Andrew Gregg Curtin

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Andrew Gregg Curtin
Andrew Curtin2.jpg
15th Governor of Pennsylvania
In office
January 15, 1861 – January 15, 1867
Preceded by William Packer
Succeeded by John Geary
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 20th district
In office
March 4, 1881 – March 3, 1887
Preceded by Seth Yocum
Succeeded by John Patton
United States Ambassador to Russia
In office
1869–1872
President Ulysses S. Grant
Preceded by Cassius M. Clay
Succeeded by James Orr
Personal details
Born (1817-04-22)April 22, 1817
Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died October 7, 1894(1894-10-07) (aged 77)
Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political party Whig, Republican, Democratic,
Profession Politician, Lawyer
Religion Presbyterian

Andrew Gregg Curtin (April 22, 1817 – October 7, 1894) was a U.S. lawyer and politician. He served as the Governor of Pennsylvania during the Civil War.

Biography[edit]

Curtin was born in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania. His parents were Roland Curtin, Sr., a wealthy Irish-born iron manufacturer from County Clare, and Jane (Gregg) Curtin, the daughter of U.S. Senator Andrew Gregg.[1] His father, with Miles Boggs, established the Eagle Ironworks at Curtin Village in 1810. He attended Bellefonte Academy and Dickinson College and the Dickinson School of Law and was employed as a lawyer. His first public office was as Secretary of the Commonwealth. In 1855, Governor James Pollock appointed him as Superintendent of Public Schools. He switched political allegiance from the Whigs to the new Republican political party in 1860, with his successful run for governor. He served in that office from 1861 until 1867.

Bust of Andrew Gregg Curtin (1912), by Moses Jacob Ezekiel, Smith Memorial Arch, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

During the Civil War, Curtin organized the Pennsylvania Reserves into combat units, and oversaw the construction of the first Union military camp for training militia. It opened in an agricultural school nearby Harrisburg as Camp Curtin on April 18, 1861, and more than 300 000 men were drilled there during 4 years. In the years that followed, Curtin became a close friend and confidant of Abraham Lincoln, visiting the White House several times in order to converse about the status of the war effort.

Curtin was very active during the Gettysburg Campaign, working with Major General Darius N. Couch and Major Granville O. Haller to delay Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and prevent it from crossing the Susquehanna River. Major General George G. Meade, a Pennsylvania officer whom Curtin had recommended for brigadier general and command of one of the Pennsylvania reserve brigades in 1861, defeated Lee in the Battle of Gettysburg.

After the Battle of Gettysburg, Governor Curtin was the principal force behind the establishment of the National Cemetery there. Through his agent, David Wills, Curtin procured the attendance of President Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of the cemetery. Governor Curtin was sitting with Lincoln on the platform on November 19, 1863, when Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address.

In his first term, Governor Curtin suffered a severe breakdown from the stresses of war. Secretary of State Eli Slifer handled governmental affairs during the increasingly frequent periods when Curtin was incapacitated. President Lincoln offered the governor a diplomatic position abroad, but he chose to run for reelection in 1863.

To coordinate Union war efforts, Curtin convened the Loyal War Governors' Conference on September 24 and September 25, 1862, in Altoona. This event was one of his most significant contributions to the Union war effort. He formed the Pennsylvania State Agency in Washington, and another branch in Nashville, Tennessee, to provide support for wounded soldiers on the battlefield and returned home. He also founded the state-funded Orphan's School to aid and educate children of military men who had died for the Union cause.

Soon after ending his second term, Curtin switched to the Democratic political party, and was appointed Ambassador to Russia by President Ulysses S. Grant. He later served as a Democratic Congressman from 1881 until 1887 in the United States House of Representatives. He died at his birthplace of Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, and is buried there in Union Cemetery.

Curtin's family was prominent in Pennsylvania politics and in the Civil War. He was the great-grandson of James Potter, the vice-president of Pennsylvania, and was the grandson of Andrew Gregg, also a prominent Pennsylvania politician. He was the uncle of John I. Gregg and cousin of David McMurtrie Gregg, both Union generals in the Civil War. He also was a cousin of Col. John I. Curtin.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Roland Curtin, Sr (1764–1850)". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
William Packer
Governor of Pennsylvania
1861–1867
Succeeded by
John Geary
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Cassius M. Clay
United States Ambassador to Russia
1869–1872
Succeeded by
James Orr
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Seth Yocum
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 20th congressional district

1881–1887
Succeeded by
John Patton