Abundances of the elements (data page)

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Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust[edit]

  • C1 — Crust: CRC Handbook
  • C2 — Crust: Kaye & Laby
  • C3 — Crust: Greenwood
  • C4 — Crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • C5 — Crust: Ahrens (Wänke)
  • C6 — Crust: Ahrens (Weaver)
  • U1 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • U2 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Shaw)

Mass fraction, in kg/kg.

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 U1 U2
01 H hydrogen 0.00141.40×10−3 0.001521.520×10−3
02 He helium 0.000000008008×10−9
03 Li lithium 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000181.8×10−5 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.00001371.37×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5
04 Be beryllium 0.00000282.8×10−6 0.00000202.0×10−6 0.00000202×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6 0.00000303.000×10−6
05 B boron 0.0000101.0×10−5 0.00000707.0×10−6 0.00000909×10−6 0.0000101.0000×10−5 0.00001501.5000×10−5
06 C carbon 0.000202.00×10−4 0.0001801.80×10−4 0.0037603.76×10−3
07 N nitrogen 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5
08 O oxygen 0.4614.61×10−1 0.3703.7×10−1 0.4554.55000×10−1
09 F fluorine 0.0005855.85×10−4 0.000464.6×10−4 0.0005445.44×10−4 0.0005255.25×10−4
10 Ne neon 0.00000000505×10−9
11 Na sodium 0.02362.36×10−2 0.0232.3×10−2 0.0272.2700×10−2 0.0232.3000×10−2 0.02442.4400×10−2 0.0313.1000×10−2 0.02892.89×10−2 0.02572.57×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 0.02332.33×10−2 0.0282.8×10−2 0.027642.7640×10−2 0.0323.20×10−2 0.02372.37×10−2 0.01691.69×10−2 0.01331.33×10−2 0.01351.35×10−2
13 Al aluminium 0.08238.23×10−2 0.088.0×10−2 0.0838.3000×10−2 0.08418.4100×10−2 0.083058.3050×10−2 0.08528.5200×10−2 0.08048.0400×10−2 0.07747.7400×10−2
14 Si silicon 0.2822.82×10−1 0.272.7×10−1 0.2722.72000×10−1 0.26772.677×10−1 0.2812.81×10−1 0.2952.95×10−1 0.3083.08×10−1 0.3043.04×10−1
15 P phosphorus 0.001051.05×10−3 0.0011.0×10−3 0.001121.120×10−3 0.0007637.63×10−4 0.000838.30×10−4
16 S sulfur 0.000353.50×10−4 0.00033.0×10−4 0.000343.40×10−4 0.0008818.81×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 0.0001451.45×10−4 0.000191.9×10−4 0.0001261.26×10−4 0.00191.900×10−3
18 Ar argon 0.00000353.5×10−6
19 K potassium 0.02092.09×10−2 0.0171.7×10−2 0.01841.8400×10−2 0.00919.100×10−3 0.01761.7600×10−2 0.0171.7000×10−2 0.0282.8000×10−2 0.02572.5700×10−2
20 Ca calcium 0.04154.15×10−2 0.0515.1×10−2 0.04664.6600×10−2 0.05295.2900×10−2 0.04924.9200×10−2 0.0343.4000×10−2 0.033.0000×10−2 0.02952.9500×10−2
21 Sc scandium 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.00003003.0×10−5 0.00002142.14×10−5 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000077×10−6
22 Ti titanium 0.005655.65×10−3 0.00868.6×10−3 0.006326.320×10−3 0.00545.400×10−3 0.005255.250×10−3 0.00363.600×10−3 0.0033.000×10−3 0.003123.120×10−3
23 V vanadium 0.000121.20×10−4 0.000171.7×10−4 0.0001361.36×10−4 0.000232.30×10−4 0.0001341.34×10−4 0.00006006.0×10−5 0.0000535.3×10−5
24 Cr chromium 0.0001021.02×10−4 0.0000969.6×10−5 0.0001221.22×10−4 0.0001851.85×10−4 0.0001461.46×10−4 0.0000565.6×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5
25 Mn manganese 0.000959.50×10−4 0.0011.0×10−3 0.001061.060×10−3 0.001041.400×10−3 0.0008478.47×10−4 0.0011.000×10−3 0.00066.00×10−4 0.0005275.27×10−4
26 Fe iron 0.05635.63×10−2 0.0585.8×10−2 0.0626.2000×10−2 0.07077.07×10−2 0.04924.92×10−2 0.0383.8×10−2 0.0353.50×10−2 0.03093.09×10−2
27 Co cobalt 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.0000282.8×10−5 0.0000292.9×10−5 0.0000292.9×10−5 0.00002542.54×10−5 0.00001001.0×10−5 0.0000121.2×10−5
28 Ni nickel 0.0000848.4×10−5 0.0000727.2×10−5 0.0000999.9×10−5 0.0001051.05×10−4 0.00006956.95×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000202×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5
29 Cu copper 0.000066.0×10−5 0.0000585.8×10−5 0.0000686.8×10−5 0.0000757.5×10−5 0.0000474.7×10−5 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5
30 Zn zinc 0.000077.0×10−5 0.0000828.2×10−5 0.0000767.6×10−5 0.000088.0×10−5 0.0000767.6×10−5 0.0000717.1×10−5 0.0000525.2×10−5
31 Ga gallium 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000171.7×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000181.8×10−5 0.00001861.86×10−5 0.0000171.7×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5
32 Ge germanium 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.000001321.32×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6
33 As arsenic 0.00000181.8×10−6 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000181.8×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.000002032.03×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6
34 Se selenium 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.0000001531.53×10−7 0.000000055×10−8
35 Br bromine 0.00000242.4×10−6 0.0000044.0×10−6 0.00000252.5×10−6 0.000006956.95×10−6
36 Kr krypton 0.00000000011×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 0.0000909.0×10−5 0.0000707.0×10−5 0.0000787.8×10−5 0.0000323.2×10−5 0.0000797.90×10−5 0.0000616.1×10−5 0.000121.12×10−4 0.000111.10×10−4
38 Sr strontium 0.000373.70×10−4 0.000454.5×10−4 0.0003843.84×10−4 0.000262.60×10−4 0.0002932.93×10−4 0.0005035.03×10−4 0.000353.50×10−4 0.0003163.16×10−4
39 Y yttrium 0.0000333.3×10−5 0.000000353.5×10−7 0.0000313.1×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000212.1×10−5
40 Zr zirconium 0.0001651.65×10−4 0.000141.4×10−4 0.0001621.62×10−4 0.0001001.00×10−4 0.000212.10×10−4 0.000191.90×10−4 0.000242.40×10−4
41 Nb niobium 0.000022.0×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.0000111.1000×10−5 0.0000131.3000×10−5 0.0000252.5000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5
42 Mo molybdenum 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10
45 Rh rhodium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10
46 Pd palladium 0.0000000151.5×10−8 0.0000000033×10−9 0.0000000151.5×10−8 0.0000000011.0×10−9 0.00000000055×10−10
47 Ag silver 0.0000000757.5×10−8 0.000000088×10−8 0.000000088×10−8 0.000000088.0×10−8 0.00000006956.95×10−8 0.000000055.0×10−8
48 Cd cadmium 0.000000151.5×10−7 0.000000181.8×10−7 0.000000161.6×10−7 0.0000000989.8×10−8 0.00000011.00×10−7 0.0000000989.8×10−8
49 In indium 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.000000242.4×10−7 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.00000006956.95×10−8 0.000000055.0×10−8
50 Sn tin 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000212.1×10−6 0.00000252.500×10−6 0.00000555.500×10−6
51 Sb antimony 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022.00×10−7 0.0000002032.03×10−7 0.00000022.00×10−7
52 Te tellurium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9 0.000000002032.03×10−9
53 I iodine 0.000000454.5×10−7 0.00000055×10−7 0.000000464.6×10−7 0.000001541.540×10−6
54 Xe xenon 0.000000000033×10−11
55 Cs caesium 0.000003003×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000262.6×10−6 0.000001001.000×10−6 0.000001311.310×10−6 0.00000373.700×10−6
56 Ba barium 0.0004254.25×10−4 0.000383.8×10−4 0.000393.90×10−4 0.000252.50000×10−4 0.0005425.42000×10−4 0.0007077.07000×10−4 0.000555.50000×10−4 0.001071.070000×10−3
57 La lanthanum 0.0000393.9×10−5 0.000055.0×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000161.6000×10−5 0.0000292.9000×10−5 0.0000282.8000×10−5 0.000033.0000×10−5 0.00000323.200×10−6
58 Ce cerium 0.00006656.65×10−5 0.0000838.3×10−5 0.0000666.6×10−5 0.0000333.3000×10−5 0.00005425.4200×10−5 0.0000575.7000×10−5 0.0000646.4000×10−5 0.0000656.5000×10−5
59 Pr praseodymium 0.00000929.2×10−6 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.00000919.1×10−6 0.00000393.900×10−6 0.00000717.100×10−6
60 Nd neodymium 0.00004154.15×10−5 0.0000444.4×10−5 0.000044.0×10−5 0.0000161.6000×10−5 0.00002542.5400×10−5 0.0000232.3000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 0.000007057.05×10−6 0.00000777.7×10−6 0.0000077.0×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6 0.000005595.590×10−6 0.00000414.100×10−6 0.00000454.500×10−6 0.00000454.500×10−6
63 Eu europium 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000222.2×10−6 0.00000212.1×10−6 0.00000111.100×10−6 0.0000014071.407×10−6 0.000001091.090×10−6 0.000000888.80×10−7 0.000000949.40×10−7
64 Gd gadolinium 0.00000626.2×10−6 0.00000636.3×10−6 0.00000616.1×10−6 0.00000333.300×10−6 0.000008148.140×10−6 0.00000383.800×10−6 0.00000282.800×10−6
65 Tb terbium 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000066.00×10−7 0.000001021.020×10−6 0.000000535.30×10−7 0.000000646.40×10−7 0.000000484.80×10−7
66 Dy dysprosium 0.00000525.2×10−6 0.00000858.5×10−6 0.00000373.700×10−6 0.0000061026.102×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6
67 Ho holmium 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.000000787.80×10−7 0.000001861.860×10−6 0.00000088.00×10−7 0.000000626.20×10−7
68 Er erbium 0.00000353.5×10−6 0.00000363.6×10−6 0.00000353.5×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.000003393.390×10−6 0.00000232.300×10−6
69 Tm thulium 0.000000525.2×10−7 0.000000525.2×10−7 0.00000055×10−7 0.000000323.20×10−7 0.000000242.40×10−7 0.000000333.30×10−7
70 Yb ytterbium 0.00000323.2×10−6 0.00000343.4×10−6 0.00000313.1×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.000003393.390×10−6 0.000001531.530×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6
71 Lu lutetium 0.000000808×10−7 0.000000808×10−7 0.000000303.00×10−7 0.0000005765.76×10−7 0.000000232.30×10−7 0.000000323.20×10−7 0.000000232.30×10−7
72 Hf hafnium 0.000003003.0×10−6 0.000004004×10−6 0.00000282.8×10−6 0.000003003.000×10−6 0.000003463.460×10−6 0.00000474.700×10−6 0.00000585.800×10−6 0.00000585.800×10−6
73 Ta tantalum 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000242.4×10−6 0.00000171.7×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.0000022032.203×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6
74 W tungsten 0.000001251.25×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.000001311.310×10−6 0.0000022.000×10−6
75 Re rhenium 0.00000000077×10−10 0.00000000044×10−10 0.00000000077×10−10 0.00000000055×10−10 0.000000001021.02×10−9 0.00000000055×10−10
76 Os osmium 0.00000000151.5×10−9 0.00000000022×10−10 0.0000000055×10−9 0.000000001021.02×10−9
77 Ir iridium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000022×10−10 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10 0.000000001021.02×10−9 0.000000000022×10−11
78 Pt platinum 0.0000000055×10−9 0.000000011×10−8
79 Au gold 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000022×10−9 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000033.0×10−9 0.000000004074.07×10−9 0.00000000181.8×10−9
80 Hg mercury 0.0000000858.5×10−8 0.000000022×10−8 0.000000088×10−8
81 Tl thallium 0.000000858.5×10−7 0.000000474.7×10−7 0.00000077×10−7 0.000000363.60×10−7 0.000000757.50×10−7 0.000000525.20×10−7
82 Pb lead 0.0000141.4×10−5 0.000011.0×10−5 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.0000088.000×10−6 0.0000151.5000×10−5 0.000022.0000×10−5 0.0000171.7000×10−5
83 Bi bismuth 0.00000000858.5×10−9 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000088×10−9 0.000000066.0×10−8 0.0000001271.27×10−7
84 Po polonium 0.00000000000000022×10−16
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon 0.00000000000000000044×10−19
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium 0.00000000000099×10−13
89 Ac actinium 0.000000000000000555.5×10−16
90 Th thorium 0.00000969.6×10−6 0.00000585.8×10−6 0.00000818.1×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6 0.00000575.700×10−6 0.00001071.0700×10−5 0.000011.0000×10−5
91 Pa protactinium 0.00000000000141.4×10−12
92 U uranium 0.00000272.7×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.000000919.10×10−7 0.00000121.200×10−6 0.00000131.300×10−6 0.00000282.800×10−6 0.00000252.500×10−6

Urban soils[edit]

The established abundances of chemical elements in urban soils can be considered as their geochemical (ecological and geochemical) characteristic, reflecting the combined impact of technogenic and natural processes occurring during certain time period (the end of the 20th century–beginning of the 21st century). The figures were established on the base of average concentrations of chemical elements in the soils of more than 300 cities and settlements in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and America.[1] In spite of significant differences between abundances of several elements in urban soils and those values calculated for the Earth's crust, the general patterns of element abundances in urban soils repeat those in the Earth's crust in a great measure. With the development of science and technology the abundances may gradually change. The rate of these changes is still poorly predictable. The abundances of chemical elements may be used during various ecological and geochemical studies.

Mass fraction, in mg/kg (ppm).

Element Atomic number Abundance in urban soils
Ag 47 0,37
Al 13 38200
As 33 15,9
B 5 45
Ba 56 853,12
Be 4 3,3
Bi 83 1,12
C 6 45100
Ca 20 53800
Cd 48 0,9
Cl 17 285
Co 27 14,1
Cr 24 80
Cs 55 5,0
Cu 29 39
Fe 26 22300
Ga 31 16,2
Ge 32 1,8
H 1 15000
Hg 80 0,88
K 19 13400
La 57 34
Li 3 49,5
Mg 12 7900
Mn 25 729
Mo 42 2,4
N 7 10000
Na 11 5800
Nb 41 15,7
Ni 28 33
O 8 490000
P 15 1200
Pb 82 54,5
Rb 37 58
S 16 1200
Sb 51 1,0
Sc 21 9,4
Si 14 289000
Sn 50 6,8
Sr 38 458
Ta 73 1,5
Ti 22 4758
Tl 81 1,1
V 23 104,9
W 74 2,9
Y 39 23,4
Yb 70 2,4
Zn 30 158
Zr 40 255,6

Sea water[edit]

  • W1 — CRC Handbook
  • W2 — Kaye & Laby

Mass per volume fraction, in kg/L.

W1 W2
01 H hydrogen 0.1081.08×10−1 0.1101.1×10−1
02 He helium 0.00000000000707×10−12 0.00000000000727.2×10−12
03 Li lithium 0.000000181.8×10−7 0.000000171.7×10−7
04 Be beryllium 0.00000000000565.6×10−12 0.00000000000066×10−13
05 B boron 0.000004444.44×10−6 0.00000444.4×10−6
06 C carbon 0.0000282.8×10−5 0.0000282.8×10−5
07 N nitrogen 0.00000055×10−7 0.0000161.6×10−5
08 O oxygen 0.8578.57×10−1 0.888.8×10−1
09 F fluorine 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6
10 Ne neon 0.000000000121.2×10−10 0.000000000121.2×10−10
11 Na sodium 0.01081.08×10−2 0.0111.1×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 0.001291.29×10−3 0.00131.3×10−3
13 Al aluminium 0.0000000022×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9
14 Si silicon 0.00000222.2×10−6 0.00000292.9×10−6
15 P phosphorus 0.000000066×10−8 0.0000000888.8×10−8
16 S sulfur 0.0009059.05×10−4 0.00099.0×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 0.01941.94×10−2 0.0191.9×10−2
18 Ar argon 0.000000454.5×10−7 0.000000454.5×10−7
19 K potassium 0.0003993.99×10−4 0.000393.9×10−4
20 Ca calcium 0.0004124.12×10−4 0.000414.1×10−4
21 Sc scandium 0.00000000000066×10−13 0.000000000004< 4×10−12
22 Ti titanium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9
23 V vanadium 0.00000000252.5×10−9 0.00000000191.9×10−9
24 Cr chromium 0.00000000033×10−10 0.00000000022×10−10
25 Mn manganese 0.00000000022×10−10 0.00000000191.9×10−9
26 Fe iron 0.0000000022×10−9 0.00000000343.4×10−9
27 Co cobalt 0.000000000022×10−11 0.000000000393.9×10−10
28 Ni nickel 0.000000000565.6×10−10 0.00000000666.6×10−9
29 Cu copper 0.000000000252.5×10−10 0.0000000232.3×10−8
30 Zn zinc 0.00000000494.9×10−9 0.0000000111.1×10−8
31 Ga gallium 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000033×10−11
32 Ge germanium 0.000000000055×10−11 0.000000000066×10−11
33 As arsenic 0.00000000373.7×10−9 0.00000000262.6×10−9
34 Se selenium 0.00000000022×10−10 0.000000000099.0×10−11
35 Br bromine 0.00006736.73×10−5 0.0000676.7×10−5
36 Kr krypton 0.000000000212.1×10−10 0.000000000212.1×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 0.000000121.2×10−7 0.000000121.2×10−7
38 Sr strontium 0.00000797.9×10−6 0.00000818.1×10−6
39 Y yttrium 0.0000000000131.3×10−11 0.00000000000131.3×10−12
40 Zr zirconium 0.000000000033×10−11 0.0000000000262.6×10−11
41 Nb niobium 0.000000000011×10−11 0.0000000000151.5×10−11
42 Mo molybdenum 0.000000011×10−8 0.000000011.0×10−8
43 Tc technetium 0.0 0.0
44 Ru ruthenium 0.00000000000077×10−13 0.0
45 Rh rhodium 0.0 0.0
46 Pd palladium 0.0 0.0
47 Ag silver 0.000000000044×10−11 0.000000000282.8×10−10
48 Cd cadmium 0.000000000111.1×10−10 0.000000000111.1×10−10
49 In indium 0.000000022×10−8 0.0
50 Sn tin 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.000000000818.1×10−10
51 Sb antimony 0.000000000242.4×10−10 0.000000000333.3×10−10
52 Te tellurium 0.0 0.0
53 I iodine 0.000000066×10−8 0.0000000646.4×10−8
54 Xe xenon 0.000000000055×10−11 0.0000000000474.7×10−11
55 Cs caesium 0.00000000033×10−10 0.00000000033.0×10−10
56 Ba barium 0.0000000131.3×10−8 0.0000000212.1×10−8
57 La lanthanum 0.00000000000343.4×10−12 0.00000000000343.4×10−12
58 Ce cerium 0.00000000000121.2×10−12 0.00000000000121.2×10−12
59 Pr praseodymium 0.000000000000646.4×10−13 0.000000000000646.4×10−13
60 Nd neodymium 0.00000000000282.8×10−12 0.00000000000282.8×10−12
61 Pm promethium 0.0 0.0
62 Sm samarium 0.000000000000454.5×10−13 0.000000000000454.5×10−13
63 Eu europium 0.000000000000131.3×10−13 0.000000000000131.3×10−13
64 Gd gadolinium 0.00000000000077×10−13 0.00000000000077.0×10−13
65 Tb terbium 0.000000000000141.4×10−13 0.00000000000141.4×10−12
66 Dy dysprosium 0.000000000000919.1×10−13 0.000000000000919.1×10−13
67 Ho holmium 0.000000000000222.2×10−13 0.000000000000222.2×10−13
68 Er erbium 0.000000000000878.7×10−13 0.00000000000878.7×10−12
69 Tm thulium 0.000000000000171.7×10−13 0.000000000000171.7×10−13
70 Yb ytterbium 0.000000000000828.2×10−13 0.000000000000828.2×10−13
71 Lu lutetium 0.000000000000151.5×10−13 0.000000000000151.5×10−13
72 Hf hafnium 0.0000000000077×10−12 0.000000000008< 8×10−12
73 Ta tantalum 0.0000000000022×10−12 0.0000000000025< 2.5×10−12
74 W tungsten 0.00000000011×10−10 0.000000000001< 1×10−12
75 Re rhenium 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.0
76 Os osmium 0.0 0.0
77 Ir iridium 0.0 0.0
78 Pt platinum 0.0 0.0
79 Au gold 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.0000000000111.1×10−11
80 Hg mercury 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000151.5×10−10
81 Tl thallium 0.0000000000191.9×10−11 0.0
82 Pb lead 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000033×10−11
83 Bi bismuth 0.000000000022×10−11 0.000000000022×10−11
84 Po polonium 0.0000000000000000000151.5×10−20 0.0
85 At astatine 0.0 0.0
86 Rn radon 0.00000000000000000000066×10−22 0.0
87 Fr francium 0.0 0.0
88 Ra radium 0.0000000000000000898.9×10−17 0.0
89 Ac actinium 0.0 0.0
90 Th thorium 0.0000000000011×10−12 0.00000000000151.5×10−12
91 Pa protactinium 0.000000000000000055×10−17 0.0
92 U uranium 0.00000000323.2×10−9 0.00000000333.3×10−9

Sun and solar system[edit]

  • S1 — Sun: Kaye & Laby
  • Y1 — Solar system: Kaye & Laby
  • Y2 — Solar system: Ahrens, with uncertainty s (%)

Atom mole fraction relative to silicon = 1.

S1 Y1 Y2
01 H hydrogen 28000.0002.8×104 28000.0002.8×104* 27900.0002.79×104
02 He helium 02700.0002.7×103 02700.0002.7×103* 02720.0002.72×103
03 Li lithium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.0000575.7×10−5 0.00005715.71×10−5 (9.2%)
04 Be beryllium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.000000737.30×10−7 (9.5%)
05 B boron 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000212.1×10−5 0.00002122.12×10−5 (10%)
06 C carbon 00010.0001.0×101 00010.0001.0×101* 00010.1001.01×101
07 N nitrogen 00003.10003.1×100 00003.10003.1×100* 00003.13003.13×100
08 O oxygen 00024.0002.4×101 00024.0002.4×101* 00023.8002.38×101 (10%)
09 F fluorine 0.001about 1.0×10−3 0.000858.5×10−4 0.0008438.43×10−4 (15%)
10 Ne neon 00003.0003.0×100 00003.0003.0×100* 00003.4403.44×100 (14%)
11 Na sodium 0.0606.0×10−2 0.0575.7×10−2 0.05745.74×10−2 (7.1%)
12 Mg magnesium 00001.0001.0×100 00001.1001.1×100 00001.0741.074×100 (3.8%)
13 Al aluminium 0.0838.3×10−2 0.0858.5×10−2 0.08498.49×10−2 (3.6%)
14 Si silicon 00001.0001.0×100 00001.0001.0×100 00001.0001.0×100 (4.4%)
15 P phosphorus 0.0088.0×10−3 0.0101.0×10−2 0.01041.04×10−2 (10%)
16 S sulfur 0.454.5×10−1 0.525.2×10−1 0.5155.15×10−1 (13%)
17 Cl chlorine 0.009about 9.0×10−3 0.00525.2×10−3 0.005245.24×10−3 (15%)
18 Ar argon 0.1001.0×10−1* 0.1001.0×10−1* 0.1011.01×10−1 (6%)
19 K potassium 0.00373.7×10−3 0.00383.8×10−3 0.003773.77×10−3 (7.7%)
20 Ca calcium 0.0646.4×10−2 0.0616.1×10−2 0.06116.11×10−2 (7.1%)
21 Sc scandium 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000343.4×10−5 0.00003423.42×10−5 (8.6%)
22 Ti titanium 0.00272.7×10−3 0.00242.4×10−3 0.00242.40×10−3 (5.0%)
23 V vanadium 0.000282.8×10−4 0.000292.9×10−4 0.0002932.93×10−4 (5.1%)
24 Cr chromium 0.0131.3×10−2 0.0131.3×10−2 0.01351.35×10−2 (7.6%)
25 Mn manganese 0.00696.9×10−3 0.00959.5×10−3 0.009559.55×10−3 (9.6%)
26 Fe iron 0.9009.0×10−1 0.9009.0×10−1 0.9009.00×10−1 (2.7%)
27 Co cobalt 0.00232.3×10−3 0.00232.3×10−3 0.002252.25×10−3 (6.6%)
28 Ni nickel 0.055.0×10−2 0.055.0×10−2 0.04934.93×10−2 (5.1%)
29 Cu copper 0.000454.5×10−4 0.000525.2×10−4 0.0005225.22×10−4 (11%)
30 Zn zinc 0.00111.1×10−3 0.00131.3×10−3 0.001261.26×10−3 (4.4%)
31 Ga gallium 0.0000212.1×10−5 0.0000383.8×10−5 0.00003783.78×10−5 (6.9%)
32 Ge germanium 0.0000727.2×10−5 0.000121.2×10−4 0.0001191.19×10−4 (9.6%)
33 As arsenic 0.000 0.00000666.6×10−6 0.000006566.56×10−6 (12%)
34 Se selenium 0.000 0.0000636.3×10−5 0.00006216.21×10−5 (6.4%)
35 Br bromine 0.000 0.0000121.2×10−5 0.00001181.18×10−5 (19%)
36 Kr krypton 0.000 0.0000484.8×10−5 0.0000454.50×10−5 (18%)
37 Rb rubidium 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000077.0×10−6 0.000007097.09×10−6 (6.6%)
38 Sr strontium 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000242.4×10−5 0.00002352.35×10−5 (8.1%)
39 Y yttrium 0.00000494.9×10−6 0.00000464.6×10−6 0.000004644.64×10−6 (6.0%)
40 Zr zirconium 0.00001121.12×10−5 0.00001141.14×10−5 0.00001141.14×10−5 (6.4%)
41 Nb niobium 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.0000006986.98×10−7 (1.4%)
42 Mo molybdenum 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.00000262.6×10−6 0.000002552.55×10−6 (5.5%)
43 Tc technetium 0.000 0.000 0.000
44 Ru ruthenium 0.00000191.9×10−6 0.00000191.9×10−6 0.000001861.86×10−6 (5.4%)
45 Rh rhodium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.0000003443.44×10−7 (8%)
46 Pd palladium 0.00000141.4×10−6 0.00000141.4×10−6 0.000001391.39×10−6 (6.6%)
47 Ag silver 0.0000002about 2.0×10−7 0.000000494.9×10−7 0.0000004864.86×10−7 (2.9%)
48 Cd cadmium 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.000001611.61×10−6 (6.5%)
49 In indium 0.0000013about 1.3×10−6 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001841.84×10−7 (6.4%)
50 Sn tin 0.000003about 3.0×10−6 0.00000393.9×10−6 0.000003823.82×10−6 (9.4%)
51 Sb antimony 0.0000003about 3.0×10−7 0.000000313.1×10−7 0.0000003093.09×10−7 (18%)
52 Te tellurium 0.000 0.00000494.9×10−6 0.000004814.81×10−6 (10%)
53 I iodine 0.000 0.00000099.0×10−7 0.00000099.00×10−7 (21%)
54 Xe xenon 0.000 0.00000484.8×10−6 0.00000474.70×10−6 (20%)
55 Cs caesium 0.000 0.000000373.7×10−7 0.0000003723.72×10−7 (5.6%)
56 Ba barium 0.00000383.8×10−6 0.00000454.5×10−6 0.000004494.49×10−6 (6.3%)
57 La lanthanum 0.00000055.0×10−7 0.000000444.4×10−7 0.0000004464.46×10−7 (2.0%)
58 Ce cerium 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000111.1×10−6 0.0000011361.136×10−6 (1.7%)
59 Pr praseodymium 0.000000141.4×10−7 0.000000171.7×10−7 0.00000016691.669×10−7 (2.4%)
60 Nd neodymium 0.00000099.0×10−7 0.000000838.3×10−7 0.00000082798.279×10−7 (1.3%)
61 Pm promethium 0.000 0.000 0.000
62 Sm samarium 0.00000033.0×10−7 0.000000262.6×10−7 0.00000025822.582×10−7 (1.3%)
63 Eu europium 0.000000099.0×10−8 0.0000000979.7×10−8 0.00000009739.73×10−8 (1.6%)
64 Gd gadolinium 0.000000373.7×10−7 0.000000333.3×10−7 0.000000333.30×10−7 (1.4%)
65 Tb terbium 0.000000002about 2.0×10−8 0.0000000606.0×10−8 0.00000006036.03×10−8 (2.2%)
66 Dy dysprosium 0.000000353.5×10−7 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.00000039423.942×10−7 (1.4%)
67 Ho holmium 0.00000005about 5.0×10−8 0.0000000898.9×10−8 0.00000008898.89×10−8 (2.4%)
68 Er erbium 0.000000242.4×10−7 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000025082.508×10−7 (1.3%)
69 Tm thulium 0.00000003about 3.0×10−8 0.0000000383.8×10−8 0.00000003783.78×10−8 (2.3%)
70 Yb ytterbium 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000024792.479×10−7 (1.6%)
71 Lu lutetium 0.00000015about 1.5×10−7 0.0000000373.7×10−8 0.00000003673.67×10−8 (1.3%)
72 Hf hafnium 0.000000212.1×10−7 0.000000151.5×10−7 0.0000001541.54×10−7 [(1.9%)]
73 Ta tantalum 0.000 0.0000000383.8×10−8 0.00000002072.07×10−8 (1.8%)
74 W tungsten 0.00000036about 3.6×10−7 0.000000131.3×10−7 0.0000001331.33×10−7 (5.1%)
75 Re rhenium 0.000 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.00000005175.17×10−8 (9.4%)
76 Os osmium 0.00000088.0×10−7 0.000000676.7×10−7 0.0000006756.75×10−7 (6.3%)
77 Ir iridium 0.00000066.0×10−7 0.000000666.6×10−7 0.0000006616.61×10−7 (6.1%)
78 Pt platinum 0.0000018about 1.8×10−6 0.000001341.34×10−6 0.000001341.34×10−6 (7.4%)
79 Au gold 0.0000003about 3.0×10−7 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001871.87×10−7 (15%)
80 Hg mercury 0.000 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.000000343.40×10−7 (12%)
81 Tl thallium 0.0000002about 2.0×10−7 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001841.84×10−7 (9.4%)
82 Pb lead 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000313.1×10−6 0.000003153.15×10−6 (7.8%)
83 Bi bismuth 0.000 0.000000141.4×10−7 0.0000001441.44×10−7 (8.2%)
84 Po polonium 0.000 0.000 0.000
85 At astatine 0.000 0.000 0.000
86 Rn radon 0.000 0.000 0.000
87 Fr francium 0.000 0.000 0.000
88 Ra radium 0.000 0.000 0.000
89 Ac actinium 0.000 0.000 0.000
90 Th thorium 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.0000000454.5×10−8 0.00000003353.35×10−8 (5.7%)
91 Pa protactinium 0.000 0.000 0.000
92 U uranium 0.000 0.0000000181.8×10−8 0.0000000099.00×10−9 (8.4%)

Notes[edit]

Due to the estimate nature of these values, no single recommendations are given. All values are normalized for these tables. Underlined zeroes indicate figures of indeterminable significance that were present in the source notation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vladimir Alekseenko; Alexey Alekseenko (2014). "The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils". Journal of Geochemical Exploration 147: 245–249. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.08.003. ISSN 0375-6742. 

CRC Handbook[edit]

From these sources in an online version of David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 14, Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics; Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea:

  • R.S. Carmichael (ed.), CRC Practical Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, (1989).
  • I. Bodek et al., Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon Press, New York, (1988).
  • A.B. Ronov, A.A. Yaroshevsky, Earth's Crust Geochemistry, in Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences, R.W. Fairbridge (ed.), Van Nostrand, New York, (1969).
Estimated abundance of the elements in the continental crust (C1) and in seawater near the surface (W1). The median values of reported measurements are given. Concentrations of the less abundant elements may vary with location by several orders of magnitude.

Kaye & Laby[edit]

National Physical Laboratory, Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements, B.E.J. Pagel

Abundances in sea water (W2) and in crustal rocks (C2) from:
For the sun (S1) and the solar system (Y1) from:
  • N. Grevesse, E. Anders, J. Waddington (ed.) in Cosmic Abundances of Matter, Amer. Inst. Phys., New York, p. 1. (1988).
Except solar iron abundance from:
  • H. Holweger, A. Bard, A. Kock, M. Kock, Astron. Astrophys., 249, 545. (1991).
Accuracy of the solar abundances varies between ± 10% and a factor of two, values more uncertain than that are marked with "about". The solar system abundances are mainly derived from carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and are assumed generally accurate to ±10% or better. Solar system abundances based on other sources are marked with asterisks (*).

Greenwood[edit]

A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997). ISBN 0-7506-3365-4 Appendix 4, Abundance of Elements in Crustal Rocks.

From this source with some modifications and additions of later data:
  • W.S. Fyfe, Geochemistry, Oxford University Press, (1974).
Further referring to:
  • C.K. Jorgensen, Comments Astrophys. 17, 49–101 (1993).
Values are subject to various geological assumptions but assumed acceptable as an indication of elemental abundance in crustal rocks (C3).

Ahrens[edit]

Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995). ISBN 0-87590-851-9 Composition of the Solar System, Planets, Meteorites, and Major Terrestrial Reservoirs, Horton E. Newsom. Tables 1, 14, 15.

Bulk continental crust (C4) and upper continental crust (U1) from:
  • S.R. Taylor, S.M. McLennan, The continental crust: Its composition and evolution, Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, 330 pp. (1985).
Upper continental crust (U2) from:
  • D.M. Shaw, J. Dostal, R.R. Keays, Additional estimates of continental surface Precambrian shield composition in Canada, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 40, 73–83, (1976).
Bulk continental crust (C5) from:
  • H. Wänke, G. Dreibus, E. Jagoutz, Mantle chemistry and accretion history of the Earth, in Archean Geochemistry, A. Kröner, G.N. Hanson, A.M. Goodwin (eds.), pp. l-24, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1984).
Bulk continental crust (C6) from:
  • B.L. Weaver, J. Tamey, Major and trace element composition of the continental lithosphere, in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 15, H.N. Pollack, V.R. Murthy (eds.) pp. 39–68, Pergamon, Oxford, (1984).
Solar system (Y2) from:
  • E. Anders, N. Grevesse, Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 197–214, (1989). doi:10.1016/0016-7037(89)90286-X

Urban soils[edit]

  • Alekseenko V.A., Alekseenko A.V. (2013) Chemical elements in geochemical systems. The abundances in urban soils. Publishing House of Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (388 pp., in Russian with English Abstract). ISBN 978-5-9275-1095-5
  • Vladimir Alekseenko, Alexey Alekseenko (2014) The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. № 147 (B). pp. 245–249. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.08.003

See also[edit]