List of metalloid lists

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This is a list of lists of elements classified as metalloids, organised in chronological order. Lists of metalloids differ since there is no rigorous definition of metalloid (or its occasional alias, 'semi-metal'). Individual lists share common ground, with variations occurring at the margins. The elements most often regarded as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium.[n 1]

Chronological list[edit]

In the table, each 'source row' shows which elements are included in the metalloid list in that source. A hashmark (#) next to an element means that its inclusion as a metalloid, in that particular list, is qualified in some way by the author(s). The 'citations' row gives a count of the number of times the element has appeared in all of the metalloid lists; a matching entry is counted as one, the same with a hashmark is counted as a half, and a blank counts as a zero. The frequency row shows these counts as percentages. The end of this row shows the average number of elements per metalloid list. Just above that cell is the total number of metalloid lists.

Element → Beryl­lium Boron Carbon Alu­minium Silicon Phos­phorus Sulfur Germa­nium Arsenic Sele­nium Tin Anti­mony Tellu­rium Iodine Bis­muth Polo­nium Asta­tine Liver­morium Other Total
Be B C Al Si P S Ge As Se Sn Sb Te I Bi Po At Lv
Citations → 7.5 166 16.5 18 183.5 10 3 184.5 191.5 46 5.5 169.5 190.5 2.5 11.5 93.5 78 3 6 194n
Frequency (n = 194)  3.9% 86% 8.5% 9.3% 95% 5.2% 1.5% 95% 99% 24% 2.8% 87% 98% 1.3% 5.9% 48% 40% 1.5% 3.1% 7.15AVG
Source Yr
Simmons[1] 1947 As Se Sb Te   4
Pauling[2] 1949 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Szabó & Lakatos[3] 1954 Be B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   10
Dull, Metcalfe & Williams[4] 1958 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   9
Frey[5] 1958 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Johnstone & Miller[6] 1960 B C Si P Ge As Se Sb Te   9
Edwards et al.[7] 1961 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te I   8
Bond[8] 1962 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Swift & Schaefer[9] 1962 B Si Ge As Sb Bi   6
Hoffman[10] 1963 Be B Si Ge As Sb Te   7
Nathans[11] 1963 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Bailar, Moeller & Kleinberg[12] 1965 Ge As Se Te   4
Selwood[13] 1965 B Al Si Ge As Sn Sb Te Bi Po At Ga 12
Bassett et al.[14] 1966 Be B Al Si Ge Sb Te Po   8
Hultgren[15] 1966 C Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Metcalfe, Williams & Castka[16] 1966 B Al# Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7.5
Rochow[17] 1966 B C# Si P# Ge As Se# Sb Te Bi# Po# At#   9
Mahan[18] 1967 B Si Ge As Te   5
Paul, King & Farinholt[19] 1967 Si Ge As Se Sb Te   6
Siebring[20] 1967 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po   8
Cotton & Lynch[21] 1968 B C Si Ge As Se Sb Te At   9
Dunstan[22] 1968 Be Al Ge# As Sn Sb Te Bi Po Pb 7.5
Tyrell & Warren[23] 1968 B C# Al# Si P# Ge# As Se# Sb# Te I# Po# At   9.5
Williams, Embree & DeBey[24] 1968 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po   8
Chedd[25] 1969 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Hägg[26] 1969 Ge As Sn Sb Te At   6
Holum[27] 1969 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   9
Hunter[28] 1969 Si As Se Sb Te   5
Moody[29] 1969 Be B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   10
Dickerson, Gray & Haight[30] 1970 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Hardwick & Knobler[31] 1970 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Williams, Embree & DeBay[32] 1970 Be B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po   9
Dickson[33] 1971 Si Ge As Sb Te Po   6
Emsley[34] 1971 Ge As Sb Te   4
Nitz & Dhonau[35] 1971 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Pimentel & Spratley[36] 1971 B C Si Ge As Se Sb Te Po# At#   9
Barrow[37] 1972 B Si Ge As Te   5
Choppin & Johnsen[38] 1972 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Horvath[39] 1973 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Pascoe[40] 1973 B C Si P Ge Se Te At   8
Seager & Stoker[41] 1973 Be B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   10
Allen & Keefer[42] 1974 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te At   8
Andrews[43] 1974 B Si As Te At   5
Day & Johnson[44] 1974 Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   7
Dickson[45] 1974 Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   7
Duffy[46] 1974 Ge As Se Sb Te   5
Fuller[47] 1974 B C Si Ge As Se Te   7
Nordmann[48] 1974 B Si Ge As Se Te Po At   8
O'Connor[49] 1974 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Rock & Gerhold[50] 1974 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Pauling & Pauling[51] 1975 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Hearst & Ifft[52] 1976 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Tyler Miller[53] 1976 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At H 10
Waser, Trueblood & Knobler[54] 1976 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Bloomfield[55] 1977 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   9
Ucko[56] 1977 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   9
Hill & Holman[57] 1978 B C# Si Ge As Te   5.5
Coxon, Fergusson & Phillips[58] 1980 Be# B Si Ge As Sb# Te At   7
Warrena & Geballe[59] 1981 B C Si P S As Se Te At   9
Walters[60] 1982 B Si Ge As Te   5
Edwards & Sienko[61] 1983 Ge As Sb Te Po At#   5.5
Holtzclaw, Robinson & Nebergall[62] 1984 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Boikess & Edelson[63] 1985 B Si Ge As Te   5
Peters[64] 1986 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Hibbert & James[65] 1987 Si Ge As Sb Te Bi Po   7
Jones et al.[66] 1987 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
McQuarrie & Rock[67] 1987 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Wulfsberg[68] 1987 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Thayer[69] 1988 B Si P Ge As Te   6
Whitten, Gailey & Davis[70] 1988 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   9
Bailar et al.[71] 1989 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Gill[72] 1989 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Malone[73] 1989 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Petrucci[74] 1989 Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   7
Puddephatt & Monaghan[75] 1989 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Scott[76] 1989 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Segal[77] 1989 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Oxtoby, Nachtrieb & Freeman[78] 1990 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Atkins & Beran[79] 1990 Si Ge As Sb Te Po   6
Ebbing & Wrighton[80] 1993 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Zumdahl[81] 1993 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Birk[82] 1994 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Smith[83] 1994 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
AAE[84] 1996 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Brady & Holum[85] 1996 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Harrison & de Mora[86] 1996 B Si Ge As Te   5
Hook & Post[87] 1996 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Atkins & Jones[88] 1997 Si Ge As Sb Te Po   6
Dayah[89] 1997 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Mingos[90] 1998 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Joesten & Wood[91] 1999 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Kremer[92] 1999 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Thompson[93] 1999 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Umland & Bellama[94] 1999 B Si Ge As Se Te At   7
Callister[95] 2000 B C Si Ge As Se Te   7
Enloe[96] 2000 B Si As Te At   5
Mann, Meek & Allen[97] 2000 B Si Ge As Sb Te Bi Po   8
Phillips, Stozak & Wistrom[98] 2000 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Ryan[99] 2000 B Si Ge As Te   5
Hawkes[100] 2001 Ge As Se Sb Te Bi   6
Lewis & Evans[101] 2001 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Masterton & Hurley[102] 2001 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Barrett[103] 2002 B# Si# Ge# As# Se# Sb# Te#   3.5
Chang[104] 2002 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At Lv Uus 10
Harding, Johnson & Janes[105] 2002 Si Ge As Sb Te   5
Johnson[106] 2002 Si Ge As Sb Te At   6
Rodgers[107] 2002 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Szefer[108] 2002 Si Ge As Se Sb Te   6
Woodgate[109] 2002 Al Ge As Sb Te   5
Wright & Welbourn[110] 2002 B Si Ge As Te   5
e-encyclopedia[111] 2003 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Gupta[112] 2003 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Hunt[113] 2003 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Myers[114] 2003 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te At   8
Williams[115] 2003 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Atkins[116] 2004 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Cox[117] 2004 Si Ge As Se Sb Te   6
Gilbert, Kirss & Davies[118] 2004 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te At   8
Reilly[119] 2004 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te Po At   9
Ebbing & Gammon[120] 2005 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Fry & Page[121] 2005 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Halliday, Resnick & Walker[122] 2005 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Holler & Selegue[123] 2005 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At#   7.5
Kotz, Treichel & Weaver[124] 2005 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Meyer[125] 2005 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Orchin[126] 2005 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Swenson[127] 2005 B C Si Ge As Se Sb Te Bi Po At   11
Baird[128] 2006 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Blei & Odian[129] 2006 Si Ge As Sb Te Po At Lv   8
Brown & Holme[130] 2006 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Dashek & Harrison[131] 2006 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Finch et al.[132] 2006 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Goldfrank & Flomenbaum[133] 2006 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Hatt[134] 2006 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Hérold[135] 2006 B C Si P Ge As Se Bi Po At#   9.5
McMonagle[136] 2006 B Si Ge As Te Lv Fl
Uup
8
Rayner-Canham & Overton[137] 2006 B Si Ge As Te   5
Silberberg[138] 2006 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Slade[139] 2006 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Wertheim, Oxlade & Stockley[140] 2006 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te At   8
Whitley[141] 2006 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
American Chemical Society[142] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Astruc[143] 2007 B Si P S As Se   6
Casper[144] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Crystal[145] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
DeGraff[146] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Joesten, Hogg & Castellion[147] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Lewis[148] 2007 B C Si P S Ge As Se Sb Te Po   11
Petty[149] 2007 B C Si P Ge As Se Sn Sb Te Bi Po At   13
Rösler, Harders & Bäker[150] 2007 B Si Ge As Sn# Sb Te   6.5
Saunders[151] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Saunders[152] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Shipman, Wilson & Tood[153] 2007 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Bauer, Birk & Sawyer[154] 2008 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Clugston & Flemming[155] 2008 Si Ge As Se Sb Te   6
Encyclopedia Columbia[156] 2008 As Se Sb Te   4
Ham[157] 2008 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Kelter, Mosher & Scott[158] 2008 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Masterton & Hurley[159] 2008 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Merck[160] 2008 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Nicolaou & Montagnon[161] 2008 B C Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   9
Řezanka & Sigler[162] 2008 B Si As Se Te At   6
Tro & Neu[163] 2008 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Vallero[164] 2008 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Brown et al.[165] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Burrows et al.[166] 2009 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7
Castor-Perry[167] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te I Po At   9
Cracolice & Peters[168] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Economou[169] 2009 B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   9
Habashi[170] 2009 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te Bi Po   9
Hein & Arena[171] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Leach[172] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Manning[173] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
McMurray & Fay[174] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Reger, Goode & Ball[175] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Schnepp[176] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Shubert & Leyba[177] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Whitten et al.[178] 2009 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Aldinger & Weberruss[179] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Banks et al.[180] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te   6
Fayer[181] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
Gray[182] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
Groysman[183] 2010 Si Ge As Sb Te Po   6
Halka & Nordstrom[184] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Lombi E & Holm PE[185] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At   8
NEST Association[186] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
RCCS[187] 2010 B C Si P Ge As Se Sn Sb Te Bi Po At   13
Senese[188] 2010 B# C Si Ge As Se# Sb Te Po At   9
Weiner[189] 2010 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Barbalace[190] 2011 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po   7
Encyclopædia Britannica Online[191] 2011 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po# At#   7
Helmenstine[192] 2011 B Si Ge As Sb Te Po#   6.5
Moore[193] 2011 B Si Ge As Sb Te At   7
QA International[194] 2011 B Si Ge As Se Sb Te   7

Appearance frequency clusters[edit]

Clusters of elements and their appearance in the sources

Elements cited in the listed sources (as of August 2011; n = 194) have appearance frequencies that occur in clusters of comparable values. The diamonds in the graph mark the mean appearance frequency of each cluster. Cluster 1 (93%) = B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te; cluster 2 (44%) = Po, At; cluster 3 (24%) = Se; cluster 4 (9%) = C, Al; cluster 5 (5%) = Be, P, Bi; cluster 6 (3%) = Sn; and cluster 7 (1%) = H, Ga, S, I, Pb, Fl, Uup, Lv, Uus. The resulting geometric trend line has the formula y = 199.47e−0.7423x and an R2 value of 0.9962.[n 2]

Elements regarded as metalloids[edit]

The elements commonly classified as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium.[n 3] The status of polonium and astatine is not settled. Most authors recognise one or the other, or both, as metalloids; Herman, Hoffmann and Ashcroft, on the basis of relativistic modelling, predict astatine will be a monatomic metal.[n 4] One or more of carbon, aluminium, phosphorus, selenium, tin or bismuth, these being periodic table neighbours of the elements commonly classified as metalloids, are sometimes recognised as metalloids.[n 5] Selenium, in particular, is commonly designated as a metalloid in environmental chemistry[n 6] on account of similarities in its aquatic chemistry with that of arsenic and antimony.[n 7] There are fewer references to beryllium, in spite of its periodic table position adjoining the dividing line between metals and nonmetals. Isolated references in the literature can also be found to the categorisation of other elements as metalloids. These elements include: hydrogen, nitrogen,[n 8] sulfur,[n 9] zinc,[n 10] gallium,[n 11] iodine,[n 12] lead,[n 13] and radon[n 14] (citations are for references other than those listed above).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lack of a rigorous definition:
    • Goldsmith RH 1982, 'Metalloids', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 526–527, doi:10.1021/ed059p526
    • Hawkes SJ 2001, 'Semimetallicity', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 1686–87, doi:10.1021/ed078p1686
  2. ^ The R2 value is a measure of how close a formula fits a set of data points. Values fall between 0.0 and 1.0, with those near 1.0 indicating a good fit.
  3. ^ Elements commonly classified as metalloids:
    • Goldsmith RH 1982, 'Metalloids', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 526–7 (526), doi:10.1021/ed059p526
    • Mann JB, Meek TL & Allen LC 2000, 'Configuration energies of the main group elements', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 2780–3 (2783), doi:10.1021ja992866e: Mann et al. refer to these elements as 'the recognized metalloids'.
    • Kotz JC, Treichel P & Weaver GC 2009, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, 7th ed., Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California, ISBN 1439041318
  4. ^ Polonium and astatine:
  5. ^ Carbon, aluminium, phosphorus, selenium, tin, bismuth:
    • Rochow EG 1966, The metalloids, DC Heath and Company, Boston, pp. 7–8
    • Cobb HM 2012, Dictionary of Metals, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, p. 145, ISBN 9781615039784
    • Walker CH 2012, Organic Pollutants: An Ecotoxicological Perspective, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. 163, ISBN 9781420062588
    • Whiten K, Davis R, Peck L & Stanley G 2014, Chemistry, 10th ed., Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA, p. 134, ISBN 9781133610663
  6. ^ Selenium as a metalloid in environmental chemistry:
    • Meyer JS, Adams WJ, Brix KV, Luoma SM, Mount DR, Stubblefield WA & Wood CM (eds) 2005, Toxicity of dietborne metals to aquatic organisms, Proceedings from the Pellston Workshop on Toxicity of Dietborne Metals to Aquatic Organisms, 27 July–1 August 2002, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, Canada, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Florida, p. 284, ISBN 1880611708
    • Weiner ER 2013, Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. 181, ISBN 9781439853320
  7. ^ Similarities in the aquatic chemistry of selenium, arsenic, and antimony:
    • US Environmental Protection Agency 1988, Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria for antimony (III), draft, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratories, Washington, p.&nsbp;1
    • De Zuane J 1997, Handbook of drinking water quality, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 93, ISBN 047128789X
    • Uden PC 2005, 'Speciation of selenium,' in R Cornelis, J Caruso, H Crews & K Heumann (eds), Handbook of elemental speciation II: Species in the environment, food, medicine and occupational health, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 346–65 (347–8), ISBN 0470855983
    • Dev N 2008, 'Modelling selenium fate and transport in Great Salt Lake Wetlands' PhD dissertation, University of Utah, ProQuest, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 2–3, ISBN 054986542X
  8. ^ Nitrogen: Rausch MD 1960, 'Cyclopentadienyl compounds of metals and metalloids', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 568–78, doi:10.1021/ed037p568
  9. ^ Sulfur:
    • Chalmers B 1959, Physical metallurgy, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 72
    • US Bureau of Naval Personnel 1965, Shipfitter 3 & 2, US Government Printing Office, Washington, p. 26
  10. ^ Zinc: Siebring BR 1967, Chemistry, MacMillan, New York, p. 613
  11. ^ Gallium: Wiberg N 2001, Inorganic chemistry, Academic Press, San Diego, p. 282, ISBN 0123526515
  12. ^ Iodine:
    • Friend JN 1953, Man and the chemical elements, 1st ed., Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, p. 68
    • Rausch MD 1960, 'Cyclopentadienyl compounds of metals and metalloids', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 568–78, doi:10.1021/ed037p568
  13. ^ Lead: Murray JF 1928, 'Cable-sheath corrosion', Electrical World, vol. 92, Dec 29, pp. 1295–7 (1295)
  14. ^ Radon:
    • Hampel CA & Hawley GG 1966, The encyclopedia of chemistry, 3rd ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,p. 950
    • Stein L 1985, 'New evidence that radon is a metalloid element: ion-exchange reactions of cationic radon', Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, vol. 22, pp. 1631–2, doi:10.1039/C39850001631
    • Stein L 1987, 'Chemical properties of radon' in PK Hopke (ed.) 1987, Radon and its decay products: Occurrence, properties, and health effects, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp. 240–51 (240, 247–8), ISBN 0841210152

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