p-block

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
p-block in the periodic table
13 14 15 16 17 18
Group →
↓ Period
2
Boron
5
Carbon
6
Nitro­gen
7
Oxy­gen
8
Fluor­ine
9
Neon
10
3
Alumin­ium
13
Sili­con
14
Phos­phorus
15
Sulfur
16
Chlor­ine
17
Argon
18
4
Gallium
31
Germa­nium
32
Arsenic
33
Sele­nium
34
Bromine
35
Kryp­ton
36
5
Indium
49
Tin
50
Anti­mony
51
Tellur­ium
52
Iodine
53
Xenon
54
6
Thallium
81
Lead
82
Bis­muth
83
Polo­nium
84
Asta­tine
85
Radon
86
7
Unun­trium
113
Flerov­ium
114
Unun­pentium
115
Liver­morium
116
Unun­septium
117
Unun­octium
118

The p-block of the periodic table of the elements consists of the last six groups except helium (which is located in the s-block). In the elemental form of the p-block elements, the highest energy electron occupies a p-orbital. The p-block contains all of the nonmetals (except for hydrogen and helium, which are in the s-block) and semimetals, as well as the other metals.[not verified in body]

The groups of the p-block are:[not verified in body]

History[edit]

Many of the p-block elements have been known since antiquity, and all naturally occurring p-block elements with the exception of astatine were discovered[by whom?] before 1900.[1] Astatine was finally discovered in 1940 by Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè at the University of California, Berkeley.[citation needed]

Properties[edit]

The p-block is one of two blocks in the periodic table to contain nonmetals (although the s-block only contains two nonmetals, hydrogen and helium). As such, it has some of the most diverse properties of any region in the periodic table. The metals in this region of the periodic table are, in general, softer and have lower melting points than transition metals. The p-block is the only region of the periodic table to contain metalloids. In general, the farther one goes to the right, and the farther one goes up in the p-block, the less metallic the elements get; the metalloids form a diagonal line from the upper left to the lower right of the p-block.


Trend from metal to nonmetal through metalloid
in the p-block
13 14 15 16 17 18
Group →
↓ Period
2 Boron
5
B
Carbon
6
C
Nitrogen
7
N
Oxygen
8
O
Fluorine
9
F
Neon
10
Ne
3 Aluminium
13
Al
Silicon
14
Si
Phosphorus
15
P
Sulfur
16
S
Chlorine
17
Cl
Argon
18
Ar
4 Gallium
31
Ga
Germanium
32
Ge
Arsenic
33
As
Selenium
34
Se
Bromine
35
Br
Krypton
36
Kr
5 Indium
49
In
Tin
50
Sn
Antimony
51
Sb
Tellurium
52
Te
Iodine
53
I
Xenon
54
Xe
6 Thallium
81
Tl
Lead
82
Pb
Bismuth
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
Radon
86
Rn
Legend for the periodic table
black=Solid green=Liquid red=Gas Color of the atomic number shows state of matter (at 0 °C and 1 atm)
Primordial From decay Synthetic Border shows natural occurrence of the element
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–nonmetal range:
Metal Metalloid Nonmetal
Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Other metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas

References[edit]

See also[edit]