|Native to||Colombia (Vaupés), Brazil (Amazonas)|
|Native speakers||(150 cited 1982)|
The Kakwa or Cacua language is an endangered language spoken by a little over a hundred people in North Western South America, particularly Colombia and Brazil. Use of the language has been described as "vigorous" by Ethnologue.
The language is spoken by indigenous American Cacua people that live in Colombian and Brazilian interfluvial tropical forests higher than 200 metres (660 ft) in elevation. The people have traditional livelihoods such as nomadic hunting-gathering and swidden agriculture. There are some non-native speakers of Cacua that are predominantly missionary workers. Their presence has resulted in the translation of religious Christian texts, notably the Christian Bible.
Reports gathered by SIL in 1982 stated that many speakers are monolingual, particularly children, which is considered a positive trait for linguistic survivability. Another promising aspect is that even though literacy is low by international standards, literacy is higher in the aboriginal language at around 10%, unlike most indigenous languages of the Americas,. This compares to a literacy rate of under 5% in Spanish, the dominant national language of Colombia.
Grammar, literature, orthography 
The language uses both the subject-object-verb and object-verb-subject grammatical constructs in speech.
In 1975, Bible portions were translated into the written form of this language, providing a basis of literature, although not native literature. By 2008 the Bible had been completely translated, but as most Kakwa speakers are illiterate it was recorded into audio in its entirety.
Cacua uses a variation of the Latin alphabet.
Sample text in Cacua 
Ded pah jwiít jwĩ jwíih cãac cha pahatji naáwát
Related languages 
Some speakers are reported to be bilingual by Ethnologue in the Cubeo, Desano, and Guanano languages, but not Spanish, which seemingly contradicts the fact that about 5% were reported to be literate in that language. It may be inferred that Spanish is only used as a literary language.
There are two dialects: Vaupés Cacua and Macú-Paraná Cacua.
Other names for this language include: Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Guanano, Macu de Desano, Báda, and Kákwa.
- Kakwa language at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Entry for Cacua at Rosetta Project
- Global Recordings - Cacua audio recordings