Washington Metro rolling stock

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The rolling stock of the Washington Metro system consists of 1,242 75-foot (23 m) cars that were acquired across seven orders. All cars operate as married pairs (consecutively numbered even-odd), with systems shared across the pair. The 7000-series cars, the system's newest, have an operator's cab in only one of each married pair's cars and typically operate in groups of four.

The system's track gauge is 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm) – 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) narrower than standard gauge (4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)).[1] Also, at 40 inches (1,016 mm) above top of rail,[1] the floor height of the cars is lower than that of most other East Coast mass transit systems, including New York City, Boston[2] and Philadelphia.[citation needed]

Summary[edit]

As of March 2018, Metro owns a fleet of 1,242 cars, 1,132 of which are in active revenue service.[3][4] Font in bold signifies the cars which are currently in revenue service.

Series Manufacturer Number purchased [3] Entered service Retired (estimated) Currently owned [3] Currently Active [3] Replacement
1000 Rohr 300 1976 2016–2017 6 4 for "money train"
2 preserved[5][6]
7000-series
2000 Breda 76 1982 (2023–) 76 74
(additional 2 for "money train")
8000-series
3000 Breda 290 1987 (2023–) 284 284 8000-series
4000 Breda 100 1991 2017 2[7] 2 preserved[8][7][5] 7000-series
5000 CAF / AAI 192 2001 2018[9] 22 2 preserved[9] 7000-series
6000 Alstom 184 2006 184 180
(additional 2 for "money train")
8000-series
7000 Kawasaki 748 2015 [1]648 [10] 648[10] (phasing in)
8000 (not selected) 256[11] 2024[11]

Rail yards[edit]

There are nine Metro Rail storage and overhaul facilities totaling more than 1.3 million square feet of workspace.[citation needed]

Facility Line Storage Location Storage Service & Inspection Major Repair Overhaul Running Maintenance
Brentwood Red 86 DC
Branch Avenue Green 166 MD
Greenbelt Green/Yellow 284 MD
Glenmont Red 132 MD
New Carrollton Blue / Orange / Silver 114 MD
Largo Blue / Silver 42 MD
Shady Grove Red 168 MD
Alexandria Blue / Yellow 176 VA
West Falls Church Orange / Silver 148 VA
Future Rail Yards
Dulles Airport Silver VA

1000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 1000-series
WMATA Fort-Totten-sb-arrive.jpg
Train of Rohr cars arrives at Fort Totten
WMATA Rohr interior.jpg
Interior of Rohr 1112
In service1976–2017
ManufacturerRohr Industries
Built atWinder, Georgia
Constructed1974–1978[12]
Entered service1976
Refurbishment1993–1996 by WMATA Brentwood Shop/Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie
Scrapped2016–2017
Number built300
Number in service(4 used for the money train)
Number preserved2
Number scrapped294[6]
Fleet numbers1000–1299
CapacitySeating: 82
Total: 175
Operator(s)Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Car body constructionExtruded aluminum
Train length600 feet (182.88 m) (8-car train)
Car length75 feet (22.86 m)[1]
Width10 feet 1 34 inches (3.09 m)[1]
Height10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)[1]
Floor height40 inches (1,016 mm)[1]
DoorsSliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed75 miles per hour (121 km/h)[1]
Traction motorsFour General Electric "5GEB" 3 Phase, 4 pole, Asynchronous AC Traction Drives with GTO Inverters (post rehab)[13]
Power output186.5 kilowatts (250.1 horsepower)[13] per motor
746 kilowatts (1,000 horsepower) per car
Acceleration2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h⋅s))[1]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
BogiesCast Steel
Braking system(s)ABEX Hydraulics
Track gauge4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
WMATA Rohr Money Train 8000–8001 (former car numbers 1010–1011) bypassing Pentagon City station. These cars were not rehabilitated along with 8002–8003 (former car numbers 1044–1045) and retain their original roll signs, motors, and door chimes. These cars were retired in March 2018.
WMATA Rohr 8005 at Pentagon City. 8004-8005 were formerly cars 1092-1093 that were converted in 2016 meaning they're the only rehabilitated Money Train Rohr cars in the system.

The original order of 300 Metro cars was manufactured by Rohr Industries, with delivery in 1976.[3] These cars are numbered 1000–1299, and were rehabilitated in the mid-1990s by Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (later AnsaldoBreda, now Hitachi Rail Italy) and WMATA at their Brentwood Shop in northeast Washington, D.C.

Features[edit]

There are two major characteristics that distinguish the 1000-series from the later series cars. On their sides, the cars had two mylar curtain rollsigns, one above a window next to the doors on each end (while the other car classes have a single flip-dot or LED sign above a window next to the center doors). Second, the bulkheads on each end of the 1000-series cars feature windows that extend to the top of the bulkhead frame, whereas other car classes' bulkhead windows only extend slightly higher than the side windows. These cars were the only cars to have curtain rollsigns until it’s rehabilitation in 1993. During rehabilitation of these cars, one rollsign on each side was converted into an exterior loudspeaker, while the other rollsign, as well as the bulkhead signs, were converted to flip-dot displays, replacing the original rollsigns entirely. The cars also received General Electric AC propulsion (same as that of the AnsaldoBreda A650 railcar used on LA Metro), replacing the original Westinghouse cam control DC propulsion systems, making them the first cars on the system to use such propulsion systems.

Alongside with the only ones with rollsigns, the 1000 Series cars are the only cars to have more seating capacity as the other cars, carrying 82 seats. The original interiors had a white grained appearance with 82 orange and brown seats. Although it does have the standing capacity of 175 passengers, the same amount on its successors, until the arrival of the 7000 Series cars, which increased the standing capacity.

Around August 2008, Metrorail tested new overhead handles of different styles on 1122, 1123, 1126, 1127, as well as some 3000-series cars to gauge public opinion.[14]

Incidents[edit]

Car 1076 was taken out of service after its mate was destroyed in the 2004 accident at the Woodley Park station.[15] Car 1028, separated from its mate after it was destroyed during the Federal Triangle derailment in 1982, became the feeler car (a car that checks system clearances) and was retired in April 2016. 1079[16] was the lead car on the second train involved in the June 22, 2009, Washington Metro train collision.[17]

Following the June 22, 2009, collision, Metro implemented a policy of no longer placing 1000-series railcar pairs at the ends of trains in order to prevent telescoping in a collision, as they were the weakest rolling stock, structurally.[18] The new policy placed 1000-series cars in the center of six and eight-car trains, with rail cars of other series in the end positions.

Retirement[edit]

The 7000-series cars started replacing these cars starting in 2016.[19] In July 2015, Metro released a request for proposals seeking a contractor to pick-up and dispose of Metro's entire remaining fleet of 1000-series railcars.[20] Metro announced on June 7, 2017, that the 1000-series cars will be fully retired and removed from service on July 1, 2017, after running for 41 years.[5] On October 27, 2017, WMATA announced on its Twitter account that the last of the cars had been sent off property.[6]

WMATA retained pair 1000–1001 as historical cars.[5]

Other uses[edit]

Four cars, formerly numbered 1010–1011 and 1044–1045, were renumbered to 8000–8003 and serve as the "money train" to collect the revenue from station fare card machines. A third pair, 1092–1093 was converted in April 2016 and was renumbered to 8004–8005. Cars 8000-8001 were replaced by the Alstom 6000 Series cars, 6182-6183, in 2018. Cars 8002-8005 are expected to be replaced in the future.[citation needed]

On January 23, 2014, pair 1090–1091 was spotted at the Asymmetric Warfare Training Center at Fort AP Hill.[21] Eight cars were taken to the Guardian Centers facility in Georgia, including pair 1130–1131.[22]

2000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 2000 series
Breda 2042 at Franc-Springd.jpg
A train of 2000-series Breda cars at Franconia–Springfield following rehabilitation
WMATA Breda 2075 interior.jpg
Interior of Breda 2075 following rehabilitation
In service1983–present
ManufacturerBreda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (now Hitachi Rail Italy)
Built atPistoia, Italy
Constructed1983–1984[12]
Refurbishment2002–2004 by Alstom Transportation
Scrappedest. 2023
Number built76
Number in service74[3]
Fleet numbers2000–2075
CapacitySeating: 68
Total: 175
Operator(s)Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Car body constructionExtruded Aluminum
Train length600 feet (182.88 m) (8-car train)
Car length75 feet (22.86 m)
Width10 feet 1 34 inches (3.09 m)
Height10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)
Floor height40 inches (1,016 mm)
DoorsSliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed75 miles per hour (121 km/h)
Traction systemFour Alstom ONIX 2000 AC Traction Drives (Model 4 EXA 2122)[23] with IGBT Inverters (post rehab)[24]
Power output165 kilowatts (221 horsepower) per motor
600 kilowatts (800 horsepower) per car
Acceleration2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h⋅s))[1]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
BogiesFabricated Steel
Track gauge4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)

The second order, of 76 cars, was through Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (now Hitachi Rail Italy), with delivery in 1982.[3] These cars are numbered 2000–2075, and were rehabilitated in 2003 to 2004 by Alstom in Hornell, New York.

Features[edit]

These cars were the first cars to feature a single flip-dot sign above a window next to the center doors, instead of two rollsigns found in the 1000 series cars. In place of the second rollsign, these cars are also the first cars to feature an exterior loudspeaker, as the 1000 Series cars lacked on loudspeakers, until it was rehabbed in 1993. The bulkhead on these cars were slightly higher than the 1000 series cars, and also have the flip-dot destination signs. Unlike the 1000 Series, there are less seatings in the 2000 Series, by having 14 less seats, although retaining the same amount of standing area capacity. In 2002, as part of the rehabilitation project, the 2000 Series cars received new AC propulsion systems with IGBT technology, replacing the original cam-controlled DC propulsion systems. Also included were railcar monitoring systems, advanced ATC/ATS control systems, exterior LED destination signs, interior LED next stop signs and improved emergency exit signage.

The refurbished railcars also received the red, white and blue interior found on the 5000-series cars.

Other uses[edit]

Cars 2016–2017 have been removed from service with their seats and carpet removed and are being converted into money train pairs that will replace the 1000 series running the route.[25][self-published source?]

3000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 3000 series
WMATA Breda 3000 Series At Tenleytow-AU.jpg
Breda 3179 arriving at Tenleytown-AU in 2019
WMATA Breda 3267 interior.jpg
Interior of Breda 3267 prior to rehabilitation
In service1987–present
ManufacturerBreda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (now Hitachi Rail Italy)
Built atPistoia, Italy
Constructed1984–1988[12]
Entered service1987
Refurbishment2004–2009 by Alstom Transportation
2018-present (7000-Series Livery)
Scrappedest. 2023
Number built290
Number in service282[3]
Fleet numbers3000–3289
CapacitySeating: 68
Total: 175
Operator(s)Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Car body constructionExtruded Aluminum
Train length600 feet (182.88 m) (8-car train)
Car length75 feet (22.86 m)
Width10 feet 1 34 inches (3.09 m)
Height10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)
Floor height40 inches (1,016 mm)
DoorsSliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed75 miles per hour (121 km/h)
Traction systemFour Alstom ONIX 2000 AC Traction Drives (Model 4 EXA 2122)[23] with IGBT Inverters (post rehab)[24]
Power output165 kilowatts (221 horsepower) per motor
600 kilowatts (800 horsepower) per car
Acceleration2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h⋅s))[1]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
BogiesFabricated Steel
Track gauge4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
Breda 3283 with modified floor plan. Note the side-facing bench seats in the center, the strap handles along the ceiling, and the lean rests near the end of the car.
Breda 3070–3071 in the new Vinyl Wrap at New Carrollton

The third order consisted of 290 cars, also from Breda, with delivery in 1987.[3] These cars are numbered 3000–3289 as delivered, and were also rehabilitated in 2004 to 2009 by Alstom in Hornell, New York.

Features[edit]

These cars were the next cars to feature a single flip-dot sign like the 2000 Series cars, alongside with an exterior loudspeaker. As part of this rehabilitation project in 2004, they received AC propulsion systems with IGBT technology, replacing the chopper-controlled DC propulsion system. Also included in the rehabilitation is the addition of railcar monitoring systems, advanced ATC/ATS control systems, exterior LED destination signs, interior LED next stop signs and improved emergency exit signage. The refurbished 3000-series cars also received the red, white and blue interior found on the 5000-series cars.

Incidents[edit]

On January 6, 1996, a revenue train collided with an out-of-service train, both consisting entirely of Breda 3000-series cars, at the Shady Grove station, fatally injuring the operator of the revenue train. Car 3252, the lead car of the revenue train, collided with 3191, the car at the inbound end of the out-of-service train.[26] The mates of these two cars, 3253 and 3190 respectively, were later mated together. 3190 reentered revenue service as 3290 and 3253 reentered service as 3291. However, 3252 and 3191 were retained by WMATA for training purposes.[27]

On November 29, 2009, a collision occurred between two out-of-service trains at the Falls Church rail yard in Fairfax County, Virginia. Car 3216, the lead car of one of the trains, was damaged beyond repair.[28] Three Metro employees with minor injuries were taken to a local hospital.[29] The NTSB planned to launch an investigation of the incident.[30] As a result, car 3217 is stored out of service.

On May 21, 2019, WMATA temporarily removed all 3000 Series railcars from service following reports of door malfunctions.[31][32]

Pilot programs[edit]

Beginning in 2005, a number of 3000-series cars that had not yet undergone rehabilitation were modified as part of a pilot program to study passenger movements to improve the seating arrangement for future rail cars. Sixteen cars received a new seating arrangement that included modified handholds and seat positions, including some longitudinal seating. These cars, as well as other cars being used as control cars in the experiment, received on-board cameras in order for planners to observe passenger movements.[33][34][35][36]

Around August 2008, Metrorail tested new overhead handles of different styles on 3034, 3035, 3094, 3095 as well as some 1000-series cars to gauge public opinion.[14]

4000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 4000 series
Breda 4000 Series Train.jpg
A Blue Line train of Breda 4000-series cars arrives at King Street–Old Town.
WMATA Breda 4018 interior.jpg
Interior of Breda 4018
In service1991–2017
ManufacturerBreda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (now Hitachi Rail Italy)[37]
Built atPistoia, Italy
Constructed1991–1994 [12]
Scrapped2017
Number built100
Number preserved2[8]
Number scrapped98[7]
Fleet numbers4000–4099
CapacitySeating: 68
Total: 175
Operator(s)Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Car body constructionExtruded Aluminum
Train length600 feet (182.88 m) (8-car train)
Car length75 feet (22.86 m)
Width10 feet 1 34 inches (3.09 m)
Height10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)
Floor height40 inches (1,016 mm)
DoorsSliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed75 miles per hour (121 km/h)
Weight78000 lb
Traction motorsWestinghouse 1462 chopper controlled DC motors
Power output159.25 kilowatts (213.56 horsepower) per motor
637 kilowatts (854 horsepower) per car
Acceleration2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h⋅s))[1]
Decelerationmph/s (4.8 km/(h⋅s))[citation needed]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
BogiesFabricated Steel
Track gauge4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
Breda 4041 at Greenbelt Metro. These cars were forced into the middle of trainsets (similar to the 1000 series) due to a glitch that could display an incorrect speed limit to a train operator while operating in manual mode in November 2016.[38]

The fourth order consisted of 100 cars from Breda, numbered 4000–4099. These cars were delivered in 1991.[3]

Features[edit]

There were some minor differences between these and the earlier Breda cars prior to rehabilitation. First, the bulkhead windows were rounded as compared to being squared and unlike other cars, these were also the only cars in the system not to have been originally built with or retrofitted with exterior speakers.

These cars used the original flip-dot exterior destination signs, chopper-controlled DC propulsion system, and the original cream, orange and yellow interior all the way up to their retirement.

Incidents[edit]

Car 4018 was damaged in the Woodley Park accident, but was eventually repaired.

On July 4, 2010, Metro took all 100 4000-series cars out of service to repair the door motors to prevent them from unintentionally opening while the train is in motion, a situation that Metro engineers were able to duplicate in a rail yard.[39] On July 20, the cars were returned to service after the repair was completed.[40]

Retirement[edit]

These cars were to be rehabilitated starting 2014 onward based on design specifications that were partially drafted in 2010,[41][42] however, WMATA indicated in subsequent budgets that it wished to replace these rail cars with an additional 100 7000-series cars instead of overhauling them. This would result in an increase of new cars being delivered.[43] According to an April 2013 Washington Post news story, the transit agency said that it would forgo updating the 4000-series rail cars and Metro had exercised an option with Kawasaki to purchase an additional one hundred 7000-series cars to replace its 4000-series cars, costing an additional $215 million under the contract.[44][44] In June 2015 Metro pulled all 4000-series railcars from service following reports that doors were opening during travel; although no systemic problem was located, Metro kept the series out of service for more than a month to address door components that were below acceptable tolerance levels.[45]

In July 2015, Metro released a request for proposals seeking a contractor to pick-up and then dispose of all 1000-series and 4000-series cars, as part of its plan to replace those cars with the new 7000-series cars.[20] On November 17, 2016, Metro discovered a glitch in which a 4000-series car would display an incorrect speed limit to a train operator while in manual mode. All 4000-series cars were taken out of service in the afternoon, but were returned to service in the middle of trainsets. Metro announced that they would discontinue using 4000-series railcars in lead positions and considered accelerating the retirement of the cars to late 2017 or possibly earlier.[38] On February 6, 2017, Metro confirmed the accelerated retirement of the 4000-series cars due to their many reliability concerns. According to WMATA, "The 4000-series rail cars were by far Metro's least reliable, traveling an average of only 27,259 miles between delays. By contrast, the best performing cars, the 6000-series, are nearly four times more reliable, traveling more than 103,000 miles between delays."[46] On June 7, 2017, Metro announced that the 4000-series cars would be fully retired and removed from service on July 1, 2017, and by that date, all cars were taken out of service.[5] The last of the cars left for scrapping on February 13, 2018.[7]

WMATA retained pair 4000–4001 as historic cars. Additionally, the Loudoun County Fire and Rescue Department acquired pair 4044–4045 for its Metrorail Training Simulator, which was dedicated on June 28, 2017.[8] In April 2017, car 4089 was sliced into seven sections and turned into vendor kiosks at the Grosvenor-Strathmore Metro Station as part of the pop up vendors plaza, which opened from May to June 30.[47]

5000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 5000 series
CAF 5026 at Fort Totten Lower Level Track 1.jpg
Car 5026 in Green Line service at Fort Totten
WMATA CAF interior.jpg
Interior of CAF 5134
In service2001–2018
ManufacturerCAF/AAI, Zaragoza and Bessain[48]
Built atSpain and Hunt Valley, Maryland, U.S.
Constructed2001–2004[12]
Entered service2001
Scrapped2018
Number built192
Number in service0
Number preserved2
Number scrapped170
Fleet numbers5000–5191
CapacitySeating: 68
Total: 175
Operator(s)Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Car body constructionExtruded Aluminum
Train length600 feet (182.88 m) (8-car train)
Car length75 feet (22.86 m)
Width10 feet 1 34 inches (3.09 m)
Height10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)
Floor height40 inches (1,016 mm)
DoorsSliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed75 miles per hour (121 km/h)
Weight77000 lb
Traction systemFour Bombardier Mitrac DR1000 AC Traction Drives with IGBT Inverters[49]
Power output175 kilowatts (235 horsepower) per motor
700 kilowatts (940 horsepower) per car
Acceleration2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h⋅s))[1]
Deceleration3.146 mph/s (5.063 km/(h⋅s))[citation needed]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
BogiesCast Steel
Track gauge4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
Cab of a 5000-series rail car

The fifth order consisted of 192 rail cars from a joint venture of Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) of Spain and AAI Corporation of Hunt Valley, Maryland. These cars are numbered 5000–5191, with delivery in 2001.[3] Service introduction of these cars was heavily delayed due to software "glitches" which plagued delivery. At one point, WMATA looked to impose penalties against CAF for the service entry delays.

Features[edit]

The contract consisted of CAF engineering and designing the cars and managing the project, while AAI performed assembly. These cars were the first Metrorail cars to originally feature alternating current traction inverters and motors. They were also the first to have LED destination signs on the exterior and LED "next stop" indication signs on the interiors. Along with these improvements, they were also the first to have intercar safety barriers (which have since been added to all other rolling stock) and railcar monitoring systems. The 5000-series cars premiered the red, white and blue interior. This interior color scheme has also been used on the 2000/3000-series rehabilitation project and the 6000-series cars from Alstom.

Another feature was the return of cast steel trucks, which were previously only used on the Rohr cars.[50] This was done as a cost-saving measure, since fabricated trucks take additional time to manufacture due to the machining required.

Incidents[edit]

The National Transportation Safety Board began an investigation about service life of these cars due to non-revenue service derailments in Metrorail yards and the January 7, 2007, derailment of a revenue train on the Green Line at the Mount Vernon Square station.[51]

Cars 5066–5067 were involved in the June 2009 Washington Metro train collision, and 5152–5153 were involved in the Mount Vernon Square train derailment.[52] Both cars were not repaired and were used for spare parts.

Retirement[edit]

The planned midlife rehabilitation of the 5000-series cars was to take place in the late 2010s through the early 2020s. Design specifications were to be drafted in 2017, with the first cars rehabbed in 2022. This series of cars would have been the third series of cars to have automated station announcements and the stainless steel paint scheme after they would have been rehabilitated. The cars would have been compatible with the 7000-series once the rehabilitation process was completed.[53] Metro announced in November 2013 that within two years, all 5000 and 6000 series cars would feature new resilient flooring, replacing the existing carpeting.[54]

On June 4, 2015, the Federal Transit Administration approved early decommission of the 5000-series railcars, which will be replaced with 7000-series railcars instead of being rehabbed.[55] Retirement process began in 2017, and WMATA announced that the last cars were removed from service on October 12, 2018, although cars were reported still in service up until October 17.[56][9]

5000-5001 will be preserved by WMATA. Additionally, some cars are currently being used for work service as a "De-Icer Train" and for the Silver Line Phase 2 construction for test trains to run the line and to polish the third rail.[57]

6000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 6000 series
WMATA Alstom 6000 Series on the Red Line.jpg
Alstom Consists at Fort Totten
WMATA Alstom interior.jpg
Interior of Alstom 6026
In service2006–present
ManufacturerAlstom Transportation
Built atBarcelona, Spain and Hornell, New York, U.S.
Constructed2005–2007[12]
Entered serviceOctober 6, 2006
Refurbishment2017–present (7000-Series Livery)
Number built184
Number in service180[3]
(2 in work service)
Formation2 cars per trainset
Fleet numbers6000–6183
CapacitySeating: 64
Total: 175
Operator(s)Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Car body constructionExtruded Aluminum
Train length600 feet (182.88 m) (8-car train)
Car length75 feet (22.86 m)
Width10 feet 1 34 inches (3.09 m)
Height10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)
Floor height40 inches (1,016 mm)
DoorsSliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed75 mph (121 km/h)
Weight79000 lb
Traction systemFour Alstom ONIX 2000 AC Traction Drives (Model 4 EXA 2122)[23] with IGBT Inverters[24]
Power output165 kilowatts (221 horsepower)[24] per motor
660 kilowatts (890 horsepower) per car
Acceleration2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h⋅s))[1]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
BogiesCast Steel
Coupling systemDellner
Track gauge4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
WMATA Alstom 6180 in the new Vinyl Wrap on the Blue Line at Pentagon City

Subsequently, Metro ordered 184 rail cars from Alstom, the same company that rehabilitated the Breda 2000 and 3000-series cars. Delivery began in late 2005 and continued through 2008.[3]

Features[edit]

The 6000-series look similar to the 5000-series cars built by CAF, but feature revised styling. The bulkhead doors have rounded windows compared to squared and a revised operator window design eliminates the top horizontal bar. These stylistic features are similar to what is found on the Rohr 1000-series cars. A major change that occurred for the first time since the Breda 2000-series cars is the reduction of seating. The 6000-series cars seat 64 instead of 68.

The interior has been completely redesigned to allow for additional standing room (mostly around the center doors) and easier access to all portions of the car. New to the 6000-series cars is the addition of two interior LED next stop indicators located at the center of the car, which brings the total to four interior displays per car (two facing each direction). Also new is an intercom located next to the center doors; previous rail cars only have them at the front and back of each car.

Another new feature is that they are the first series of cars manufactured with the flashing brake indicators on the far ends of each car. These are similar to what is used on the Rohr cars and the rehabilitated Bredas, indicating when the train is in the final stages of stopping. Mechanically, the 6000-series cars features the same cast trucks as the CAF cars, and use the same propulsion systems and advanced cab signaling systems found in the Breda 2000/3000-series rehabilitation from Alstom.

The body shells of the 6000-series were built in Barcelona, Spain, with assembly completed in Hornell, New York.[58]

Delivery[edit]

The first 6000-series set was placed into service on Friday, October 6, 2006, at 11:30 am on its inaugural trip from Greenbelt to Branch Avenue.[58]

On November 17, 2008, Metro completed the installation of new stainless steel-grab bars to all 184 6000-series cars.[59]

Pilot programs[edit]

In 2007, Metro began testing new resilient flooring on four 6000-series cars (6104+6105, 6142+6143),[60] and they announced in November 2013 that within two years, all 5000 and 6000-series cars would feature the new flooring.[54]

Metro tested new fabric seating on cars 6026–6027. This type of seating was also installed on cars 6014–6015.[61]

Metro is planning to add automated announcements on all 6000-series railcars once refurbishment is complete, which will meet up with 7000-series standards.

Cars 6180–6181 were fitted with a vinyl wrap which replaces the brown painting on the sides of the cars. On the inside, new resilient flooring and new blue seats were installed to match the new 7000-series cars. A dozen 6000-series and 3000-series cars will be getting these features. If the pilot program goes well, the remaining cars will be given the new look. WMATA says repainting would cost $14,055 per car, while implementing a vinyl wrap costs only $4,776. Metro's Richard Jordan also claims this method is more environmentally friendly compared to painting. The aluminum surface requires harsh chemicals which have to be treated before put down the sewer.[62]

Incidents[edit]

6050-6051 suffered major body damage in a derailment at New Carrollton Yard in January 2013. 6050 was sent to Upstate New York to be repaired at the Alstom Plant. 6051 is currently stored at Greenbelt Yard.[63]

Other uses[edit]

Alstom 6182-6183 in the Yellow Vinyl Wrap to serve for the Money Train

6182–6183 were removed from service and now serve as "money train" cars, in a yellow vinyl wrap. These cars replaced cars 8000-8001 (formerly 1010-1011), one of three 1000-series pairs that originally served on the money train.[64]

7000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 7000 series
WMATA Metrorail 7000 series at West Hyattsville 2015-10-31 (22022978904).jpg
7000-series railcar at West Hyattville, October 31, 2015.
Metro 7000-Series railcar debut 5.jpg
WMATA 7000-series interior.
In service2015–present
ManufacturerKawasaki Heavy Industries
Built atKawasaki Rail Car, Yonkers, New York, Lincoln, Nebraska, and Kobe, Japan[65]
Replaced1000-series, 4000-series, 5000-series
Constructed2012–present
Entered serviceApril 14, 2015
Number under construction748[66]
Number built648[10]
Number in service648[10]
Formation2 cars (A-B) per trainset
Fleet numbers7000–7747
CapacitySeating:
A-Car: 64 (transverse), 58 (longitudinal)
B-Car: 68 (transverse), 64 (longitudinal)
Total: A-Car: 175 (Transverse seating), 184 (Longitudinal seating)
B-Car: 184 (Transverse seating), 192 (Longitudinal seating)[67]
Operator(s)Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Car body constructionStainless steel
Train length600 feet (182.88 m) (8-car train)
Car length75 feet (22.86 m)[68]
Width10 feet 1 34 inches (3.09 m)
Height10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)
Floor height40 inches (1,016 mm)
DoorsSliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed75 mph (121 km/h)[68]
Weight84,289 lb (38,233 kg)[69]
Traction systemToshiba SEA-430 IGBT-VVVF
Power output140 kilowatts (190 horsepower) per motor
560 kilowatts (750 horsepower) per car
Acceleration2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h⋅s))[1] to 32 mph (51 km/h)[citation needed]
Deceleration2.2 mph/s (3.5 km/(h⋅s))
3.2 mph/s (5.1 km/(h⋅s)) (emergency)[citation needed]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
BogiesFabricated steel truck[70]
Coupling systemDellner
Track gauge4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)

In April 2013, WMATA moved forward with plans to order 528 railcars from Kawasaki, called the 7000-series, to replace the 1000 and 4000-series cars, and to provide service for the Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project, otherwise known as the Silver Line.

Features[edit]

In a February 8, 2007 press release, Metro stated that the new 7000-series cars would have a similar appearance to the 6000-series cars manufactured by Alstom.[71] However, in a January 2008 press release, Metro indicated that the design for the 7000-series cars would have a completely different appearance from that of the current rail cars. The exterior would feature a stainless steel body rather than the aluminum of earlier designs.[72] Inside, seats would be taller and more ergonomically designed, carpeting would be replaced with a resilient floor covering,[72] the grab bars along the ceiling would contain spring-loaded handles,[73] and the cars would contain security cameras, automated announcements, as well as LCD displays to provide train information.[72]

There is also an option to install longitudinal seating instead of the traditional transverse seating found in all previous stock. Such an option would decrease seating capacity, but increase overall car capacity.[citation needed]

Like previous cars, 7000-series cars are configured as semi-permanently coupled married pairs. However, unlike previous cars, the 7000-series cars do not have an operator's cab in every car: even-numbered "A" cars have operator's cabs, while odd-numbered "B" cars do not. The "B" cars can be operated however using smaller "hostler" controls instead. The married pairs are composed of one of each type. This arrangement favors four- and eight-car trains in A–B–B–A and A–B–B–A–A–B–B–A configurations, but six-car trains in A–B–B–A–B–A and trains in any configuration are also possible. The following diagram depicts an eight-car train, with couplers represented by crosses and semi-permanent link bars represented by dashes.[42]

WMATA 7000-Series consist.png

Delivery[edit]

The 7000-series cars are so technologically advanced as to render them incompatible with the existing fleet. Presented with that issue, Metro's board members recognized the seriousness of the decision, but former Metro general manager John B. Catoe indicated that the board needed to decide "in months" on whether to go ahead with the rail car order, regardless of whether or not the Dulles extension was approved.[74]

The bidding process began in December 2008. WMATA issued a notice to proceed to Kawasaki on July 27, 2010, after receiving funding from the Federal Transit Administration,[75] although delivery was delayed due to issues with suppliers following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[76]

Under the contract, Metro originally agreed to purchase 428 7000-series railcars, both to replace its 1000-series cars and provide service for the new Silver Line. In April 2013, Metro elected to exercise an option in the contract to purchase an additional one hundred cars to replace its one hundred 4000-series cars, which it decided do not warrant being overhauled in light of chronic mechanical issues.[77] In September 2013, Metro announced it exercised another option under the contract to purchase an additional 220 7000-series railcars, bringing the total order to 748 railcars.[78] In total, the new 7000-series railcars will make up more than half of Metro's rolling stock by 2020.[78] In November 2013 it was reported that the first four cars would arrive before the end of 2013 and that they would then be tested for 30 weeks, allowing Metro to troubleshoot any issues before full production begins.[79]

Metro unveiled the first 7000-series quad set at Greenbelt on January 6, 2014. The set underwent acceptance testing for at least eight months in order to finalize design specs and work out any problems. In September 2014, Metro reported that it was about one month away from finishing tests on the 7000-series test train, and it stated that it expected an eight-car train made up of 7000-series cars would start carrying passengers in early 2015, and Metro would have 56 railcars by June 2015.[80] During that time, Metro revealed that during testing, a software issue was discovered that it was still addressing, although Metro was confident that the hardware itself was solid.[80] Metro had indicated that the mass production schedule called for 56 new cars to be delivered by June 2015. Combined with the eight cars in the test group, that would give Metro 64 new cars, meaning eight 7000-series trains of eight cars each would be in service next summer. After that, 300 more cars would arrive by February 2017, followed by an additional 100, for a total of 528 new cars at an overall cost of $1.46 billion.[80]

Metro warned its funding partners– VA, MD and DC;– that its option to purchase an additional 220 7000-series cars expired in June 2015 and required a funding commitment of $614 million for rolling stock, and $856 million for related infrastructure upgrades.[80][81] Subsequently, in June 2015, the Federal Transit Administration cleared a major obstacle that was preventing Metro from purchasing the additional 220 railcars by approving an early retirement for the 192 5000-series railcars in order to avoid expenses and to upgrade rail service.[77] Metro's funding partners, VA, MD and DC, agreed to fund the additional purchase of 220 7000-series cars, bringing the total purchase to 748 cars, all of which are expected to be in service before the end of 2020.

The first 7000-series train debuted on the Blue Line on April 14, 2015.[82] 7000-series trains subsequently entered service on the Red line on June 8, 2015,[83] the Orange Line in July, and the Green and Yellow Lines on August 17, 2015.[84] On March 8, 2018, WMATA accepted delivery of its 500th 7000-series car.[4] Cars 7000-7627 are currently in service.

Issues[edit]

The original "Rubber Barriers" on the 7000 Series Railcars. These barriers allegedly posed safety risks for the blind.
The new "Chain Barriers" on 7000 Series Railcars to help keep the blind from falling between cars

In June 2016, the 7000-series was taken out of service on Blue, Orange and Silver Lines after Metro discovered that trains could lose contact with the third rail on a steep curve, which caused a train to shut down outside Rosslyn.[85]

On December 31, 2016, a Washington Post article reported that some residents in DC's Petworth neighborhood were noticing increased noise and vibration levels attributed to the heavier, steel-bodied 7000-series trains. According to the article, Metro engineers conducted initial field tests and noted only "negligible vibration levels." Metro spokesman Richard L. Jordan stated: "Metro is in the process of bringing in third-party engineers to conduct additional tests before we make a final determination."[86] A March 3, 2017 report from WAMU noted that some residents in North Michigan Park and Southwest Waterfront were also experiencing increased noise and vibrations since the 7000-series trains entered service on the Green Line. The same WAMU report stated that Metro has hired the California-based company Wilson Ihrig to conduct "field testing in selected homes."[87]

In August 2018, The Washington Post reported that all delivered cars came with defective wiring that will have to be replaced.[88] In addition, WMATA began playing the announcement "This is a 7000-series train" whenever the train doors opened. This was intended as a temporary measure to aid the disabled because the types of barriers that separated the 7000-series cars posed safety risks for the blind.[89] The FTA ordered WMATA to fix the barriers before the end of 2018, but WMATA could not meet that deadline.[90] However, the barriers began apperaring on 7000-series railcars in October 2018.

8000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 8000 series
8K-exterior-rendering 1.png
WMATA's design concept of an 8000-series rail car
8K-interior-rendering 1.png
A rendering of the interior design for the 8000-series rail car
Order no.256 [11]
Replaced2000-series, 3000-series
Constructed2019
Entered service2024 (expected)

Following the replacement of the 1000, 4000 and 5000-series cars with the new 7000-series between 2016 and 2018, Metro has proposed that all 366 2000-series and 3000-series cars be replaced by the 8000-series cars.[91] Metro considered using an open gangway married pair- or quad-configuration design concept for the 8000-series railcars, but decided against advancing those designs.[92] Other features being considered include wider doors, larger windows, WiFi, heated floors and passenger-operated door push-buttons.[93]

Early plans for the 8000-series procurement had delivery of the cars to begin in 2023.[91] In September 2018, Metro issued a request for proposals from manufacturers for 256 railcars with options for a total of up to 800.[94] The agency plans to award the contract in 2019 and receive the first railcars in 2024.[94] The first order would replace the 2000 and 3000-series equipment, while the options, if selected, would allow the agency to increase capacity and retire the 6000-series.[94]

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External links[edit]