Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/Humanities/2009 March 21

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March 21[edit]

Apartment houses[edit]

"Apartment houses"

What exactly is an apartment house? The term redirects to apartment building, but "apartment house" only appears in the gallery, where the picture to the side is so labelled. Meanwhile, over at Commons, Commons:Category:Apartment houses in the United States is a collection of pictures of little apartment buildings that might be houses split into apartments, plus at least one picture of rowhouses. If it means simply "a house that has been split into apartments", I'll not be surprised, but if that's it, why are these other buildings being so labelled? Nyttend (talk) 05:27, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

I can't say for certain but it's easily possible the label in the gallery originated from the image name and the image name was given by a native German speaker and the name is simply a result of an translation that is a bit unusual in English. See for example [1], [2] and especially [3]. In other words, is apartment house (in the instance in apartment building) is probably just a German English name for an apartment building Nil Einne (talk) 08:09, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
"Apartment house" is just a synonym for "apartment building"; I'll fix the article to mention it. See this dictionary entry and this encyclopedia page. --Anonymous, 23:08 UTC, March 21, 2009.
When I was in Japan, on CNN there was an advert for what they called 'apartment houses' either for rent or to buy, and I took this to mean mean very large apartments (perhaps multi-storey) within an apartment building. Maybe this is what it means?--KageTora (talk) 23:17, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
"Apartment houses" is the term used in Death of a Salesman. I always figured it was New York dialect. -- Mwalcoff (talk) 02:16, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
Very large and luxurious apartments, in purpose-built buildings, were known as mansion flats and mansion blocks. They were a feature particularly of Victorian architecture. These flats have in many cases been subdivided. BrainyBabe (talk) 21:04, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

aspie chess grandmasters[edit]

many aspies are good at chess. how many aspie chess grandmasters are there? their names and proof they are aspie? heard navara is aspie but would like a reliable source. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:36, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

This would require a medical diagnosis of living people which may contradict WP policy. There are web sites which engage in such speculation and list a few famous names. --Cookatoo.ergo.ZooM (talk) 23:36, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
I think unless someone has specifically said that they have been diagnosed with Aspergers, it is pointless to speculate. It's not an easy condition to diagnose - it requires a proper psychological examination. --Tango (talk) 13:06, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

Henry VI of England[edit]

Is it right to mention henry as a king of france because he consiliitated the double-monarchy of england and france and was the supreme legal body king from 1422-1429 by the estates-general{parliament of paris} and the regency government and Henry VI was the legal or de jure king of france from 1422-1429.--HENRY V OF ENGLAND (talk) 10:39, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

List of kings of France has a discussion of this issue. Rmhermen (talk) 14:06, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
The French certainly did not think he was ever anything more than a claimant to the French throne by way of the Treaty of Troyes made with England by Charles VI of France after France's loss in the Hundred Years' War. Upon the death of Charles VI, his son, the Dauphin so famously named by God himself as the true King of France in a vision given to the Maid, became Charles VII. Charles VII had repudiated the Treaty of Troyes, and thus any claim of the England's king, on the grounds of the well-documented mental incapacity of his father. (See[4] and Charles VI of France.) According to [5] this page in the French Wikipedia, Charles VII immediately succeded Charles VI (Numbers 52 and 53). This is, however, a content dispute, and should be resolved on the appropriate article pages. // BL \\ (talk) 15:11, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
The French do not count him themselves, nor do they count the dozens of later English kings that included the title "King of France" among their appelations. The issue is not whether he claimed the title, or whether he signed a treaty, or whatever, the question is how do most reliable historians treat the issue. No mainstream historian seriously considers him a "real" king of France, and the "official" chronology does not number him among the Henrys of France. His claim is a historical curiousity, and one could make the case that he had a valid claim to the title; however as the French ultimately prevailed in the Hundred Years War, they get to decide who their kings were. They don't count him as a King of France, but most importantly, no respected historian does either... 02:20, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
My wording above was sloppy. Jayron32 is correct that the French prevailed over the English ultimately. At the time of the Treaty of Troyes, however, the English-backed forces held the whip hand. I am curious as to what the "official chronology" might be, if not France's list of the kings of France (though not necessarily, it should be said, fr.wikipedia's list of the kings of France).// BL \\ (talk) 04:37, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
Pardon my impertinence, dear Bielle, but if a country's own official list of their monarchs does not trump any other "official lists", I think there's something wrong. It's one thing to say that Henry VI or whoever might have had a valid claim to the throne, but if it never got past the claim stage, then he was never actually King of France in any meaningful way, despite including that in his list of titles. -- JackofOz (talk) 23:51, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

Assur the first dentist?[edit]

Was Amalia Assur the first female dentist in Europe?-- (talk) 10:54, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

Please read Rosalie Fougelberg, it's unclear who was even the first female dentist in Sweden. Both articles are unclear, and give few dates. Flamarande (talk) 14:18, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
I have now read the Swedish versions of these articles. It seems, that Amalia Assur was the first woman dentist in Sweden, but that she was given a personal, special permission to practice the proffession, despite of the fact that it was banned for women in general, so she is regarded as an "exception" case. One date is missing: when Assur was given her license. The date is not mentioned, but it is clear that it was before Fougelberg, as it was before the profession was opened to women, which was in 1861, and Rosalie was licensed after; in 1866. Rosalie Fougelberg was the first woman to be licensed after the proffession was legally opened to women in general, and therefore, she is regarded as the first official woman dentist, after the proffession was opened to women. I do not know how to make this clear enough in the English language. Anyhow; are there anyone before them, in any other country? -- (talk) 21:35, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
I have did my best to clearify the distinction between them from the refs: Assur was the first, but only as a speciall permission case, before the profession was opened to women; and Fougelberg as the first after the profession was opened to women. I hope that is clear now. But: was there any cases in other countries? -- (talk) 21:44, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
What do you mean by 'dentist'? If you mean someone accredited by a modern professional body, then these might perhaps be the first. If you just mean someone who provides specifically dental-related healthcare, then there must be female dentists far back into prehistory. Algebraist 00:31, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
I, for one, am interested in someone accredited by a modern professional body. Assur may be the first, as Swedish articles give the impression that she was licensed in the 1820/30s, even if the do not mention the date. I have not find anything about the first woman dentist in England, France, Germany, the Netherlands etc, so perhaps they had earlier cases?--Aciram (talk) 08:29, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
I ment someone accredited by a modern professional body. -- (talk) 08:33, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

Lebanese Election 2005 candidates[edit]

By any chance did Daily Star newspaper of Lebanon have a section where they have a list of candidates of each political parties participating for each riding?, such as List of candidates of Amal Movement, List of candidates of Hezbollah and List of candidates of Future Movement? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:16, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

Aide for editors - a Riding is word (usually Canadian) for a Constituency, or Electoral district --Saalstin (talk) 16:59, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

Micro- and macro policies[edit]

What macroeconomic and microeconomic policy changes would you recommend to increase South Africa's export potential?Elize Hurter (talk) 14:33, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

The reference desk doesn't make economic recommendations. We can probably help you find reports written by economists making such recommendations, though, if you like. What is this for? --Tango (talk) 15:23, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

It's for an essay on SA's export policy. Recommendations would be nice, thanks. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Elize Hurter (talkcontribs) 18:21, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

What micro- and macro policies can be changed to increase SA's export potential? —Preceding unsigned comment added by Elize Hurter (talkcontribs) 14:36, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

You could try the article on SA, but a quick look through wasn't very enlightening. --KageTora (talk) 19:23, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
SA's main exports are gold, diamonds, and platinum. These are items which are far more valuable once changed into final products, such as jewelery. Thus, I would recommend funding a large jewelry production industry. The jewelry items could also be sold worldwide, via the Internet, to bypass retailer mark-ups. (They would need to insure the items in case they are damaged during delivery.) In the long term, SA could aim to establish brick-and-mortar retailers around the world. This is similar to the idea of Q8 gas stations used to sell Kuwaiti petroleum. SA also needs to improve their infrastructure, and doing so now (with borrowed money) will help to improve the economy as well. StuRat (talk) 06:29, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
I suggest reviewing infant industry argument (not a very good article), subsidy and tarriff (remembering that there are plenty of ways to create an indirect subsidy or tariff). Also remember that many export industries tend to be capital intensive (even large scale farming), so policies that encourage capital accumulation would be effective.
The most important thing in determining net exports, however, is domestic savings. The higher the proportion of income that is saved (the lower the proportion that is consumed), the lower will be imports and the higher will be exports. The less a country consumes, all else (production) being equal, the more it exports. The higher savings rate would also support capital accumulation and production by lowering domestic interest rates. NByz (talk) 16:23, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

I’m going to go ahead and try to answer this one, for two reasons. First, I am a macroeconomist; and second, we don’t have a policy (despite what is cited above) about not offering economic advice. Happens all the time. So, . . . One area South Africa has successfully increased its exports is adding value to raw materials. In Economy of South Africa, we state that processing iron and other minerals to produce ferroalloys and other higher value-added products has been an important source of growth. So, 1st answer: add more value. 2nd answer: improve the quality of the labor force. This includes everything from literacy to HIV/AIDS. 3rd: continue (perhaps more quickly) lifting controls on capital flows. If people (companies) aren’t sure they can take their money out, they will be more reluctant to bring it into the country. 4th: reconsider if reverse “affirmative action” is such a good idea. Reducing opportunities for the most educated, richest people in society on the basis of race is pretty dumb. 5th: crank up the infrastructure development. Electricity, clean water, sewage and education are all below par. DOR (HK) (talk) 04:16, 23 March 2009 (UTC)

That's either "reverse discrimination" or regular "affirmative action". (Since "affirmative action" is already "reverse discrimination", adding a redundant "reverse" would switch it back to normal discrimination.) StuRat (talk) 16:26, 23 March 2009 (UTC)
Unless, of course, the opposite of the common use of the term had been practiced for decades. DOR (HK) (talk) 02:41, 24 March 2009 (UTC)


I need a quick guide to Freuds psychology 16:55, 21 March 2009 (UTC)~ —Preceding unsigned comment added by Val Baldam (talkcontribs)

Do you mean Freud's own psychology (that is to say, his personality and so forth) or psychology as practiced by Freud? Our articles on Sigmund Freud, psychosexual development and id, ego, and super-ego are probably good places to begin, at least for the latter. -- Captain Disdain (talk) 21:44, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
There is also a lengthy article on psychoanalysis, which has a multitude of links and references, if you do any further research. --Cookatoo.ergo.ZooM (talk) 23:11, 21 March 2009 (UTC)
Freud taught various radically different and incompatible things about human psychology during his career, so don't make the mistake of thinking that any one thing can be called "Freud's psychology". He was initially content to explain things neurologically, deriving many of his crucial hypotheses from contemporary biological theories; he later developed a theory focus on mental energy (in one incarnation libido vs. thanatos in a dyadic system, later dropping the "thanatos", and retaining only the libido. Yet another of his systems was structural, postulating that behavior was determined on the basis of the inter-relationships of various levels of consciousness (id, ego, superego). After a patient suggested a "talking cure" he developed it. Initially he gave credence to his patients' stories of childhood abuse, deeming hysteria was caused by such abuse; later he denied his patients' stories of childhood abuse - the same stories he had an obsessive need to find in his patient's vocalizations. So one can study [1] Freud under the influence of Fleiss (the infantile sexuality stage); [2] Freud under the influence of Charcot (the hysteria theory of pre-sexual sexual shock); [3] theories about the unconscious mind (Oedipal stages, dreams as wish fulfillment); [4] Freud's messianic stage in which he promulgated his own personal myth of greatness (psychoanalysis), and various other stages of his thought's development, as he answered critics, annointed successors, and (throughout his life) applied his doctrines to various non-psychological subjects. (Moses & Monotheism; Da Vinci, etc.) - Nunh-huh 04:13, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

What you want is 'squashed' Freud. You can get these sorts of things for many classical works/items and they're quite a good thing for those with little time. Squashed Philosophers is quite good. ny156uk (talk) 16:25, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

Turn of the Century French Ultra Conservatism[edit]

Where can I find details of caused the rise of strong right wing conservatism in France under theird republic in the period between the Franco-Prussian War and WW1. Thank you.

Indian mythology/legend question[edit]

I have a vague memory that some sage or hero in Indian legend was said to be so great that Krishna bowed to him when he was received after death. Does anyone know who this was? Vultur (talk) 22:49, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

Sounds like Yudhisthira (see the last sentence of the article). Deor (talk) 22:56, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

exact location of Kennedy speech in Berlin[edit]

I'd like to find out the exact location (on a street) where President Kennedy gave his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in Berlin. Jawed (talk) 23:45, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

Surprise, surprise. The address is John-F.-Kennedy-Platz. --Cookatoo.ergo.ZooM (talk) 00:17, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
More particularly, as our article Ich bin ein Berliner states, he was speaking from the balcony of the Rathaus Schöneberg to an audience assembled in the square. Deor (talk) 13:33, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

Coronations of Queen consorts of Jerusalem[edit]

I only found one Queen consort who was coronated as queen and that was Morphia of Melitene, who was coronated in 1120. I was wondering if I missed any? --Queen Elizabeth II's Little Spy (talk) 23:45, 21 March 2009 (UTC)

Found where? In Wikipedia's own articles? In that case, Morphia is the only one where a coronation is mentioned...but some of the others must have been crowned as well. The Byzantine princesses were, I'm sure. I'll see what I can find tomorrow. Adam Bishop (talk) 07:49, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
Okay, William of Tyre doesn't say anything about Arda of Armenia or Adelaide del Vasto (in any case, Arda was not present at Baldwin I's coronation, and Baldwin married Adelaide bigamously). He doesn't say that Morphia was crowned, only that Baldwin II sent for her after he became king (she was still in his old county of Edessa). I assume she was crowned at some point. William says Theodora Comnena "was consecrated at Jerusalem as the custom of the realm decreed and crowned with the royal diadem" when she married Baldwin III in 1158 (ch. 18.22-23, pp. 274-75 in the Babcock/Krey translation). Maria Comnena was also crowned and consecrated when she married Amalric I (ch. 19.1, pp. 344-345). There may be other sources that mention coronations but William is the most obvious place to look (and the only one I have at hand!). I'll have to find some other source for the thirteenth century queens, but by then there was so much pomp and ceremony that I imagine they must have all been crowned. Adam Bishop (talk) 18:02, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
Ah, it's Fulcher of Chartres who says Morphia and Baldwin II were crowned together (book 3, ch. 7, pg. 232 in the translation by Frances Rita Ryan). A good place for info about the queens in general is Bernard Hamilton's article "Women in the Crusader states: The queens of Jerusalem (1100-1190)", but he only confirms that there is not enough information in the primary sources about Arda and Adelaide to know if they were crowned or not. Adam Bishop (talk) 21:54, 22 March 2009 (UTC)
Do you mean only those who actually reigned in Jerusalem, not just claiming it? I would guess that Queen Sofía of Spain was crowned that, since the Spanish royal family claims the title. Nyttend (talk) 16:06, 23 March 2009 (UTC)