18-point agreement

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The 18-point agreement, or the 18-point memorandum, was a list of 18 points drawn up by Sarawak, proposing terms for its incorporation into Malaysia, during negotiations prior to the creation of the new federation in 1963.

A Commission of Enquiry, headed by Lord Cameron Cobbold, and The Lansdowne Committee, an inter-governmental committee, were appointed to aid in the drafting of the Malaysia Agreement. Lord Lansdowne served for Britain and Tun Abdul Razak, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya, served for Malaya.[1] The 18 points were based on the Nine Cardinal Principles of the rule of the English Rajah.[2][3] A similar memorandum, known as the 20-point agreement, was prepared and submitted by North Borneo. These memoranda are often cited by those who believe that Sarawak's and Sabah's rights within Malaysia have since been eroded.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bastin, John Sturgus (1979). Malaysia; Selected Historical Readings. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 9783262012165. 
  2. ^ Rawlins, Joan (1965). Sarawak - 1839 to 1963. Macmillan & Company, (Original from the University of Michigan Press. p. 240. 
  3. ^ Sarawak Constitution

Further reading[edit]

Allen, J. de V.; Stockwell, Anthony J. (1980). Wright., Leigh R., ed. A collection of treaties and other documents affecting the states of Malaysia 1761-1963. Oceana Pubns. ISBN 978-0379007817.