List of oxidation states of the elements

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Main article: Oxidation state

This is a list of known oxidation states of the chemical elements, excluding nonintegral values. The most common states appear in bold. The table is based on that of Greenwood and Earnshaw,[1] with additions noted. Oxidation state 0, which occurs for all elements, is implied by the column with the symbol of the element. The format of the table, which was devised by Mendeleev in 1889, shows the periodicity of the oxidation states of the elements.[1]

List[edit]

  Element
  Noble gas
Element Negative
oxidation
states
  Positive
oxidation
states
Notes
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
hydrogen −1 H +1
helium He
lithium Li +1
beryllium Be +1 +2 [2]
boron B +1 +2 +3
carbon −4 −3 −2 −1 C +1 +2 +3 +4
nitrogen −3 −2 −1 N +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
oxygen −2 −1 O +1 +2
fluorine −1 F
neon Ne
sodium −1 Na +1
magnesium Mg +1 +2 [3]
aluminium Al +1 +2 +3 [4]
silicon −4 −3 −2 −1 Si +1 +2 +3 +4
phosphorus −3 −2 −1 P +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
sulfur −2 −1 S +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
chlorine −1 Cl +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
argon Ar
potassium −1 K +1
calcium Ca +1 +2 [5]
scandium Sc +1 +2 +3
titanium −1 Ti +1 +2 +3 +4 [6]
vanadium −1 V +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
chromium −2 −1 Cr +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
manganese −3 −2 −1 Mn +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
iron −2 −1 Fe +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [7]
cobalt −1 Co +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
nickel −1 Ni +1 +2 +3 +4
copper Cu +1 +2 +3 +4
zinc Zn +1 +2 [8]
gallium Ga +1 +2 +3
germanium −4 −3 −2 −1 Ge +1 +2 +3 +4 [9]
arsenic −3 As +1 +2 +3 +5 [10]
selenium −2 Se +1 +2 +4 +6 [11]
bromine −1 Br +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +7
krypton Kr +2
rubidium −1 Rb +1
strontium Sr +1 +2 [12]
yttrium Y +1 +2 +3 [13][14]
zirconium Zr +1 +2 +3 +4
niobium −1 Nb +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 [15]
molybdenum −2 −1 Mo +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
technetium −3 −1 Tc +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
ruthenium −2 Ru +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
rhodium −1 Rh +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
palladium Pd +1 +2 +4 +6 [16][17]
silver Ag +1 +2 +3 +4 [18]
cadmium Cd +1 +2 [19]
indium In +1 +2 +3
tin −4 Sn +2 +4
antimony −3 Sb +3 +5
tellurium −2 Te +2 +4 +5 +6
iodine −1 I +1 +3 +4 +5 +7 [20]
xenon Xe +1 +2 +4 +6 +8 [21]
caesium −1 Cs +1
barium Ba +2
lanthanum La +2 +3
cerium Ce +2 +3 +4
praseodymium Pr +2 +3 +4
neodymium Nd +2 +3 +4 [22]
promethium Pm +2 +3 [23]
samarium Sm +2 +3
europium Eu +2 +3
gadolinium Gd +1 +2 +3
terbium Tb +1 +2 +3 +4 [24]
dysprosium Dy +2 +3 +4 [25]
holmium Ho +2 +3 [26]
erbium Er +2 +3 [27]
thulium Tm +2 +3
ytterbium Yb +2 +3
lutetium Lu +3
hafnium Hf +2 +3 +4
tantalum −1 Ta +2 +3 +4 +5
tungsten −2 −1 W +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
rhenium −3 −1 Re +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
osmium −2 −1 Os +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 [28]
iridium −3 −1 Ir +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 [29][30][31]
platinum −2 −1 Pt +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [32][33]
gold −1 Au +1 +2 +3 +5
mercury Hg +1 +2 +4 [34]
thallium −1 Tl +1 +3 [35]
lead −4 Pb +2 +4
bismuth −3 Bi +1 +3 +5 [36]
polonium −2 Po +2 +4 +5 +6 [37]
astatine −1 At +1 +3 +5 +7
radon Rn +2 +6 [38][39][40]
francium Fr +1
radium Ra +2
actinium Ac +2 +3 [41]
thorium Th +1 +2 +3 +4 [42]
protactinium Pa +2 +3 +4 +5 [43]
uranium U +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [44]
neptunium Np +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
plutonium Pu +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 [45]
americium Am +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 [46]
curium Cm +2 +3 +4 +6 +8 [47][48][49]
berkelium Bk +2 +3 +4 [50]
californium Cf +2 +3 +4
einsteinium Es +2 +3 +4 [51]
fermium Fm +2 +3
mendelevium Md +2 +3
nobelium No +2 +3
lawrencium Lr +3
rutherfordium Rf +4
dubnium Db +5 [52]
seaborgium Sg +6 [53]
bohrium Bh +7 [54]
hassium Hs +8 [55]

A figure with a similar format (shown below) was used by Irving Langmuir in 1919 in one of the early papers about the octet rule.[56] The periodicity of the oxidation states was one of the pieces of evidence that led Langmuir to adopt the rule.

Langmuir valence.png

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 27–28. ISBN 0080379419. 
  2. ^ Be(I) has been observed in beryllium monohydride (BeH); see "Beryllium: Beryllium(I) Hydride compound data". bernath.uwaterloo.ca. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  3. ^ Low valent magnesium compounds with Mg(I) have been obtained using bulky ligands; see Green, S. P.; Jones C.; Stasch A. (December 2007). "Stable Magnesium(I) Compounds with Mg-Mg Bonds". Science 318 (5857): 1754–1757. Bibcode:2007Sci...318.1754G. doi:10.1126/science.1150856. PMID 17991827. 
  4. ^ Al(II) has been observed in aluminium(II) oxide (AlO); see D. C. Tyte (1964). "Red (B2Π–A2σ) Band System of Aluminium Monoxide". Nature 202 (4930): 383. Bibcode:1964Natur.202..383T. doi:10.1038/202383a0. , and in dialanes (R2Al—AlR2); see Uhl, Werner "Organoelement Compounds Possessing Al—Al, Ga—Ga, In—In, and Tl—Tl Single Bonds" Advances in Organometallic Chemistry Volume 51, 2004, Pages 53–108. doi:10.1016/S0065-3055(03)51002-4
  5. ^ Ca(I) has been observed; see Krieck, Sven; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias (2010). "Mechanistic Elucidation of the Formation of the Inverse Ca(I) Sandwich Complex [(thf)3Ca(μ-C6H3-1,3,5-Ph3)Ca(thf)3] and Stability of Aryl-Substituted Phenylcalcium Complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 (35): 12492–501. doi:10.1021/ja105534w. PMID 20718434. 
  6. ^ Ti(I) has been observed in titanium monohydride (TiH); see Andersson, N. et al.; Balfour, Walter J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Lindgren, Bo; Ram, Ram S. (2003). "Emission spectra of TiH and TiD near 938 nm". J. Chem. Phys. 118 (8): 10543. Bibcode:2003JChPh.118.3543A. doi:10.1063/1.1539848. 
  7. ^ Fe(VII) and Fe(VIII) have been reported; see Yurii D. Perfiliev; Virender K. Sharma (2008). "Higher Oxidation States of Iron in Solid State: Synthesis and Their Mössbauer Characterization – Ferrates – ACS Symposium Series (ACS Publications)". Platinum Metals Review 48 (4): 157. doi:10.1595/147106704X10801.  However, their existence has been disputed.
  8. ^ Zn(I) has been observed in Zn2Cl2; see Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; (1985). "Zink". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1034–1041. ISBN 3-11-007511-3. 
  9. ^ Ge(−1), Ge(−2), and Ge(−3) have been observed in germanes; see Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. .
  10. ^ As(I) has been observed in arsenic(I) iodide (AsI); see Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2004). "Stabilized Arsenic(I) Iodide: A Ready Source of Arsenic Iodide Fragments and a Useful Reagent for the Generation of Clusters". Inorganic Chemistry 43 (19): 5981–6. doi:10.1021/ic049281s. PMID 15360247. 
  11. ^ Se(I) has been observed in selenium(I) chloride (Se2Cl2); see "Selenium : Selenium(I) chloride compound data". WebElements.com. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  12. ^ Sr(I) has been observed in strontium monofluoride (SrF); see P. Colarusso et al.; Guo, B.; Zhang, K.-Q.; Bernath, P.F. (1996). "High-Resolution Infrared Emission Spectrum of Strontium Monofluoride". J. Molecular Spectroscopy 175: 158. Bibcode:1996JMoSp.175..158C. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1996.0019. 
  13. ^ Y(I) has been observed in yttrium(I) bromide (YBr); see "Yttrium: yttrium(I) bromide compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  14. ^ Y(II) has been observed in yttrium(II) hydride (YH2); see "Yttrium: yttrium(II) hydride compound data". WebElements.com. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  15. ^ Nb(I) has been observed in niobium monochloride (NbCl); see Ram, R.S.; Rinskopf, N.; Liévin, J.; Bernatha, P.F. (2004). "Fourier transform emission spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on NbCl". Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 228 (2): 544–553. Bibcode:2004JMoSp.228..544R. doi:10.1016/j.jms.2004.02.001. 
  16. ^ Pd(I) has been observed; see Crabtree, R. H. (2002). "CHEMISTRY: A New Oxidation State for Pd?". Science 295 (5553): 288. doi:10.1126/science.1067921. 
  17. ^ Pd(VI) complexes have been observed; see Chen, W.; Shimada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Masato (2002). "Synthesis and Structure of Formally Hexavalent Palladium Complexes". Science 295 (5553): 308. Bibcode:2002Sci...295..308C. doi:10.1126/science.1067027. 
  18. ^ Ag(IV) has been observed in potassium hexafluoroargentate (K2AgF6) and caesium hexafluoroargentate (Cs2AgF6); see Riedel, Sebastian; Kaupp, Martin (2009). "The highest oxidation states of the transition metal elements". Coordination Chemistry Reviews (Elsevier) 253 (5–6): 606–624. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2008.07.014. 
  19. ^ Cd(I) has been observed in cadmium(I) tetrachloroaluminate (Cd2(AlCl4)2); see Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; (1985). "Cadmium". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1056–1057. ISBN 3-11-007511-3. 
  20. ^ I(IV) has been observed in iodine dioxide (IO2); see Pauling, Linus (1988). "Oxygen Compounds of Nonmetallic Elements". General Chemistry (3rd ed.). Dover Publications, Inc. p. 259. ISBN 0-486-65622-5. 
  21. ^ Xe(I) has been observed in xenon hexafluoroplatinate and xenon hexafluororhodate; see Pauling, Linus (1988). General Chemistry (3rd ed.). Dover Publications, Inc. p. 250. ISBN 0-486-65622-5. 
  22. ^ Nd(IV) has been observed in unstable solid state compounds; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 
  23. ^ Pm(II) has been observed in dilute, solid solutions of promethium dihalides in alkaline earth dihalides; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 
  24. ^ Tb(II) has been observed in terbium dihydride (TbH2), terbium(II) selenide (TbSe), and terbium(II) telluride (TbTe); see Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill. pp. 920–921. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  25. ^ Dy(IV) has been observed in unstable solid state compounds; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 
  26. ^ Ho(II) has been observed in dilute, solid solutions of holmium dihalides in alkaline earth dihalides; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 
  27. ^ Er(II) has been observed in dilute, solid solutions of erbium dihalides in alkaline earth dihalides; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 
  28. ^ Os(−1) has been observed in Na
    2
    [Os
    4
    (CO)
    13
    ]
    ; see Krause, J.; Siriwardane, Upali; Salupo, Terese A.; Wermer, Joseph R.; Knoeppel, David W.; Shore, Sheldon G. (1993). "Preparation of [Os3(CO)11]2− and its reactions with Os3(CO)12; structures of [Et4N] [HOs3(CO)11] and H2OsS4(CO)". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 454: 263–271. doi:10.1016/0022-328X(93)83250-Y.  and Carter, Willie J.; Kelland, John W.; Okrasinski, Stanley J.; Warner, Keith E.; Norton, Jack R. (1982). "Mononuclear hydrido alkyl carbonyl complexes of osmium and their polynuclear derivatives". Inorganic Chemistry 21 (11): 3955–3960. doi:10.1021/ic00141a019. 
  29. ^ Ir(−3) has been observed in Ir(CO)33−; see Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 1117. ISBN 0080379419. 
  30. ^ Ir(VII) has been observed in iridium heptafluoride (IrF7); see Prediction of new compounds and new oxidation states.
  31. ^ Ir(VIII) has been observed in iridium tetroxide (IrO4); see Gong, Yu; Zhou, Mingfei; Kaupp, Martin; Riedel, Sebastian (2009). "Formation and Characterization of the Iridium Tetroxide Molecule with Iridium in the Oxidation State +VIII". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48 (42): 7879. doi:10.1002/anie.200902733. 
  32. ^ Pt(−1) and Pt(−2) have been observed in the barium platinides Ba2Pt, BaPt, and Ba3Pt2 respectively: see Karpov, Andrey; Konuma, Mitsuharu; Jansen, Martin (2006). "An experimental proof for negative oxidation states of platinum: ESCA-measurements on barium platinides". Chemical Communications (8): 838–840. doi:10.1039/b514631c. PMID 16479284. 
  33. ^ Pt(I) and Pt(III) have been observed in bimetallic and polymetallic species; see Kauffman, George B.; Thurner, Joseph J.; Zatko, David A. (1967). "Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate(IV)". Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic Syntheses 9: 182–185. doi:10.1002/9780470132401.ch51. ISBN 978-0-470-13240-1. 
  34. ^ Hg(IV) has been observed in mercury(IV) fluoride (HgF4); see Xuefang Wang; Lester Andrews; Sebastian Riedel; Martin Kaupp (2007). "Mercury Is a Transition Metal: The First Experimental Evidence for HgF4". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (44): 8371–8375. doi:10.1002/anie.200703710. PMID 17899620. .
  35. ^ Tl(−1) has been observed in caesium thallide (CsTl); see Bashilova NI & Khomutova, TV 1984, 'Thallates of alkali metals and monovalent thallium formed in aqueous solutions of their hydroxides', Russian Chemical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 8, August, pp. 1543–47.
  36. ^ Bi(I) has been observed in bismuth monobromide (BiBr) and bismuth monoiodide (BiI); see Godfrey, S. M.; McAuliffe, C. A.; Mackie, A. G.; Pritchard, R. G. (1998). Nicholas C. Norman, ed. Chemistry of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. Springer. pp. 67–84. ISBN 0-7514-0389-X. 
  37. ^ Po(V) has been observed in dioxidopolonium(1+) (PoO+
    2
    ); see Thayer, John S. (2010). Chemistry of heavier main group elements. p. 78. doi:10.1007/9781402099755_2. 
  38. ^ Rn(II) has been observed in radon difluoride (RnF2); see Stein, L. (1970). "Ionic Radon Solution". Science 168 (3929): 362–4. Bibcode:1970Sci...168..362S. doi:10.1126/science.168.3929.362. PMID 17809133.  and Kenneth S. Pitzer (1975). "Fluorides of radon and element 118". J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (18): 760b – 761. doi:10.1039/C3975000760b. 
  39. ^ Rn(IV) is reported by Greenwood and Earnshaw, but is not known to exist; see Sykes, A. G. (1998). "Recent Advances in Noble-Gas Chemistry". Advances in Inorganic Chemistry 46. Academic Press. pp. 91–93. ISBN 978-0-12-023646-6. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  40. ^ Rn(VI) is known in radon trioxide (RnO3); see Sykes, A. G. (1998). "Recent Advances in Noble-Gas Chemistry". Advances in Inorganic Chemistry 46. Academic Press. pp. 91–93. ISBN 978-0-12-023646-6. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  41. ^ Ac(II) is known in actinium dihydride (AcH2); see Farr, J; Giorgi, A.L.; Bowman, M.G.; Money, R.K. (1961). "The crystal structure of actinium metal and actinium hydride". Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry 18: 42. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(61)80369-2. 
  42. ^ Th(I) is known in thorium(I) bromide (ThBr); see Wickleder, Mathias S.; Fourest, Blandine; Dorhout, Peter K. (2006). "Thorium". In Morss, Lester R.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements 3 (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. pp. 52–160. doi:10.1007/1-4020-3598-5_3. 
  43. ^ Pa(II) is known in protactinium(II) oxide (PaO); see Sellers, Philip A.; Fried, Sherman; Elson, Robert E.; Zachariasen, W. H. (1954). "The Preparation of Some Protactinium Compounds and the Metal". Journal of the American Chemical Society 76 (23): 5935. doi:10.1021/ja01652a011. 
  44. ^ U(II) has been observed in uranium monoxide (UO), uranium monosulfide (US), uranium acetylide (UC2), and uranium sesquicarbide (U2C3); see A.L. Bowman, G.P. Arnold, W.G. Witteman, T.C. Wallace and N.G. Nereson, Acta Crystallographica, 1966, 21, 670–671.
  45. ^ Unstable Pu(VIII) complexes can form in alkaline solutions; see Kiselev, Yu. M.; Nikonov, M. V.; Tananaev, I. G.; Myasoedov, B. F. (2009). "On the Existence of Plutonium Tetroxide". Doklady Akademii Nauk (Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.) 425 (5): 634–637. doi:10.1134/S0012501609040022. ISSN 0012-5016. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 
  46. ^ Am(VII) has been observed in AmO5−
    6
    ; see Americium, Das Periodensystem der Elemente für den Schulgebrauch (The periodic table of elements for schools) chemie-master.de (in German), Retrieved 28 November 2010 and Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 1265. ISBN 0080379419. 
  47. ^ Cm(II) has been observed in curium(II) oxide (CmO); see Holleman, Arnold F. and Wiberg, Nils Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, p.1972, 102 Edition, de Gruyter, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-017770-1.
  48. ^ Cm(VI) has been observed in curium trioxide (CmO3) and dioxidocurium(2+) (CmO2+
    2
    ); see Domanov, V. P.; Lobanov, Yu. V. (October 2011). "Formation of volatile curium(VI) trioxide CmO3". Radiochemistry (SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica) 53 (5): 453–6. doi:10.1134/S1066362211050018. 
  49. ^ Cm(VIII) has been observed in curium tetroxide (CmO4); see Domanov, V. P. (January 2013). "Possibility of generation of octavalent curium in the gas phase in the form of volatile tetraoxide CmO4". Radiochemistry (SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica) 55 (1): 46–51. doi:10.1134/S1066362213010098. 
  50. ^ Bk(II) has been observed in berkelium(II) oxide (BkO); see Peterson J. R. and Hobart D. E. "The Chemistry of Berkelium" in Harry Julius Emeléus (Ed.) Advances in inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry, Volume 28, Academic Press, 1984 ISBN 0-12-023628-1, p. 51, doi:10.1016/S0898-8838(08)60204-4
  51. ^ Es(IV) is known in einsteinium(IV) fluoride (EsF4); see Kleinschmidt, P (1994). "Thermochemistry of the actinides". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 213–214: 169. doi:10.1016/0925-8388(94)90898-2. 
  52. ^ Db(V) has been observed in dubnium pentachloride (DbCl5); see H. W. Gäggeler (2007). "Gas Phase Chemistry of Superheavy Elements". Paul Scherrer Institute. pp. 26–28. 
  53. ^ Sg(VI) has been observed in seaborgium oxide hydroxide (SgO2(OH)2); see Huebener et al.; Taut, S.; Vahle, A.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, B.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Jost, D.T.; Piguet, D. et al. (2001). "Physico-chemical characterization of seaborgium as oxide hydroxide". Radiochim. Acta 89 (11–12_2001): 737–741. doi:10.1524/ract.2001.89.11-12.737. 
  54. ^ Bh(VII) has been observed in bohrium oxychloride (BhO3Cl); see "Gas chemical investigation of bohrium (Bh, element 107)", Eichler et al., GSI Annual Report 2000. Retrieved on 2008-02-29
  55. ^ Hs(VIII) has been observed in hassium tetroxide (HsO4); see "Chemistry of Hassium" (PDF). Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH. 2002. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  56. ^ Langmuir, Irving (1919). "The arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41 (6): 868–934. doi:10.1021/ja02227a002. 

See also[edit]