2013 Moore tornado

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2013 Moore Tornado
EF5 tornado
May 20, 2013 Moore, Oklahoma tornado.JPG
Tornado as it was approaching the city of Moore
Date May 20, 2013
Time 2:56–3:35 p.m. CDT (UTC−05:00)
Casualties 24 fatalities (+1 indirect),[1]
377 injuries[2]
Damages $2 billion (estimate)[3]
Areas affected Grady, McClain, and Cleveland counties in Oklahoma; particularly the city of Moore

The 2013 Moore tornado was an EF5 tornado that struck Moore, Oklahoma, and adjacent areas on the afternoon of May 20, 2013; with peak winds estimated at 210 mph (340 km/h), killing 24 people[1] (+1 indirect fatality) and injuring 377 others.[2][4][5] The tornado was part of a larger weather system that had produced several other tornadoes across the Great Plains over the previous two days (including five that struck Central Oklahoma on May 19). The tornado touched down west of Newcastle at 2:56 p.m. CDT (19:56 UTC), staying on the ground for 39 minutes over a 17-mile (27 km) path, crossing through a heavily populated section of Moore. The tornado was 1.3 miles (2.1 km) wide at its peak. Despite the tornado following a roughly similar track to the even deadlier 1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado, which was similar in size and severity, very few homes and neither of the stricken schools had purpose-built storm shelters.[2]

Meteorological synopsis[edit]

Comparison between the preliminary tornado track (red), the 1999 Bridge Creek – Moore tornado (green), and the 2003 Moore tornado (blue) from the National Weather Service

On May 20, 2013, a prominent central upper trough moved eastward with a lead upper low pivoting over the Dakotas and Upper Midwest region. A Southern stream shortwave trough and a moderately strong polar jet moved east-northeastward over the southern Rockies to the southern Great Plains and Ozarks area, with severe thunderstorms forming during the peak hours of heating. With the influence of moderately strong cyclonic flow aloft, the air mass was expected to become unstable across much of the southern Great Plains, Ozarks and middle Mississippi Valley by the afternoon.[6]

Evidence of an unstable air mass included dewpoints that ranged in the upper 60s °F (20 °C) to lower 70s °F (20–22 °C), temperatures in the low to mid 80s °F (27–30 °C), and CAPE values ranging from 3500–5000 J/kg. Deep-layer wind shear speeds of 40–50 kt would enhance storm organization and intensity.[7] These ingredients were present ahead of a cold front extending from a surface low in the eastern Dakotas, southwestward to near the Kansas City area and western Oklahoma, and ahead of a dry line extending from southwest Oklahoma southward into western north and west-central Texas. Outflow remnants from the previous night and early day convection across the Ozarks and middle Mississippi Valley were a factor in severe weather development with the most aggressive heating and destabilization on the western edge of this activity across the southern Great Plains and just ahead of a cold front.[6] The National Weather Service in Norman, Oklahoma, had warned as early as May 15 that there was a possibility of severe weather on May 20.[8]

Radar images of the Moore tornado with a debris ball and signature hook echo.

The most intense severe weather activity was expected across the southern Great Plains, specifically Central Oklahoma, during the afternoon hours. As such, the Storm Prediction Center issued a moderate risk of severe thunderstorms during the early morning hours of May 20 from southeastern Missouri to north-central Texas. The degree of wind shear, moisture and instability within the warm sector favored the development of supercells. Very large hail and tornadoes were expected with the supercells, with the possibility of a few strong tornadoes.[6]

The Storm Prediction Center issued a tornado watch at 1:10 p.m. CDT early that afternoon for the eastern two-thirds of Oklahoma, northwestern Arkansas and portions of north-central Texas.[9][10] The thunderstorm that produced the tornado developed less than one hour later, around 2:00 p.m. CDT, across northern Grady County, Oklahoma. Its rapid intensification resulted in the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Norman issuing a severe thunderstorm warning for portions of Grady, Cleveland, McClain and Oklahoma Counties (including southwestern portions of the immediate Oklahoma City area) at 2:12 p.m. CDT.[11] At 2:40 p.m. CDT, as rotation in the supercell was increasing at the cloud base, a tornado warning was issued for far northeastern Grady, western Cleveland, northern McClain and southern Oklahoma Counties, as the storm was approaching the Oklahoma City metropolitan area.[12]

At 2:56 p.m. CDT, the tornado touched down in northeastern Grady County, roughly 4.4 miles (7.1 km) west of Newcastle, as an EF1 near the southwest corner of North Country Club Road and Northwest 32nd Street. The tornado caused EF1 damage to a home and some trees before rapidly intensifying and striking a semi-rural subdivision on the north side of Northwest 32nd where several homes were destroyed, three of which were leveled at EF4 intensity. Slight ground scouring began in this area. Several homes in a subdivision further to the northeast sustained EF3 damage.[13][14] By 3:01 p.m. CDT, the National Weather Service issued a second, more strongly worded warning for the area: a tornado emergency was declared for southern Oklahoma City and Moore as storm spotters confirmed a large and violent tornado was approaching the area.[15] The tornado maintained EF3 intensity as it crossed the Canadian River into Cleveland County, and a decommissioned U.S. 62/U.S. 277 bridge was severely damaged; this bridge had to be demolished after the tornado ripped part of it from its mount and tossed it across Interstate 44.[16] The tornado then continued directly toward South Oklahoma City and Moore, roughly following Southwest 149th Street. At that point, it began to grow rapidly in width, and a second brief area of EF4 damage was noted near South May Avenue, where several homes were leveled, and one was swept clean from its foundation (this home was determined to have been nailed, rather than bolted to its foundation).[14] The tornado weakened briefly to an EF3 before re-intensifying to EF4 intensity near Forman Drive, flattening several homes as it moved through mostly rural areas south of Southwest 149th Street. As the tornado struck an oil production site, four oil tanks were blown away, one of which was never found. The others were thrown considerable distances, one of which was found a mile away.[13][14]

The tornado maintained its intensity as it struck the Orr Family Farm and the Celestial Acres horse training area, where up to 100 horses were reported killed.[17] Every building at Celestial Acres sustained EF4 damage, along with a nearby strip mall.[13][14] Two 10-ton propane tanks on the Orr Farm property were picked up and thrown more than a half-mile by the tornado.[13][14][18] The tornado continued east, heavily scouring an open field before intensifying even further and slamming into Briarwood Elementary School, which was completely destroyed at EF5 intensity (though a 2014 study published by the American Meteorological Society revealed evidence of poor construction at the school, and the official EF5 rating at that location was disputed and listed as EF4 in the study). Remarkably, no fatalities occurred at the school.[13][19] Past Briarwood Elementary, the tornado entered densely populated areas of western Moore, including the Westmoor subdivision, where many well-built homes were flattened at EF4 intensity, and two were swept clean from their foundations, with damage at those two homes rated EF5.[14][20]

A large, well-built home that sustained EF5 damage in eastern Moore.

The tornado continued generally northeast at EF4 strength, debarking trees and leveling entire neighborhoods. Many homes were flattened in neighborhoods to the east of South Santa Fe Avenue.[21] The tornado then caused EF4 structural damage to Plaza Towers Elementary School, where seven children were killed. More than a dozen homes just south of Plaza Towers Elementary were swept cleanly away, though they were revealed to have been nailed rather than bolted to their foundations. Damage in that area was rated EF4 because of this. Most of the fatalities occurred in the Plaza Towers area.[13][14] In one of these houses (a block away from Plaza Towers), a woman was killed as she tried to seek shelter in a closet.[22] At least a dozen cars were piled up against the front entrance of the Moore Medical Center, which sustained EF4 damage. One car was lofted and thrown onto the roof. Many homes near the medical center were completely destroyed, including a row of four well-built homes with anchor bolts that were swept completely away, with damage to the four homes rated EF5. The nearby Warren Theater was spared a direct hit, but still sustained considerable damage to its exterior.[14][19] A bowling alley in the area was leveled,[19] and a 7-Eleven was completely flattened, with four people killed inside (including one infant).[23] The nearby Moore Cemetery was heavily damaged as well.[24] The tornado briefly weakened and caused EF3 damage to some other businesses near Interstate 35, before crossing and tossing several vehicles in the process.[19] The tornado regained EF4 intensity on the other side of the Interstate as it tore through several neighborhoods and destroyed numerous additional homes (though the EF4 damage swath was narrower at this point).[19] One home on Hunters Glen Court sustained EF5 damage, with only the slab foundation and anchor bolts remaining and the debris scattered away from the site. Wind rowing of debris was noted at that residence, and two vehicles were lofted from the site, one of which was thrown over 100 yards (91 m).[13][14]

The tornado continued through Moore's eastern neighborhoods. Highland East Jr. High's main building was spared, but the separate gymnasium building was completely destroyed, and a set of lockers from the structure was lofted and thrown a considerable distance into a nearby neighborhood.[21] The tornado was noticeably narrower at this point, but was still causing EF3 and EF4 damage to numerous homes. A large, well-bolted-down home at the end of a private drive near South Olde Bridge Road was swept cleanly away at EF5 intensity. Debris was scattered well away from the site, and wind rowing was again noted at that location.[14] Another well-built home at the corner of Heatherwood Drive and Southeast 5th Street was reduced to a bare slab, also sustaining EF5 damage.[13][21] Further east, the tornado weakened to EF3 strength as it destroyed six industrial buildings and damaged two others. A final small area of EF4 damage was noted nearby as two homes and a concrete building were leveled.[14] The tornado then began to rapidly narrow and weaken, snapping and uprooting several trees and causing EF2 damage to a farm just east of Moore, where the house lost its roof and an outbuilding was destroyed. A pickup truck slid 200 feet (61 m) away from the farm into a field while remaining upright. The tornado dissipated at a nearby treeline.[13][14]

Impact[edit]

Aerial view of tornado damage, taken by the Oklahoma National Guard.

The Oklahoma Department of Emergency Management reported that 24[25] people were killed (with another indirect), with an estimated 1,150 homes destroyed, and an estimated $2 billion in damages.[3] The number of injured was 377.[26] Entire subdivisions were obliterated, and houses were flattened in a large swath of the city. The majority of a neighborhood just west of the Moore Medical Center was destroyed.[27] Witnesses said the tornado more closely resembled "a giant black wall of destruction" than a typical twister.[28]

Among the hardest hit areas were two public schools: Briarwood Elementary School and Plaza Towers Elementary School. At the latter school, 75 children and staff were present when the tornado struck.[29] Seven children died at Plaza Towers Elementary School.[30] A preliminary study on Briarwood Elementary School conducted in September 2013 by a group of structural engineers found some structural deficiencies that led to its collapse during the tornado. Chris Ramseyer, a structural engineer and an associate professor at the University of Oklahoma determined that the building's walls that were not reinforced with concrete, there had been a lack of connection between the masonry walls and support beams in several portions of the building, and anchor bolts were pulled from the ground by the tornado. Another engineer that was involved in the study stated that the deficiencies that Ramseyer pointed out were not uncommon building practices at the time, and that current building code standards would not ensure that Briarwood would have withstood winds in excess of 200 mph.[31]

Moore Medical Center was heavily damaged, but no injuries were caused there. Staff had to relocate 30 patients to a hospital in Norman and another hospital.[32] Part of Interstate 35 was shut down due to debris that had been thrown onto the freeway.[33] On May 21, Moore still did not have running water.[34] There were more than 61,500 power outages related to the tornado.[35] More than 100 people were rescued from areas that sustained significant damage on May 20.[36]

Over a dozen emergency workers comb through the rubble of a destroyed building

The Oklahoma Department of Insurance said the insurance claims for damage would likely be more than $1 billion.[37] Some meteorologists estimated that the energy released by the storm could have been from eight to more than 600 times greater than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.[38]

Casualties[edit]

Within the first two days, it was reported that between 237[39] and 240 people had been injured, with the tally later increasing to over 350.[40][41] On the morning of May 21, the medical examiner's office incorrectly stated that 91 bodies of tornado victims had been received.[42] This number was up from the earlier report of 51 bodies that were incorrectly stated as having been received. The actual number was later confirmed at 24 tornado victims and one indirect victim. A 90-year-old woman who suffered a fractured skull during the tornado later suffered a pair of strokes and died on August 5.[4][5][25][30] The Newcastle-Moore tornado was the deadliest tornado recorded in the U.S. since the Joplin, Missouri, tornado that killed 158 people in May 2011.[43]

Patients were taken to INTEGRIS Southwest Medical Center and The Children's Hospital at OU Medical Center in Oklahoma City.[32] Over 140 patients, including at least 70 children, were treated at hospitals.[44]

Aftermath[edit]

President Barack Obama talks on the phone to Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin in the Oval Office.

Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin declared a state of emergency on May 20. She held her first post-tornado news conference at noon on May 21.[39] The Federal Emergency Management Agency deployed Urban Search and Rescue teams to the tornado-hit areas, and provided incident command personnel to organize and support rescue efforts.[45] The Oklahoma National Guard was also deployed. Governor Fallin also spoke with President Barack Obama;[46] in a press release, the White House stated: "The President told Governor Fallin that the people of Oklahoma are in his and the First Lady’s thoughts and prayers and, while his team will continue to keep him updated, he urged her to be in touch directly if there were additional resources the Administration could provide."[47] Mary Fallin quickly dismissed an idea to make a law that would require all schools in Oklahoma to have a shelter that would protect children during severe weather.[48]

President Obama declared a major disaster in the state, ordering federal aid to the affected areas:[49] Cleveland, Lincoln, McClain, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie; funding for hazard mitigation measures was included in the declaration to be made available statewide.[50] Obama visited the disaster-stricken areas on May 26.[51]

Major structural damage at Briarwood Elementary School.

The third season finale of the sitcom Mike & Molly, titled "Windy City", was pulled by CBS from its original May 20 airdate within hours of the event due to the episode featuring a plotline involving a tornado descending on Chicago; the network later rescheduled the episode to air ten days later on May 30, 2013.[52][53]

At noon on May 21, the U.S. Senate held a moment of silence for the victims.[54] Delegates from several countries and Pope Francis offered condolences,[55][56][57][58] and the United Nations offered assistance in the recovery efforts.[59] The Canadian Red Cross began accepting donations of money and supplies for their American counterparts, to assist with disaster relief and recovery.[60]

The damage from the tornado was still prevalent one month later.

The United Methodist Committee on Relief, Direct Relief International, Matt Kemp of the Los Angeles Dodgers, Kevin Durant of the Oklahoma City Thunder, Continental Resources, Devon Energy, ONEOK, Koch Industries, Hobby Lobby, and Carrie Underwood all pledged donations to the relief efforts.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69]

Moore Mayor Glenn Lewis stated that he would attempt to get an ordinance passed requiring storm shelters or safe rooms in new housing projects.[70]

On May 29, 2013, NBC aired Healing in the Heartland: Relief Benefit Concert, a fundraising concert that was held at Chesapeake Energy Arena in Oklahoma City. The benefit was hosted by country singer and Oklahoma native Blake Shelton and featured performances from Miranda Lambert, Vince Gill, Reba McEntire, Rascal Flatts, Usher, Darius Rucker and Luke Bryan. The concert raised more than $6 million for the United Way of Central Oklahoma.[71]

On June 2, 2013, Discovery Channel aired an hour-long documentary about the storm titled Mile-Wide Tornado: Oklahoma Disaster. The documentary provides a comprehensive look at the tornado's impact and drew comparisons of the storm to the 1999 Bridge Creek-Moore tornado.[72]

The Moore City Council proposed a measure making twelve changes to its residential building codes, include requiring that new home construction in the city include hurricane clips or framing anchors, continuous plywood bracing and wind-resistant garage doors in order for homes to withstand winds up to 135 mph (equivalent to a high-end EF2 tornado). When the measure was passed in a unanimous vote held on March 17, 2014, Moore became the first city in the United States to adopt a building code addressing the effects of tornadoes on homes, which exceed the national standards set by the National Association of Home Builders.[73][74]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  66. ^ "ONEOK to Donate $1 Million to Tornado Disaster-Relief Efforts in Oklahoma" (Press release). Tulsa, Oklahoma: ONEOK. May 21, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2013. "ONEOK, Inc. (NYSE: OKE) today announced that the ONEOK Foundation will donate up to $1 million to support disaster-relief efforts in Oklahoma following this week's devastating tornado outbreak." 
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  73. ^ Moore considers enacting a stronger building code, The Oklahoman, March 10, 2014.
  74. ^ Moore City Council takes historic step in bolstering homes, The Oklahoman, March 17, 2014.

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