Yong'an dialect

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Yong'an dialect
Pronunciation[uã˧ um˧ sia˧˥]
Native toSouthern China
RegionYong'an, Sanming, Fujian
Language codes
ISO 639-3
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Yong'an dialect (Central Min: 永安事, Mandarin Chinese: 永安話) is a Central Min dialect spoken in Yong'an, Sanming in Western Fujian Province of China.


Yong'an dialect has 17 initials, 41 rimes and 6 tones.


The initials of the Yong'an dialect are:

Bilabial Dental Palato-alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ~ l ŋ
Stop / Affricate p    t    k    ʔ
Affricate ts   tsʰ    tʃʰ
Fricative s ʃ h

The initials [n] and [l] occur in free variation.


Yong'an dialect has a rich set of oral and nasal vowels, but allows only -m and -ŋ as a final consonant.

Open syllable Nasal coda Nasal vowel coda
Open mouth ɹ̩ i a ɔ o ø e ɯ aɯ ɔu m am ɔm ãŋ ẽĩŋ ã õ
Even mouth i ia iɔ iø ie iɯ iau iam iẽĩŋ ĩ iã iõ
Closed mouth u uɔ ue ui um uẽĩŋ
Round mouth y ya ye yi ym yẽĩŋ


The tones are:

Middle Chinese tone
level rising departing entering
upper 53 21 35 13
lower 32 43 (> lower rising)

Tone sandhi[edit]

Yong'an dialect has extremely extensive tone sandhi rules: in an utterance, only the last syllable pronounced is not affected by the rules. The two-syllable tonal sandhi rules are shown in the table below:

Tone sandhi of first syllable
Original citation tone Tone sandhi
upper level lower level
lower level remain unchanged
upper rising lower level
lower rising upper rising
departing remain unchanged
entering high level (55)


  • Norman, Jerry (1974). "The initials of Proto-Min". Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 2 (1): 27–36. JSTOR 23749809.
  • Zhou, Changji; Lin, Baoqing (1992). Yong'an fang yan. Yong'an Shi di fang zhi bian zuan wei yuan hui: Xiamen: Xiamen da xue chu ban she.
  • Compilation Commission of Chorography of Yong'an City 永安市地方志编纂委员会 (1994). Yong an shi zhi 永安市志 ["Chorography of Yong'an City"]. 36. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7-101-01280-9.