Lincoln County, Oklahoma

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Lincoln County, Oklahoma
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Lincoln County
Location in the state of Oklahoma
Map of the United States highlighting Oklahoma
Oklahoma's location in the U.S.
Founded 1891
Named for Abraham Lincoln[1]
Seat Chandler
Largest city Chandler
Area
 • Total 966 sq mi (2,501 km2)
 • Land 958 sq mi (2,481 km2)
 • Water 8 sq mi (20 km2), 0.82%
Population (Est.)
 • (2012) 34,189
 • Density 35/sq mi (14/km²)
Congressional district 3rd
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5

Lincoln County is a county located in east central Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,273.[2] This was an increase of 6.8 percent compared to 32,080 from the 2000 census.[3] It is part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Statistical Area.[4] Its county seat is Chandler[5].

The center of population of Oklahoma is located in Lincoln County, in the town of Sparks [2].

History[edit]

The United States purchased the large tract of land known as the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. Washington Irving, Charles J. Latrobe, and Count Albert de Pourtalès accompanied Henry L. Ellsworth and others on an expedition in Indian Territory that may have passed through the far northwestern corner of the future Lincoln County.[1]

The Osage hunted on land that includes present-day Lincoln County until they ceded the area in an 1825 treaty to the federal government. The government then assigned the land to the Creek and the Seminoles after they were removed from the southeastern United States. After the Civil War in 1866, these tribes were forced to give up lands that included present-day Lincoln County in Reconstruction Treaties for siding with the Confederacy.[1]

The federal government then used the area to resettle the Sac and Fox, Potawatomi, Kickapoo and Ioway tribes. Established in 1870, the Sac and Fox agency, established on the eastern edge of the present-day county, was the first settlement in the area.[1]

In 1890, the Jerome Commission negotiated with the tribes of the area such that they agreed to allotment of their reservation lands, except for the Kickapoo. Indian lands were allotted to individual tribal members and the excess were opened to white settlement in the Land Run of 1891. A separate land run was held later that year for the townsite of the predesignated county seat, Chandler. Lincoln County was organized and designated as County A. In 1895, the Kickapoo agreed to allotment and the land was claimed by settlers during the Land Run of 1895.[1]

The voters chose the name Lincoln County for County A in honor of President Abraham Lincoln, selecting it over the names Sac and Fox and Springer.[1]

Geography[edit]

Midwinter in the cross timbers of western Lincoln County. Native blackjack and little bluestem.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 966 square miles (2,500 km2), of which 958 square miles (2,480 km2) is land and 8 square miles (21 km2) (0.82%) is water.[6] The county is drained by the Deep Fork of the Canadian River. The eastern part of the county lies in the Cross Timbers and the Sandstone Hills, while the western part is in the Red Bed Plains. [1]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 27,007
1910 34,779 28.8%
1920 33,406 −3.9%
1930 33,738 1.0%
1940 29,529 −12.5%
1950 22,102 −25.2%
1960 18,783 −15.0%
1970 19,482 3.7%
1980 26,601 36.5%
1990 29,216 9.8%
2000 32,080 9.8%
2010 34,273 6.8%
Est. 2012 34,189 −0.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
2012 Estimate[2]
Age pyramid for Lincoln County, Oklahoma, based on census 2000 data.

As of the census[8] of 2000, there were 32,080 people, 12,178 households, and 9,121 families residing in the county. The population density was 34 people per square mile (13/km²). There were 13,712 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile (6/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 86.43% White, 2.46% Black or African American, 6.57% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, and 3.82% from two or more races. 1.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 12,178 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.50% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.10% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.40% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,187, and the median income for a family was $36,310. Males had a median income of $28,647 versus $20,099 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,890. About 11.10% of families and 14.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 12.10% of those age 65 or over.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2012[9]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
  Democratic 8,394 45.54%
  Republican 8,153 44.24%
  Unaffiliated 1,884 10.22%
Total 18,431 100%

Politics[edit]

Presidential election results[10]
Year Republican Democrat
2008 74.92% 10,470 25.08% 3,504
2004 71.52% 10,149 28.48% 4,041
2000 63.13% 7,387 35.38% 4,140

Communities[edit]

1905 map of Lincoln County showing locations of many of the old communities, post offices, and railroad stops which no longer exist.

Economy[edit]

The county economy has largely depended on agriculture. Cotton almost immediately became the dominant crop after white settlement. During the first decade of the twentieth century, Lincoln County was one of the top two counties producing cotton in Oklahoma. By the end of the Great Depression the economy had become more diversified. Oil furnished one-third of county tax revenue, and cattle raising and pecan growing became important income sources. By the turn of the 21st Century, the county economy had diversified and was based primarily on professional services, small businesses, and service industries.[1]

Politics and Government[edit]

United States Congress[edit]

Senators Name Party First Elected Level
  Senate Class 1 Jim Inhofe Republican 1994 Senior Senator
  Senate Class 2 Tom Coburn Republican 2004 Junior Senator
Representatives Name Party First Elected
  District 3 Frank Lucas Republican 1994

Oklahoma Senate[edit]

District Name Party First Elected Hometown
  28 Harry Coates Republican 2002 Seminole

Oklahoma House of Representatives[edit]

District Name Party First Elected Hometown
  32 Jason Smalley Republican 2012 Stroud

Notable people[edit]

  • Roy Harris (1898 - 1979), composer, born near Chandler;
  • Carl Hubbell (1903 - 1988), U.S. major league baseball pitcher lived in Meeker;
  • James Brooks Ayers Robertson (1871 - 1938), Oklahoma governor 1919-1923, lived and buried in Chandler;
  • Jim Thorpe (1888 - 1953), American athlete, attended Sac and Fox agency school in Lincoln County.
  • Roy J. Turner (1894 - 1973), Oklahoma governor 1947-1953, born in Kendrick.

NRHP sites[edit]

The following sites in Lincoln County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Mullins, William H. "Lincoln County - Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  3. ^ of Lincoln County, Oklahoma. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  4. ^ [1], Greater Oklahoma City Partnership
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  8. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  9. ^ http://www.ok.gov/elections/documents/reg_0112.pdf
  10. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved 2011-06-11. 

Coordinates: 35°42′N 96°53′W / 35.70°N 96.88°W / 35.70; -96.88