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A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation, sometimes with hail and thunder, which normally lasts no longer than a few minutes but is capable of creating flood conditions. A cloudburst can suddenly dump 72,300 tons of water over one square acre. A real cloudburst is very rare. The runoff from the slopes make it seem that a cloud has burst open like a paper bag. Of course, even in a real cloudburst, the cloud does not break open. Rainfall rate equal to or greater than 10 cm per hour is a cloudburst. The associated convective cloud can extend up to a height of 15 km above the ground. It is not essential that cloudbursts occur only when a cloud clashes with a solid body like a mountain. They can also occur when hot water vapor mingles into the cold resulting in sudden condensation. Rainfall rate equal to or greater than 10 cm per hour is a cloudburst. The associated convective cloud can extend up to a height of 15 km above the ground. The term "cloudburst" is the result of the fanciful idea that clouds are filled with water. Historically, some people believed that clouds were essentially like balloons, with solid membranes filled with liquid. In a cloudburst, these balloons would literally burst, pouring torrents of rain out. Although this theory has since been disproved, the term has stuck.
Since cloud bursts are so rare, scientists know little about it. Even they find it hard to predict cloudbursts. A cloudburst occurs when a pregnant monsoon cloud drifts northwards. They can also occur when hot water vapour mingles into the cold resulting in sudden condensation or when the rain forming in the cloud has been unable to fall down in a steady shower. Sometimes this happens when the cloud is ready to rain and the ground below is scorching hot or a very warm current of air is blowing under the rain cloud. Either of these events causes a strong updraft of warm air. Raindrops find it very hard to fall through a current of rising air. If the thunderstorm suddenly weakens or the weight of all that water combine with gravity finally overpowers the force of the updraft, the whole mass of water will start falling toward the surface and when this large volume of water finally reaches the surface, it is called a cloud burst.
During a cloudburst, more than 20 mm of rain may fall in a few minutes. The results of cloudbursts can be disastrous. Cloudbursts are also responsible for flash flood creation.
Rapid precipitation from cumulonimbus clouds is possible due to the Langmuir precipitation process precipitation process in which large droplets can grow rapidly by coagulating with smaller droplets which fall down slowly. It is not essential that cloudbursts occur only when a cloud clashes with a solid body like a mountain. They can also occur when hot water vapor mingles into the cold resulting in sudden condensation.
|1 minute||1.5 inches (38.10 mm)||Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe||26 November 1970|
|5.5 minutes||2.43 inches (61.72 mm)||Port Bell, Panama||29 November 1911|
|15 minutes||7.8 inches (198.12 mm)||Plumb Point, Jamaica||12 May 1916|
|20 minutes||8.1 inches (205.74 mm)||Curtea de Argeș, Romania||7 July 1947|
|40 minutes||9.25 inches (234.95 mm)||Guinea, Virginia, USA||24 August 1906|
|1 hour||9.84 inches (250 mm)||Leh, Ladakh, India||August 5, 2010 |
|1 hour||5.67 inches (144 mm)||NDA, Pune, India||September 29, 2010 |
|1.5 hours||7.15 inches (182 mm)||Pashan, Pune, India||October 4, 2010 |
|5 hours||15.35 inches (390 mm)||La Plata, Buenos Aires||April 2, 2013 |
|10 hours||57.00 inches (1,448 mm)||Mumbai, India||July 26, 2005|
|13 hours||45.03 inches (1,144 mm)||Foc-Foc, La Réunion||January 8, 1966|
|20 hours||91.69 inches (2,329 mm)||Ganges Delta, India||January 8, 1966|
Cloudbursts in the Indian subcontinent
In the Indian subcontinent, a cloudburst usually occurs when a monsoon cloud drifts northwards, from the Bay of Bengal or Arabian Sea across the plains, then onto the Himalaya and bursts, bringing rainfall as high as 75 millimeters per hour.
- On September 28, 1908 – A cloudburst resulted in a flood where the Musi River was swollen up to 35 meters. About 15,000 people were killed and around 80,000 houses were destroyed along the banks of the river.
- In July 1970, a cloudburst in the upper catchment area led to a 15-metre rise in the Alaknanda river in Uttarakhand. The entire river basin, from Hanumanchatti near the pilgrimage town of Badrinath to Haridwar was affected. An entire village was swept away.
- On August 15, 1997, 1,500 people were killed when a cloudburst came bustling and trail of death are all that is left behind in Chirgaon in Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh.
- On August 17, 1998, a massive landslide following heavy rain and a cloudburst at Malpa village killed 250 people, including 60 Kailash Mansarovar pilgrims in Kali valley of the Kumaon division, Uttarakhand. Among the dead was Odissi dancer Protima Bedi.
- On July 16, 2003, about 40 persons were killed in flash floods caused by a cloudburst at Shilagarh in Gursa area of Kullu, Himachal Pradesh.
- On July 6, 2004, at least 17 people were killed and 28 injured when three vehicles were swept into the Alaknanda river by heavy landslides triggered by a cloudburst that left nearly 5,000 pilgrims stranded near Badrinath shrine area in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand.
- On 26 July 2005, a cloudburst caused approximately 950 millimetres (37 in) of rainfall in Mumbai. over a span of eight to ten hours; the deluge completely paralysed India's largest city and financial centre, leaving over 1,000 dead.(Half of the flooding was caused due to the blockage sewers in many parts of Mumbai.
- On August 14, 2007, 52 people were confirmed dead when a severe cloudburst occurred in Bhavi village in Ganvi 15/20, Himachal Pradesh.
- On August 7, 2009, 38 people were killed in a landslide resulting from a cloudburst in Nachni area near Munsiyari in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand.
- On August 6, 2010, in Leh, a series of cloudbursts left over 1,000 persons dead (updated number) and over 400 injured in the frontier Leh town of Ladakh region in Jammu and Kashmir.
- On September 15, 2010, a cloudburst in Almora in Uttrakhand drowned away two villages, one of them being Balta, leaving a few people alive and rest entire village dead and drowned. Almora has been declared as a town suffering from the brunt of cloudburst by authorities of Uttrakhand.
- On September 29, 2010, a cloudburst in NDA (National Defence Academy), Khadakwasla, Pune, in Maharashtra state left many injured, hundreds of vehicles and buildings damaged due to this flash flood.
- Again on October 4, 2010, a cloudburst in Pashan, Pune, in Maharashtra state left 4 dead, many injured, hundreds of vehicles and buildings damaged. The record books as the historical highest rainfall in intensity and quantity of the Pune city recorded since 118 years old (record of 149.1 mm in 24 hours)of October 24, 1892. In the history of IT (Information Technology) hub Pune, first time this flash flood also anable Pune people to for over night stay (sleep) in their vehicle, officies and what ever available shelter in the traffic jam.
- On October 4, 2010, a cloudburst in Pashan, Pune may be the world's first predicted cloudburst, in well advanced. Since 2:30 pm weather scientist Kirankumar Johare in the city was frantically sending out SMSs to the higher authorities warning of an impending cloudburst over the Pashan area. After taking the necessary precautions still 4 persons were dead including one young scientist.
- On June 9, 2011, near Jammu, a cloudbursts left four persons dead and over several injured in Doda-Batote highway, 135 km from Jammu.Two restaurants and many shops were washed away
- On 20 July 2011, a cloudburst in upper Manali, 18 km from Manali town in Himachal Pradesh state left 2 dead and 22 missing.
- On September 15, 2011, a cloudburst was reported in the Palam area of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Indira Gandhi International Airport's Terminal-3 was flooded with water at the arrival due to the immense downpour. Even though no lives were lost in the rain that lasted an hour was enough to enter the record books as the highest rainfall in the city since 1959.
- On September 14, 2012, there was a cloudburst in Rudraprayag district killing 39 people.
- On June 15, 2013, a cloudburst was reported in Kedarnath and Rambada region of Uttarakhand State. Over 1,000 killed to date, it is feared that the death toll may rise to 5,000. Debris is still being cleared and thousands as still are still missing as of June 30, 2013. It left approximately 84,000 people stranded for several days. The Indian Army and its Northern Command launched one of the largest and most extensive human rescue missions in its history. Spread over 40,000 square kilometres, 45 helicopters were deployed to rescue the stranded. According to a news report this incident was falsely linked with cloud burst, rather it was caused due to disturbance in the two glaciers near Kedarnath.
- On July 30, 2014, a landslide occurred in the small Indian village of Malin, located in Ambegaon taluka in Pune district of India. The landslide, which hit the village early in the morning while its residents were asleep,killed at least 20 people.In addition to those dead, over 160 people were believed to have been buried in the landslide in 44 separate houses, though more recent estimates place the figure at about seventy
- On July 31, 2014, a cloudburst was reported in Tehri district of Uttarakhand. At least 4 people were reported dead. Search and rescue operations are underway.
- On September 6, 2014 there was a cloudburst in Kashmir valley killing more than 200 people. Center for Science and Environment (CSE) mentioned heavy and unchecked development aggravated the development in the region. Over 1,84,000 people were rescued after heavy rains have large part of the State submerged.
- On July 1, 1977, the city of Karachi was flooded when 207 millimetres (8.1 in) of rain was recorded in 24 hours.
- On July 23, 2001 620 millimetres (24 in) of rainfall was recorded in 10 hours in Islamabad. It was the heaviest rainfall in 24 hours in Islamabad and at any locality in Pakistan during the past 100 years.
- On July 23, 2001 335 millimetres (13.2 in) of rainfall was recorded in 10 hours in Rawalpindi.
- On July 18, 2009, 245 millimetres (9.6 in) of rainfall occurred in just 4 hours in Karachi, which caused massive flooding in the metropolis city.
- On July 29, 2010 a record breaking 280 millimetres (11 in) of rain was recorded in Risalpur in 24 hours.
- On July 29, 2010 a record breaking 274 millimetres (10.8 in) of rain was recorded in Peshawar in 24 hours.
- On August 9, 2011 176 millimetres (6.9 in) of rainfall was recorded in 3 hours in Islamabad flooded main streets.
- On August 10, 2011 a record breaking 291 millimetres (11.5 in) of rainfall was recorded in 24 hours in Mithi, Sindh Pakistan.
- On August 11, 2011 a record breaking 350 millimetres (14 in) of rainfall was recorded in 24 hours in Tando Ghulam Ali, Sindh Pakistan.
- On September 7, 2011 a record breaking 312 millimetres (12.3 in) of rainfall was recorded in 24 hours in Diplo, Sindh Pakistan.
- On September 9, 2012 Jacobabad received the heaviest rainfall in the last 100 years, and recorded 380 millimetres (15 in) in 24 hours, as a result over 150 houses collapsed.
- In September, 2004 341 millimetres (13.4 in) mm of rain was recorded in Dhaka in 24 hours.
- On June 11, 2007 425 millimetres (16.7 in) mm of rain fell in 24 hours in Chittagong.
- On July 29, 2009 a record breaking 333 millimetres (13.1 in) of rain was recorded in Dhaka, in 24 hours, previously 326 millimetres (12.8 in) of rain was recorded on July 13, 1956.
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