University of Mississippi

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"Ole Miss" redirects here. For the University of Mississippi athletics program, see Ole Miss Rebels.
The University of Mississippi
OleMissLogo.svg
Motto Pro scientia et sapientia (Latin)
Motto in English On behalf of knowledge and wisdom
Established 1848
Type Public
Sea-grant
Space-grant
Endowment $462 million[1]
Chancellor Daniel W. Jones
Academic staff 729[2]
Students

18,423 in Oxford;

23,096 systemwide[3]
Location Oxford, Mississippi, United States
34°21′59″N 89°32′12″W / 34.3663°N 89.5368°W / 34.3663; -89.5368Coordinates: 34°21′59″N 89°32′12″W / 34.3663°N 89.5368°W / 34.3663; -89.5368
Campus Rural 2,000+ acres
Colors Harvard Crimson and Yale Blue         
(adopted in 1893)[4]
Athletics NCAA Division ISEC
Nickname Rebels
Affiliations ORAU
APLU
SURA
Website www.olemiss.edu
Ole Miss rebels Logo.svg

The University of Mississippi (colloquially known as Ole Miss) is a public, coeducational research university in Oxford, Mississippi, United States. Founded in 1848, the school is composed of the main campus in Oxford, four branch campuses located in Booneville, Grenada, Tupelo, and Southaven, as well as the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. It also operates the University of Mississippi Field Station in Abbeville. It is both a sea-grant and space-grant institute. Fifty-one percent of undergraduates are from Mississippi and twenty-five percent of all students are minorities. International students come from seventy-four nations. Ole Miss is Mississippi's largest university with a total enrollment of 22,286 in fall 2013. The Oxford campus is the second-largest main campus in the state with a fall 2013 enrollment of 18,423.

History[edit]

Founding, expansion, and tradition[edit]

The Lyceum, William Nichols, architect (1848).

The Mississippi Legislature chartered the University of Mississippi on February 24, 1844. The university opened its doors to its first class of 80 students four years later in 1848. For 23 years, the university was Mississippi's only public institution of higher learning, and for 110 years it was the state's only comprehensive university.[5] Until 1961, when James Meredith was admitted after a civil rights challenge, the publicly funded college admitted only white students, excluding any of known African descent.

When the university opened, the campus consisted of six buildings: two dormitories, two faculty houses, a steward’s hall, and the Lyceum at the center. Constructed from 1846 to 1848, the Lyceum is the oldest building on campus. Originally, the Lyceum housed all of the classrooms and faculty offices of the university. The building’s north and south wings were added in 1903, and the Class of 1927 donated the clock above the eastern portico. The Lyceum is now the home of the university's administration offices. The columned facade of the Lyceum is represented on the official crest of the university, along with the date of establishment.[6]

In 1854, the university established the fourth state-supported, public law school in the United States and also began offering engineering education.[7][8]

With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, classes were interrupted when the entire student body from the University of Mississippi enlisted in the Confederate army. Their company, Company A, 11th Mississippi Infantry, was nicknamed the University Greys. It suffered a 100% casualty rate during the Civil War.[9] A great number of those casualties occurred during Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863, when the University Greys made the deepest encroachment into Union territory. Some of the soldiers crossed the Union defensive fortification wall, only to be killed, wounded or captured. On the next day, July 4, Confederate forces surrendered at Vicksburg, Mississippi; the two battles together are commonly viewed as the turning point in the war leading to victory by the Union. When Ole Miss re-opened, only one member of the University Greys was able to visit the university to address the student body.

The Lyceum was used as a hospital during the Civil War for both Union and Confederate soldiers, especially those who were wounded at the battle of Shiloh. Two hundred-fifty soldiers who died in the campus hospital were buried in a cemetery on the grounds of the university.[10][11]

During the post-war period, the university was led by former Confederate general A.P. Stewart, a Rogersville, Tennessee native. He served as Chancellor from 1874-1886.[12]

The university became coeducational in 1882 and was the first such institution in the Southeast to hire a female faculty member, doing so in 1885.[13]

The student yearbook was published for the first time in 1897. A contest was held to solicit suggestions for a yearbook title from the student body. Elma Meek, a student, submitted the winning entry of "Ole Miss." Meek's source for the term is unknown; some historians theorize she made a diminutive of "old Mississippi" or derived the term from "ol' missus," an African-American term for a plantation's "old mistress."[14][15][16][17] This sobriquet was chosen not only for the yearbook, but also became the name by which the University was informally known.[18] "Ole Miss" is defined as the school's intangible spirit, which is separate from the tangible aspects of the university.[19][20]

The university began medical education in 1903, when the University of Mississippi School of Medicine was established on the Oxford campus. In that era, the university provided two-year pre-clinical education certificates, and graduates went out of state to complete doctor of medicine degrees. In 1950, the Mississippi Legislature voted to create a four-year medical school. On July 1, 1955, the University Medical Center opened in the capital of Jackson, Mississippi, as a four-year medical school. The University of Mississippi Medical Center, as it is now called, is the health sciences campus of the University of Mississippi. It houses the University of Mississippi School of Medicine along with five other health science schools: nursing, dentistry, health-related professions, graduate studies and pharmacy. (The School of Pharmacy is headquartered on the Oxford campus)[21]

During the 1930s, Mississippi Governor Theodore G. Bilbo, a populist, tried to move the University to Jackson. Chancellor Alfred Hume gave the state legislators a grand tour of Ole Miss and the surrounding historic city of Oxford, persuading them to keep it in its original setting.

During World War II, UM was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[22]

Integration of 1962 and legacy[edit]

James Meredith walking to class at the University of Mississippi, accompanied by U.S. Marshals.
Civil Rights Monument (statue of James Meredith sculptor: Rod Moorhead) on the Ole Miss campus.

Desegregation came to Ole Miss in the early 1960s with the activities of United States Air Force veteran James Meredith from Kosciusko, Mississippi. Even Meredith's initial efforts required great courage. All involved knew how violently Dr. William David McCain and the white political establishment of Mississippi had recently reacted to similar efforts by Clyde Kennard to enroll at Mississippi Southern College (now the University of Southern Mississippi).[23][24][25][26]

Meredith won a lawsuit that allowed him admission to The University of Mississippi in September 1962. He attempted to enter campus on September 20, September 25, and again on September 26,[27] only to be blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross R. Barnett, who proclaimed that "...No school in our state will be integrated while I am your Governor. I shall do everything in my power to prevent integration in our schools."[28]

After the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held both Barnett and Lieutenant Governor Paul B. Johnson, Jr. in contempt with fines of more than $10,000 for each day they refused to allow Meredith to enroll,[29] Meredith, escorted by a force of U.S. Marshals, entered the campus on September 30, 1962.[30]

Segregationists had gathered and rioted at the school; there were more people from around the South than students. Thousands of students, residents from the surrounding area and many from out of state, many armed, were involved.[31] Many Mississippi citizens joined in on "their battle against 'Catholic, Communist, Northern'" intervention in Mississippi white people's business. The protesters swarmed the campus in a violent effort to prevent Meredith's enrollment and enforce segregationist laws of Mississippi at the time.

Two people were killed by gunfire during the riot, a French journalist, Paul Guihard and an Oxford repairman, Ray Gunter.[32][33] One-third of the US Marshals, 166 men, were injured, as were 40 soldiers and National Guardsmen.[31]

After control was re-established by federal forces, Meredith, thanks to the protection afforded by federal marshals, was able to enroll and attend his first class on October 1. Following the riot, elements of an Army National Guard division were stationed in Oxford to prevent future similar violence. While most Ole Miss students did not riot prior to his official enrollment in the university, many harassed Meredith during his first two semesters on campus.

According to first person accounts chronicled in Nadine Cohodas's book The Band Played Dixie, students living in Meredith's dorm bounced basketballs on the floor just above his room through all hours of the night. When Meredith walked into the cafeteria for meals, the students eating would all turn their backs. If Meredith sat at a table with other students, all of whom were white, the students would immediately get up and go to another table. Many of these events are featured in the 2012 ESPN documentary film "The Ghosts of Ole Miss"

Historical observations and remembrances[edit]

In 2002 the university marked the 40th anniversary of integration with a yearlong series of events titled "Open Doors: Building on 40 Years of Opportunity in Higher Education." These included an oral history of Ole Miss, various symposiums, the April unveiling of a $130,000 memorial, and a reunion of federal marshals who had served at the campus. In September 2003, the university completed the year's events with an international conference on race. By that year, 13% of the student body identified as African American. Meredith's son Joseph graduated as the top doctoral student at the School of Business Administration.[34]

Six year later, in 2008, the site of the riots, known as Lyceum-The Circle Historic District, was designated as a National Historic Landmark.[35] The district includes:

  • The Lyceum
  • The Circle, including its flagpole and Confederate Monument
  • Croft Institute for International Studies, also known as the "Y" Building
  • Brevard Hall, also known as the "Old Chemistry" Building
  • Carrier Hall
  • Shoemaker Hall
  • Ventress Hall
  • Bryant Hall
  • Peabody Hall

Additionally, on April 14, 2010, the University campus was declared a National Historic Site by the Society of Professional Journalists to honor reporters who covered the 1962 riot, including the late French reporter Paul Guihard, a victim of the riot.[36]

From September 2012 to May 2013, the university marked its 50th anniversary of integration with a program called Opening the Closed Society, referring to Mississippi: The Closed Society, a 1964 book by James W. Silver, a history professor at the university.[37] The events included lectures by figures such as Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. and the singer and activist Harry Belafonte, movie screenings, panel discussions, and a “walk of reconciliation and redemption.”[38] Myrlie Evers-Williams, widow of Medgar Evers, slain civil rights leader and late president of the state NAACP, closed the observance on May 11, 2013, by delivering the address at the university's 160th commencement.[39][39]

Recent history[edit]

The university was chosen to host the first presidential debate of 2008, between Senator John S. McCain and then-Senator Barack Obama which was held September 26, 2008. This was the first presidential debate to be held in Mississippi.[40][41]

The university adopted a new on-field mascot for athletic events in the fall of 2010.[42] Colonel Reb, retired from the sidelines of sporting events in 2003, was officially replaced by the Rebel Black Bear. All university sports teams are still officially referred to as the Rebels.[43]

The University's 25th Rhodes Scholar was named in 2008, and, over the past 10 years, the university has produced five Truman, eight Goldwater and six Fulbright scholars, as well as one Marshall, one Udall and one Gates Cambridge scholar.[44]

Academics[edit]

University rankings
National
Forbes[45] 278
U.S. News & World Report[46] 141
Washington Monthly[47] 136
Global

With 2,563 full-time employees on the Oxford and satellite campuses, including 779 full-time faculty, Ole Miss is the largest employer in Lafayette County. More than 82 percent of full-time faculty hold the highest degrees in their fields.[48] The student-faculty ratio at University of Mississippi is 19:1, and the school has 47.4 percent of its classes with fewer than 20 students. The most popular majors at University of Mississippi include: Elementary Education and Teaching; Marketing/Marketing Management, General; Finance, General; Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Administration, Other; Biology; Psychology; and Business Administration and Management, General. The average freshman retention rate, an indicator of student satisfaction, is 80.8 percent.[49]

Divisions of the University[edit]

Ventress Hall

The degree-granting divisions located at the main campus in Oxford:

Medicinal marijuana farmed by the University for the government

The schools at the University of Mississippi Medical Center campus in Jackson:

  • School of Dentistry
  • School of Health Related Professions
  • School of Nursing (with a satellite unit at the main campus)
  • School of Medicine
  • School of Graduate Studies in the Health Sciences

University of Mississippi Medical Center surgeons, led by Dr. James Hardy, performed the world's first human lung transplant, in 1963, and the world's first animal-to-human heart transplant, in 1964. The heart of a chimpanzee was used for the heart transplant because of Dr. Hardy's research on transplantation, consisting of primate studies during the previous nine years.[50][51]

The University of Mississippi Field Station located in Abbeville is a natural laboratory used to study, research and teach about sustainable freshwater ecosystems.

Since 1968, the school operates the only legal marijuana farm and production facility in the United States. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) contracts to the university the production of cannabis for the use in approved research studies on the plant as well as for distribution to the seven surviving medical cannabis patients grandfathered into the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program (established in 1978 and canceled in 1991).[52]

The university houses one of the largest blues music archives in the United States. Some of the contributions to the collection were donated by BB King who donated his entire personal record collection. The Mamie and Ellis Nassour Arts & Entertainment Collection, highlighted by a wealth of theater and film scripts, photographs and memorabilia, was dedicated in September 2005. The archive includes the first ever commercial blues recording, a song called "Crazy Blues" recorded by Mamie Smith in 1920.[53]

The first commercial blues recording was Mamie Smith's performance of Perry Bradford's "Crazy Blues" in 1920.

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Special programs[edit]

Center for Intelligence and Security Studies[edit]

The Center for Intelligence and Security Studies (CISS) delivers academic programming to prepare outstanding students for careers in intelligence analysis in both the public and private sectors. In addition, CISS personnel engage in applied research and consortium building with government, private and academic partners. In late 2012, the United States Director of National Intelligence designated CISS as an Intelligence Community Center of Academic Excellence ("CAE"). CISS is one of only 29 college programs in the United States with this distinction.[54]

Chinese Language Flagship Program[edit]

The university offers the Chinese Language Flagship Program, a study program aiming to provide Americans with an advanced knowledge of Chinese.[55]

Croft Institute for International Studies[edit]

The Croft Institute for International Studies at the University of Mississippi is a privately funded, select-admissions, undergraduate program for high achieving students who pursue the B.A. degree in international studies. Croft students combine a regional concentration in Europe, East Asia, Latin America, or the Middle East with a thematic concentration in global economics and business, international governance and politics, or social and cultural identity. The program emphasizes intensive foreign language training, qualitative and quantitative skills, mandatory study abroad for a semester or more, and a yearlong senior thesis.

ISO (International Student Organization)[edit]

The University of Mississippi has several student organizations to help students get to know one another and adapt to life at the university. One organization is the "ISO," which organizes activities and events for international students. Notable events of the "ISO" includes a cultural night, date auction and ISO international sports tournament.

SECU: SEC Academic Initiative[edit]

The University of Mississippi is a member of the SEC Academic Consortium. Now renamed the SECU, the initiative was a collaborative endeavor designed to promote research, scholarship and achievement among the member universities in the Southeastern Conference. The SECU formed its mission to serve as a means to bolster collaborative academic endeavors of Southeastern Conference universities. Its goals include highlighting the endeavors and achievements of SEC faculty, students and its universities and advancing the academic reputation of SEC universities.[56][57]

In 2013, the University of Mississippi participated in the SEC Symposium in Atlanta, Georgia which was organized and led by the University of Georgia and the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute. The topic of the symposium was titled "Impact of the Southeast in the World's Renewable Energy Future."[58]

Rankings and accolades[edit]

Livability.com ranks Oxford No. 2 on its third annual listing of top college towns, praising the town’s genteel atmosphere, cultural and social opportunities, and abundance of outdoor activities. Oxford was No. 9 on last year’s list. Ole Miss was No. 18 on Forbes’ “Best Value Colleges,” part of the annual America’s Top Colleges section. It is the only SEC school to make the Top 20 list.[59] For the fourth year in a row, The Chronicle of Higher Education named the University of Mississippi as one of the “2012 Great Colleges to Work For,” putting the institution in elite company. The results, released in The Chronicle’s fifth annual report on The Academic Workplace, are based on a survey of more than 46,000 employees at 294 colleges and universities.[60] The University of Mississippi was included in “Fiske Guide to Colleges 2012″ featuring more than 300 of the best and most interesting colleges and universities in three nations. UM is the only Mississippi institution included in the publication. In 2012, the Ole Miss campus was ranked safest in the SEC and in the top 10 nationally by CollegeSafe.com.[61] U.S. News & World Report ranks the Professional MBA program at the UM School of Business Administration as one of the top 14 in the nation.[62] The university’s Patterson School of Accountancy is ranked No. 4 in the nation – atop all other SEC programs – for undergraduate education in the August 2013 issue of the Public Accounting Report. Also, the school’s master’s and doctoral programs are ranked at Nos. 5 and 8, respectively, in their categories.

The Army ROTC program received one of eight prestigious MacArthur Awards in February 2012. Presented by the U.S. Army Cadet Command and the Gen. Douglas MacArthur Foundation, the award recognizes the ideals of “duty, honor and country” as advocated by MacArthur. For its life-changing work in 12 Delta communities, the UM School of Pharmacy won the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy’s 2011-12 Lawrence C. Weaver Transformative Community Service Award. AACP presents the award annually to one pharmacy school that not only demonstrates a major commitment to addressing unmet community needs through education, practice and research but also serves as an example of social responsiveness for others. Ole Miss continues to be the premiere destination for college tailgating as the Grove claimed second place in Southern Living’s “South’s Best Tailgate” contest in 2012. The William Winter Institute for Racial Reconciliation at the University of Mississippi was honored by the International Association of Official Human Rights Agencies with its 2012 International Award. The accolade from the nonprofit organization devoted to promoting civil and human rights around the world was presented in New Orleans.[63]

Athletics[edit]

Main article: Ole Miss Rebels
Archie Manning's uniform number as the official speed limit on campus.

Archie Manning's uniform number, 18, is the official speed limit of the Oxford campus.[64] In March 2012, Ross Bjork was named the University's new athletics director.[65]

Student life[edit]

Student media[edit]

  • The Daily Mississippian (DM) is the student-published newspaper of the university, established in 1911. Although it is located on the Ole Miss campus, it is operated largely as an independent newspaper run by students. The DM is the only college newspaper in the state that is published five times a week. The editorial staff consists of approximately 15 students, along with a staff of 15-20 writers and 5 photographers, though these numbers vary from year to year and semester to semester. There is also an entire department devoted entirely to advertising sales and production. With a circulation of 15,000, it is one of the largest college newspapers in the country.[66] The award-winning publication celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011-12.
  • TheDMonline is the online version of The Daily Mississippian and also includes original content that supplements the print publication - photo galleries, videos, breaking news and student blogs. Page views average up to 360,000 a month.
  • Ole Miss News is another website powered by University Communications, focused mainly on providing up to date information on university events.
  • The Ole Miss student yearbook is a 416-page color book produced by students with faculty advice. It has won various awards including the Gold Crown.[67]
  • WUMS-FM 92.1 Rebel Radio, is a 2,900-watt FCC commercially licensed radio station. It is one of only a few student-run, commercially licensed radio stations in the nation, with a signal stretching about 60 miles across North Mississippi. Its format features Top 40, alternative and college rock, news and talk shows. Talk shows include the News Mix at Six, The Morning Slacker Show, and The Weekend Update.[68]
  • NewsWatch is the only student-produced, live newscast in the state of Mississippi. Broadcast through the Metrocast cable company, it is live at 5 p.m. Monday-Friday.[69]

These five publications are a part of the S. Gale Denley Student Media Center at Ole Miss.

Student housing[edit]

Approximately 5,300 students live on campus in 11 residence halls, two residential colleges and three apartment complexes. All freshmen (students with less than 30 credit hours) are required to live in campus housing their first year unless they meet certain commuter guidelines.[70] The Department of Student Housing is an auxiliary, meaning that it is self-supporting and does not receive appropriations from state funds. All rent received from students pays for housing functions such as utilities, staff salaries, furniture, supplies, repairs, renovations and new buildings.[71] Most of the residence staff members are students, including day-to-day management, conduct board members and maintenance personnel.[72] Upon acceptance to the University of Mississippi, a housing application is submitted with an application fee.[72] The cost of on-campus housing ranges from approximately $4,000 to more than $8,000 (the highest price being that of the newly renovated Village apartments) per academic or calendar year, depending on the occupancy and room type.[72] Students (with more than 30 credit hours) have the option to live off campus in unaffiliated housing.[72]

The mission of the Department of Student Housing is to provide secure, supportive and comfortable communities, designed to contribute to the personal and academic growth of each residential student.

Greek life[edit]

Despite the relatively small number of Greek-letter organizations on campus, a third of all undergraduates participate in Greek life at Ole Miss. The tradition of Greek life on the Oxford campus is a deep-seated one. In fact, the first fraternity founded in the South was the W.W.W. (or Rainbow Society), founded at Ole Miss in 1848. The fraternity merged with Delta Tau Delta in 1886.[73] Delta Kappa Epsilon followed shortly after at Ole Miss in 1850, as the first to have a house on campus in Mississippi. Delta Gamma Women's Fraternity was founded in 1873 at the Lewis School for Girls in nearby Oxford. All Greek life at Ole Miss was suspended from 1912 to 1926 due to statewide anti-fraternity legislation.[74]

Today, sorority chapters are very large, with many boasting around 300 active members. Recruitment is fiercely competitive and potential sorority members are encouraged to secure personal recommendations from Ole Miss sorority alumnae to increase the chances of receiving an invitation to join one of the nine NPC sororities on campus. Fraternity recruitment is also fierce with only 14 active IFC chapters on campus.

In 2014, the Sigma Phi Epsilon chapter of the University of Mississippi was closed after three of its members were accused of draping a noose around the statue of James Meredith, the first black student to attend the university.[75]

NPC Sororities

Inactive Chapters:

Future Chapters:

IFC Fraternities

Inactive Chapters:

NPHC Fraternities and Sororities
Other Fraternities and Sororities

Associated Student Body[edit]

The Associated Student Body (ASB) is the Ole Miss student government organization. The student body, excluding the Medical Center, includes 16,058 undergraduates, 1,992 graduate students, 520 law students and 223 students in the Doctor of Pharmacy program. African-Americans comprise 16.5 percent of the student body. The current Associated Student Body president is Davis Rogers.

Noteworthy alumni[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mississippi Business Journal http://msbusiness.com/blog/2013/03/18/board-in-no-hurry-to-find-permanent-president-for-valley/ |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  2. ^ MISS FACTS 2011-12
  3. ^ Kieffer, Chris. "State university enrollment remains steady". Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  4. ^ Ole Miss Traditions
  5. ^ "The University of Mississippi - History". Olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  6. ^ "Virtual Tours - The University of Mississippi". Olemiss.edu. 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  7. ^ "List of law schools in the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  8. ^ "School of Engineering • About Us". Engineering.olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  9. ^ 11th Mississippi Infantry: A Brief History" by Steven Davis http://faculty.swosu.edu/scott.long/11thmiss/homepage/history.htm
  10. ^ "Confederate Cemetery - About - Google". Maps.google.com. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  11. ^ http://www.civilwarcenter.olemiss.edu/cemeteries_csa.html
  12. ^ "2010 Chancellor's Inauguration - The University of Mississippi". Olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  13. ^ "Sarah Isom Center for Women". Olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  14. ^ The Mississippian, May 13, 1939, "Ole Miss Takes Its Name From Darky Dialect, Not Abbreviation of State"
  15. ^ Cabaniss, J. A. (1949). The University of Mississippi; Its first hundred years. University & College Press Of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0-87805-000-0. p. 129
  16. ^ Eagles, Charles (2009). The Price of Defiance: James Meredith and the Integration of Ole Miss. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3273-8. p. 17
  17. ^ Sansing, David (1999). The University of Mississippi: A Sesquicentennial History. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-091-7.  p. 168
  18. ^ The Ole Miss Student Yearbook
  19. ^ Everett, Frank E. (1962). Frank E. Everett Collection (MUM00123). The Department of Archives and Special Collections, J.D. Williams Library, The University of Mississippi. 
  20. ^ "OLE MISS Official Athletic Site - Traditions". Olemisssports.Com. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  21. ^ "Overview - University of Mississippi Medical Center". Umc.edu. 2011-11-03. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  22. ^ "U.S. Naval Administration in World War II". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  23. ^ The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund by William H. Tucker, University of Illinois Press (May 30, 2007), pp 165-66.
  24. ^ Neo-Confederacy: A Critical Introduction, by Euan Hague (Editor), Heidi Beirich (Editor), Edward H. Sebesta (Editor), University of Texas Press (December 1, 2008) pp. 284-85
  25. ^ "Sons of Confederate Veterans in its own Civil War | Southern Poverty Law Center". Splcenter.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  26. ^ Medgar Evers by Jennie Brown, Holloway House Publishing, 1994, pp. 128-132.
  27. ^ [1][dead link]
  28. ^ [2][dead link]
  29. ^ "Ross Barnett, Segregationist, Dies; Governor of Mississippi in 1960's". The New York Times. November 7, 1987. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 
  30. ^ [3][dead link]
  31. ^ a b "The States: Though the Heavens Fall". TIME. 1962-10-12. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  32. ^ Doyle, William (2001). An American Insurrection. New York, NY: Doubleday. p. 215. ISBN 978-0385499699. 
  33. ^ Riches, William T. Martin. The Civil Rights Movement: Struggle and Resistance. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 
  34. ^ Shelia Hardwell Byrd (21 September 2002). "Meredith ready to move on". Associated Press, at Athens Banner-Herald (OnlineAthens). Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  35. ^ Gene Ford and Susan Cianci Salvatore (2007-01-23). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Lyceum. National Park Service. [dead link]
  36. ^ Jerry Mitchell (April 14, 2010). "Ole Miss declared National Historic Site". The Clarion-Ledger. Retrieved April 14, 2010.  Archived at WebCite
  37. ^ Robertson, Campbell (2012-09-30). "University of Mississippi Commemorates Integration". The New York Times. 
  38. ^ Calendar Set for 50 Years of Integration at Ole Miss. News.olemiss.edu (2012-09-25). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  39. ^ a b Mitchell, Jerry (11 May 2013). "Ole Miss honors Evers-Williams". Clarion Ledger. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  40. ^ "University lands first of 3 debates", The Clarion-Ledger, Accessed November 20, 2007
  41. ^ 2008 Presidential Debate | The University of Mississippi - Official Home Page
  42. ^ "Mascot Selection Committee » Rebel Black Bear Selected As New On-Field Mascot for Ole Miss Rebels". Mascot.olemiss.edu. 2010-10-14. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  43. ^ "Ole Miss News". News.olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  44. ^ [4][dead link]
  45. ^ "America's Top Colleges". Forbes.com LLC™. Retrieved October 19, 2013. 
  46. ^ "Best Colleges". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  47. ^ "About the Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved October 19, 2013. 
  48. ^ [5][dead link]
  49. ^ University of Mississippi | Best College | US News. Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  50. ^ "History of Lung Transplantation". Emory University. April 12, 2005. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  51. ^ Time Magazine: Surgery: First Heart Transplant - January 31, 1964
  52. ^ CNN: Government runs nation's only legal pot garden - May 18, 2009
  53. ^ Billboard Magazine: Internet Site Shines Light On Archival Blues Recordings - June 9, 2001
  54. ^ Office of the Director of National Intelligence
  55. ^ "Introduction." Chinese Language Flagship Program, University of Mississippi. Retrieved on May 3, 2012.
  56. ^ "SECU". SEC. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  57. ^ "SECU: The Academic Initiative of the SEC". SEC Digital Network. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  58. ^ "SEC Symposium to address role of Southeast in renewable energy". University of Georgia. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  59. ^ UM Moves Up in Forbes Listing of Nation’s 20 Best College Buys. News.olemiss.edu (2012-08-03). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  60. ^ University of Mississippi Named ‘Great College to Work For’ Fourth Consecutive Year. News.olemiss.edu (2012-08-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  61. ^ Top Ten Safest Colleges and Universities. Collegesafe.com (2012-05-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  62. ^ Ole Miss Professional Online MBA Ranked Among the Top in the Nation. Prweb.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  63. ^ Winter Institute Receives International Award for Globally Promoting Civil, Human Rights. News.olemiss.edu (2012-09-18). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  64. ^ Garner, Dwight (October 14, 2011). "Faulkner and Football in Oxford, Miss". The New York Times. 
  65. ^ "Ross Bjork Press Conference" March 22, 2012
  66. ^ The DM
  67. ^ The Ole Miss
  68. ^ About | Rebel Radio. Myrebelradio.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  69. ^ NewsWatch
  70. ^ Student Housing — The University of Mississippi
  71. ^ Student Housing — The University of Mississippi
  72. ^ a b c d Student Housing and Residence Life — The University of Mississippi
  73. ^ The New York Times: Two secret societies united, Delta Tau Delta and the Rainbow Society join hands; Published March 28, 1885; Accessed December 08, 2007
  74. ^ Lee Maurice Russell: Fortieth Governor of Mississippi: 1920-1924
  75. ^ "Fraternity shuts Ole Miss branch after James Meredith statue noose tying>". Retrieved 2014-04-20. 
  76. ^ "William Faulkner Quits His Post Office Job in Splendid Fashion with a 1924 Resignation Letter". Openculture. September 30, 2012. 
  77. ^ Spillman, Rob (October 15, 2012). "On William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying". PEN America. 
  78. ^ John Grisham » Bio

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