applied also in the subjunctive. In the Río de la Plata region, both the tú-conjugation and the voseo conjugation are found, the tú-form being more common. In this variety, some studies have shown a pragmatic difference between the tú-form and the vos-form, such that the vos form carries information about the speaker's belief state, and can be stigmatized. For example, in Central America the subjunctive and negative command form is no mintás, and in Chile it is no mintái; however, in Río de la Plata both no mientas and no mintás are found. Real Academia Española models its voseo conjugation tables on the most frequent, unstigmatized Río de la Plata usage and therefore omits the subjunctive voseo.
|Río de la Plata region||Chile||Venezuela (Zulia)
|No quiero que mintás.||No quiero que mientas.||No quiero que mintái.||No quiero que mintáis.||I don't want you to lie.|
|No temás.||No temas.||No temái.||No temáis.||Do not fear.|
|Que durmás bien||Que duermas bien.||Que durmái bien.||Que durmáis bien.||Sleep well.|
|No te preocupés.||No te preocupes.||No te preocupís.||No te preocupéis.||Don't worry.|
|1including areas in Colombia with voseo, e.g. the Paisa Region.|
Verbal voseo and pronominal voseo
- "Verbal voseo" refers to the use of the verb conjugation of vos regardless of which pronoun is used.
- Verbal voseo with a pronoun other than vos is widespread in Chile, in which case one would use the pronoun tú and the verb conjugation of vos at the same time. E.g.: tú venís, tú escribís, tú podís, tú sabís, tú vai, tú estái.
- There are some partially rare cases of a similar sort of verbal voseo in Uruguay where one would say for example tú podés or tú sabés.
- 'Pronominal voseo' is the use of the pronoun vos regardless of verb conjugation.
Countries where voseo is predominant
In South America:
- Argentina — both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun tú is virtually unused.
- Paraguay — both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun tú is virtually unused in most of the country, except in Concepción.
- Uruguay — dual-usage of both pronominal and verbal voseo and a combination of the pronoun tú + verb conjugated in the vos form, except near the Brazilian border, where only pronominal and verbal tuteo is common.
In Central America:
- Nicaragua — both pronominal and verbal voseo; the pronoun tú is seldom used.
- Guatemala — verbal voseo is widespread in the country; it is commonly used throughout the society. The pronoun tú, although not unheard, is extremely rare.
- Costa Rica — voseo has historically been used, back in the 2000s it was losing ground to ustedeo and tuteo, especially among younger speakers. Vos is now primarily used orally with friends and family in Cartago, Guanacaste province, the San José metropolitan area and near the Nicaraguan border and in advertising signage. Usted is the primary form in other areas and with strangers. Tuteo is rarely used, but when it is used in speech by a Costa Rican, it is commonly considered fake and effeminate.
Countries where it is extensive, but not predominant
In South America:
- Bolivia: in the Lowlands of Eastern Bolivia—with mestizo, Criollo and German descendants majority—(Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando, Tarija and the Lowlands of La Paz) voseo is used universally; while in the Highlands of Western Bolivia—with indigenous peoples majority—(highlands of La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca and Cochabamba) tú is predominant, but there is still a strong use of voseo, especially in verb forms.
- Chile: verbal voseo is spreading north- and southwards from the center, whereas pronominal voseo is reserved only for very intimate situations or to offend someone. In addition, voseo in Chile is only used in informal situations; in every other situation, the normal tú or usted pronouns are used.
In Central America:
- Honduras: a three-tiered system is used, which indicates the degree of respect or trust: usted, tú, vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; tú corresponds to an intermediate level, expressing familiarity, but not deep trust; vos remains the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity, and also lack of respect.
- El Salvador: a two-tiered system is used, that indicates the degree of respect or trust: usted, vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; vos corresponds to an intermediate level, expressing familiarity, but not deep trust but also the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity, and also lack of respect. But sometimes parents even address their young children as usted.
Countries where voseo occurs in some areas
In the following countries, voseo is used in certain areas:
- Colombia, in the departments:
- Cuba in the eastern side of the country
- Ecuador in the Sierra, the center, and Esmeraldas
- Panama in the west along the border to Costa Rica
- Venezuela, in the northwest (primarily in Zulia State)
- Philippines, on Mindanao and Luzón, and historically as an official language
- Mexico, widely used in the countryside of the state of Chiapas, it is becoming rare in Yucatán, Tabasco and Quintana Roo. Mainly used by not-enrolled indigenous people.
- Peru, in some areas in both the Northern and Southern ends of the country.
Countries where vos is virtually absent from usage
In the following countries, the use of vos has disappeared completely and is not used at all.
Synchronic analysis of Chilean and River Plate verbal voseos
The traditional assumption that Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are derived from those corresponding to vosotros has been challenged as synchronically inadequate in a 2014 article, on the grounds that it requires at least six different rules, including three monophthongization processes that completely lack phonological motivation. Alternatively, the article argues that the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are synchronically derived from underlying representations that coincide with those corresponding to the non-honorific second person singular tú. The proposed theory requires the use of only one special rule in the case of Chilean voseo. This rule plus other rules that are independently justified in the language make it possible to synchronically derive all the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms in a straightforward manner. The article additionally solves the problem posed by the alternate verbal forms of Chilean voseo like the future indicative (e.g. bailaríh 'you will dance'), the present indicative forms of haber (habíh and hai 'you have'), and the present indicative of ser (soi, eríh and eréi 'you are'), without resorting to any ad hoc rules. The theoretical framework of the article is that of classic generative phonology.
In some countries, the pronoun vos is used with family and friends (T-form), like tú in other varieties of Spanish, and contrasts with the respectful usted (V-form used with third person) which is used with strangers, elderly, and people of higher socioeconomic status; appropriate usage varies by dialect. In Central America, vos can be used among those considered equals, while usted maintains its respectful usage. In Ladino, the pronoun usted is completely absent, so the use of vos with strangers and elders is the standard.
Voseo was long considered a backwards or uneducated usage by prescriptivist grammarians. With the changing mentalities in the Hispanic world, and with the development of descriptive as opposed to prescriptive linguistics, it has become simply a local variant of Spanish. In some places it has become symbolically important and is pointed to with pride as a local defining characteristic.
- Similar trends of personal pronouns in Portuguese
- Spanish dialects and varieties
- Spanish verbs
- T–V distinction#Romance languages
- Bruquetas, Francisco (2015). Advanced Spanish. Bruquetas Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 9780578104355.
- Borrini, Alberto (24 February 1998). "Publicidad & Marketing. ¿Por qué usan el tuteo los avisos?". La Nación. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- Gassó, María José. "El voseo rioplatense en la clase de español" (PDF). Instituto Cervantes Belo Horizonte. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- degruyter.com; Ana María Díaz Collazos, Desarrollo sociolingüístico del voseo en Colombia.
- Miranda, Stewart (1999). The Spanish Language Today. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 0-415-14258-X.
- Raymundo Del Pueyo A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language (London: F. Wingrave, 1792) 159; The book is online at Google Books at: https://books.google.com/books?id=NekRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=toc&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPP9,M1
- Luizete Guimarães Barros. 1990. Lengua y nación en la Gramática de Bello. Anuario brasileño de estudios hispánicos.
- (in Spanish) Lapesa Melgar, Rafael. 1970. "Las formas verbales de segunda persona y los orígenes del voseo", in: Carlos H. Magis (ed.), Actas del III Congreso de la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas (México, D.F., 26-31 Aug 1968). México: Colegio de México, 519-531.
- (in Spanish) García de Diego, Vicente.  1981. Gramática histórica española. (3rd edition; 1st edition 1951, 2nd edition 1961, 3rd edition 1970, 1st reprint 1981.) Madrid: Gredos, 227-229.
- -ides did not produce -íes because -iés and íes were already in use as Imperfect forms, cf. García de Diego ( 1981: 228) and Lapesa (1970: 526).
- Johnson, Mary (2016). "Epistemicity in voseo and tuteo negative commands in Argentinian Spanish". Journal of Pragmatics. 97: 37–54. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2016.02.003.
- Moyna, María Irene & Rivera-Mills, Susana (2016). Forms of Address in Spanish across the Americas. John Benjamins. pp. 127–148. ISBN 9789027258090.
- See for example in Real Academia Española Dictionary, mentir or preocupar, where mentís and preocupás are present, but mintás and preocupés are missing.
- Maria Irene Moyna, Susana Rivera-Mills (2016). Forms of Address in the Spanish of the Americas. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 243–263. ISBN 978-90-272-6700-9.
- Solano Rojas, Yamileth (1995). "Las formas pronominales: Vos - tu - usted en Costa Rica, análisis de una muestra". Revista Pensamiento Actual. 1 (1): 42–57.
- Susana V. Rivera-Mills. "Use of Voseo and Latino Identity: An Intergenerational Study of Hondurans and Salvadorans in the western region of the U.S." (PDF). Oregon State University. Cite journal requires
- Martha D. Ortiz. "El voseo en El Salvador". Scholarworks.sjsu.edu.
- John M. Lipski. "El español que se habla en El Salvador y su importancia para la dialectología hispanoamericana" (PDF) (in Spanish). The Pennsylvania State University. Cite journal requires
- Davis, Jack Emory (1971). "The Spanish of Mexico: An Annotated Bibliography for 1940-69". Hispania. 54: 624–656. doi:10.2307/337708. ISSN 0018-2133.
- revistas.unal.edu.co: Julia M. Baquero and Germán F. Westphal (2014) "Un análisis sincrónico del voseo verbal chileno y rioplatense." Forma y Función, 27 (2), 11-40.
- (in Spanish) Díaz Collazos, Ana María. Desarrollo sociolingüístico del voseo en la región andina de Colombia.
- (in Spanish) El voseo at Spanish Wikibooks
- (in French) Le Voseo
- (in Spanish) Voseo at the Pan-Hispanic Dictionary of Doubts (Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas). Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española) (2005)
- (in Spanish) Voseo Spanish Site dedicated to teaching Argentine Voseo usage
- (in Spanish) Baquero, Julia M. and Westphal, Germán F. (2014) "Un análisis sincrónico del voseo verbal chileno y rioplatense.” Forma y Función, 27 (2), 11-40."
- (in Spanish) Carricaburo. Norma Beatriz (2003). El voseo en la historia y en la lengua de hoy - Las fórmulas de tratamiento en el español actual
- (in Spanish) Hotta. Hideo (2000). La estandarización y el regionalismo en el voseo del español argentino
- (in Spanish) Roca, Luis Alberto (2007). Breve historia del habla cruceña y su mestizaje
- (in Spanish) Rosenblat, Ángel (2000). El castellano en Venezuela
- (in Spanish) Toursinov, Antón (2005). Formas pronominales de tratamiento en el español actual de Guatemala