Indira Gandhi International Airport
|Indira Gandhi International Airport|
|IATA: DEL – ICAO: VIDP|
|Owner||Airports Authority of India|
|Operator||Delhi International Airport Private Limited (DIAL)|
|Location||South West Delhi, Delhi, India|
|Elevation AMSL||777 ft / 237 m|
Indira Gandhi International Airport (IATA: DEL, ICAO: VIDP) is the primary international airport of the National Capital Region of Delhi, India, situated in Palam, 15 km (9.3 mi) south-west of the New Delhi railway station and 16 km (9.9 mi) from New Delhi city centre. Named after Indira Gandhi, a former Prime Minister of India, it is the busiest airport in India. With the commencement of operations at the new Terminal 3, it became India's and South Asia's largest aviation hub, with a current capacity of handling more than 46 million passengers. IGIA along with Mumbai's Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, together handle more than half of the aircraft movements in South Asia. The airport's operator, Delhi International Airport Private Limited (DIAL), is looking to make the airport the next international transit hub.
Spread over an area of 6,300 acres (2,500 ha) of land, Delhi airport serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the National Capital Region of India. It was previously operated by the Indian Air Force before its management was transferred to the Airports Authority of India. In May 2006, the management of the airport was passed over to Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL), a consortium led by the GMR Group.
In 2011–12, the airport handled 35.88 million passengers and the planned expansion program will increase its capacity to handle 100 million passengers by 2030. The new Terminal 3 building has had the capacity to handle an additional 34 million passengers annually since the start of the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Terminal 3 is the world's 8th largest passenger terminal. In September 2008, the airport inaugurated a 4,430 m (14,530 ft) runway. In 2010, Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) was conferred the fourth best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, and Best Improved Airport in the Asia-Pacific Region by Airports Council International. In years 2012,2013 and 2014, the IGIA was ranked the second-best airport in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category, again by Airports Council International. Also in 2011 (the last year that full statistics from ACI are available), the airport was the 34th busiest in the world with 34,729,467 passengers handled, registering a 17.8% growth in traffic over the previous year. The airport uses an advanced system called Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) to help keep takeoffs and landings timely and predictable.
- 1 History
- 2 Statistics
- 3 Runways
- 4 Terminals
- 5 Airlines and destinations
- 6 Ground transportation
- 7 Incidents and accidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Safdarjung Airport was built in 1930 and was the main airport for Delhi until 1962. Due to increasing passenger traffic at Safdarjung, civilian operations were moved to Palam Airport (later renamed to IGIA) in 1962. Palam Airport had been built during World War II as RAF Station Palam and after the British left, it served as an Air Force Station for the Indian Air Force.
Palam Airport had a peak capacity of around 1,300 passengers per hour. Owing to an increase in air traffic in the 1970s, an additional terminal with nearly four times the area of the old Palam terminal was constructed. With the inauguration of a new international terminal (Terminal 2), on 2 May 1986, the airport was renamed as Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA).
Public private partnership
On 31 January 2006, the aviation minister Praful Patel announced that the empowered Group of Ministers have agreed to sell the management-rights of Delhi Airport to the DIAL consortium and the Mumbai airport to the GVK-led consortium.
On 2 May 2006, the management of Delhi and Mumbai airports were handed over to the private consortia.
Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) is a consortium of the GMR Group (50.1%), Fraport (10%) and Malaysia Airports (10%), India Development Fund (3.9%) and the Airports Authority of India retains a 26% stake.
The old airport terminal is now known as Terminal 1 and handles domestic flights for all budget airlines. The terminal is divided into three separate terminals – 1A (for domestic flights of state owned Air India[dubious ] and GoAir), 1B (was used by other domestic airlines, now closed and demolished), the Domestic Arrival Terminal (1C) and the newly constructed 1D (now used by all remaining[which?] domestic airlines). There is also a separate Technical Area for VVIP passengers. Additionally, there is a separate terminal for Hajj flights.
Owing to the booming Indian aviation industry and the entry of numerous low-cost private carriers, the airport saw a huge jump in passenger traffic and has failed to cope with the demand. The capacity of Terminal 1 is estimated to be 7.15 million passengers per annum (mppa). However, the actual throughput for 2005/06 was an estimated 10.4 million passengers. Including the international terminal (Terminal 2), the airport has a total capacity of 12.5 million passengers per year, whereas the total passenger traffic in 2006/07 was 16.5 million passengers per year In 2008, total passenger count at the airport reached 23.97 million.
Delhi Airport has three near-parallel runways: runway 11/29, 4,430 m × 60 m (14,534 ft × 197 ft) with CAT IIIB instrument landing system (ILS) on both sides, runway 10/28, 3,810 m × 50 m (12,500 ft × 164 ft), and an auxiliary runway 09/27, 2,813 m × 45 m (9,229 ft × 148 ft). Runway 10/28 and runway 11/29 are the only two in South Asia to have been equipped with the CAT III-B ILS. In the winter of 2005 there were a record number of disruptions at Delhi airport due to fog/smog. Since then some domestic airlines have trained their pilots to operate under CAT-II conditions of a minimum 350 m (1,150 ft) visibility. On 31 March 2006, IGI became the first Indian airport to operate two runways simultaneously following a test run involving a SpiceJet plane landing on runway 28 and a Jet Airways plane taking off from runway 27 at the same time.
The initially proposed method of simultaneous takeoffs caused several near misses over the west side of the airport where the centrelines of runways 10/28 and 9/27 intersect. The runway use method was changed to segregate dependent mode from 25 December 2007, which was a few days after the deciding near miss involving an Airbus A330-200 of Qatar Airways and an Indigo A320 aircraft. The new method involved use of runway 28 for all departures and runway 27 for all arrivals. This method which was more streamlined was followed full-time till 24 September 2008.
On 21 August 2008, the airport inaugurated its 3rd runway 11/29 costing 10 billion and 4,430 m (14,534 ft) long. The runway has one of the world's longest paved threshold displacements of 1,460 m (4,790 ft). This, in turn decreases the available landing length on runway 29 to 2,970 m (9,744 ft). The purpose of this large threshold displacement is primarily to reduce noise generated by landing aircraft over nearby localities. The runway increases the airport's capacity to handle 85 flights from the previous 54–60 flights per hour. The new runway was opened for commercial operations on 25 September 2008. At present runways 11/29 and 10/28 operate in mixed mode where all low cost carrier and cargo aircraft use 10/28 and the rest use runway 11/29, runway 09/27 used as a taxiway and put in use as a runway only during unavailability of 11/29 or 10/28. Runway 11/29 is the main international airline landing and departing runway. Runway 10/28 as the main domestic airline landing and departing runway.
Trials for simultaneous use of all the runways is expected to start on 6 June 2012. To reduce the stress on the airport's main runway 10/28 during peak hours, all three runways will be operated simultaneously.
IGI Airport is the home of several Indian airlines including Air India, Air India Regional, IndiGo, JetKonnect, SpiceJet, Jet Airways, GoAir use IGI Airport as their secondary hub. Approximately 80 airlines serve this airport. At present there are two active scheduled passenger terminals, a dedicated Hajj terminal and a cargo terminal.
Terminal 1 – domestic
Terminal 1 facilities are currently used by GoAir, IndiGo, SpiceJet and are split into two areas, Terminal 1D for departures and Terminal 1C for arrivals.
- Terminal 1C
Terminal 1C is used only for domestic arrivals. The terminal has acquired a new greeting area with expanded space, and a bigger luggage reclaim area.
- Terminal 1D
Terminal 1D is newly built interim domestic terminal with a total floor space of 35,000 m2 (380,000 sq ft) that has the capacity to handle 12 million passengers per year. Terminal 1D commenced operations on 15 April 2009. It has 72 Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE) enabled check-in counters, 16 self check-in counters, 16 security channels.
Terminal 3 – domestic and international
|Official Terminal 3 Video|
Opened in 2010, Terminal 3, a state-of-the-art and integrated future terminal, is the 24th largest building in the world and 8th largest passenger terminal. It occupies an area of 502,000 m2 (5,400,000 sq ft), with a capacity to handle 34 million passengers annually.
Designed by HOK working in consultation with Mott MacDonald, the new Terminal 3 is a two-tier building spread over an area of 20 acres (8.1 ha), with the bottom floor being the arrivals area, and the top being a departures area. This terminal has 168 check-in counters, 78 aerobridges at 48 contact stands, 54 parking bays, 95 immigration counters, 15 X-ray screening areas, for less waiting times, duty-free shops, and other features. Over 90% of passengers will use this terminal when completed. This new terminal had been completed in time for the 2010 Commonwealth Games, which were held in Delhi, and will be connected to Delhi by an eight-lane motorway (National Highway 8), and the Delhi Metro. The terminal was officially inaugurated on 3 July 2010, and there were nine flights to test the operational readiness of the new terminal and its ground handling capabilities. All international airlines shifted their operations to the new terminal in late July 2010, and all full service domestic carriers mid November onwards. The arrival area is equipped with 14 baggage carousels.
Terminal 3 will form the first phase of the airport expansion in which a 'U' shaped building will be developed in a modular manner. In 2010, all international and full service domestic carriers started operating from Terminal 3, while Terminal 1 is dedicated to low cost operations. In subsequent stages, the low cost carriers will also move to the new terminal complex.
The much awaited go ahead for the domestic airlines to start operations from the new T3 terminal has been given. After passing many hurdles Air India which is also the national carrier started its domestic operations from the new T3 terminal from 11 November 2010. Two other airlines, Jet Airways and Kingfisher Airlines, moved their domestic operations to the new terminal on 14 November 2010. Terminal 1D is now used exclusively by low cost carrier airlines including GoAir.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2013)|
Upon the annual Muslim pilgrimage of Hajj specified flights move to this separate terminal to prevent disruption of other passengers who are travelling to other areas of the globe. A separate area has been made for Hajj to cater to the abundance of additional travellers during this season, and to accommodate them with enough provided space. It has a 10 million passengers per year capacity. It is used approximately two months starting from the second month after the Eid al-Fitr every year, for 2011 it was started from 28 September 2011 onwards. Plans are underway to use the building for the remaining 10 months of the year as well.
Unused terminal facilities
- Terminal 1A
Terminal 1A was built in the early 1990s to cater to Indian Airlines domestic flights only. It had to be refurbished after a fire gutted the interiors. DIAL, the owner of the airport, has significantly upgraded this terminal. It now sports a new look with modern washrooms and facilities, however will be torn down on the completion of newer terminals which are expected to finish construction in the coming years. It was formerly used by Air India Regional until it moved to the new Terminal 3 on 11 November 2010. It is closed and now its domestic flights have been shifted to terminal 1D.
- Terminal 1B
Terminal 1B has been closed for operations after the opening up of Terminal 1D in April 2009.
- Terminal 2
Opened on 1 May 1986, at a cost of 950 million, it was also in desperate need of repair. This sign of distress was taken care of before the inauguration of the Terminal 3. The entire terminal has been upgraded. It has been repainted; glass windows have replaced the old dark ones; floors have been refitted with tiles, walls and ceilings now have new surfaces, more immigration and emigration counters have been implemented, new seats have been brought in, new baggage belts, more business lounges, eateries, and duty-free shops had also been added, which have now moved to the newer Terminal 3. Terminal 2 will work in tandem with T3, until the proposed T4 terminal is built, upon which it will be demolished as per the proposed master plan. The terminal is currently out of commission.
- Terminals 5 and 6
Terminals 5 and 6 will be built at a later stage, which will be triggered by growth in traffic, and once completed, all international flights will move to these two new terminals, while Terminal 3 will then solely be used for handling domestic air traffic. A new cargo handling building is also planned. According to Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL), these new terminals will increase the airport's annual passenger volume capacity to 100 million.
The cargo terminal is managed by Celebi Delhi Cargo Terminal Management India Pvt. Ltd. and handles all cargo operations. The airport received an award in 2007 for its excellent and organised cargo handling system. It is located at a distance of about 1 km (0.62 mi) from the main terminal T3.
Airlines and destinations
The nearest railway station is Palam railway station which is 18 km from New Delhi railway station. Several passenger trains runs regularly between these stations.
The airport is served by the Delhi Airport Metro Express train line. The 22.7 km (14.1 mi) line runs from the Airport metro station located at Terminal 3 to the New Delhi metro station railway station with trains running every 15 minutes.
The airport is connected by the 8-lane Delhi Gurgaon Expressway. Air conditioned low-floor buses operated by Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) regularly run between the airport and the city. Metered taxis are also available from the terminal to all areas of Delhi.
Incidents and accidents
- On 25 January 1970, a Royal Nepal Airlines Fokker F27-200 (9N-AAR) after a flight from Kathmandu, Nepal was caught in severe thunderstorms with turbulence and downdrafts on final approach to Palam Airport. The pilot lost control of the aircraft and crashed short of the runway. Of the five crew and 18 passengers, one crew member was killed.
- 14 June 1972, Japan Airlines Flight 471 crashed outside of Palam Airport, killing 82 of 87 occupants; ten of eleven crew members and 72 of 76 passengers died, as did three people on the ground.
- 31 May 1973, Indian Airlines Flight 440 crashed while on approach to Palam Airport, killing 48 of the 65 passengers and crew on board.
- On 7 May 1990, an Air India Boeing 747 flying on the London-Delhi-Mumbai route and carrying 215 people (195 passengers and 20 crew) touched down at Indira Gandhi International Airport after a flight from London Heathrow Airport. On application of reverse thrust, a failure of the no. 1 engine pylon to wing attachment caused this engine to tilt nose down. Hot exhaust gases caused a fire on the left wing. There were no fatalities but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair and written off.
- On 12 November 1996, the airport was involved in the Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision when a Saudia Boeing 747-100B, climbing out after take-off, collided with an incoming Air Kazakhstan Ilyushin Il-76 chartered by a fashion company, causing the deaths of all 349 people on board the two planes.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indira Gandhi International Airport.|
- Indira Gandhi International Airport, official website
- GMR Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL)
- GMR Group
- Accident history for DEL at Aviation Safety Network