Geißenklösterle

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Geißenklösterle.

Geißenklösterle is a cave near Blaubeuren, Swabian Alb, Southern Germany. It is an important site for the European Upper Paleolithic.

Overview[edit]

It is one of a number of caves where early modern humans in the Aurignacian, between 43,000 and 30,000 years ago left traces of early artwork, including the Vogelherd, Brillenhöhle, Große Grotte, Hohle Fels and Hohlenstein-Stadel caves.

Geißenklösterle was first archaeologically explored in 1963. Systematic excavations began in 1973, from 1974 to 2002 sponsored by the land of Baden-Württemberg. A 1983 monographical publication summarized the results up to that time.

The cave has six levels belonging to the Aurignacian and seven levels of the Gravettian, besides earlier levels belonging to the Middle Paleolithic and later ones spanning the Magdalenian down to the Middle Ages.

The Aurignacian levels date to between 43,000 and 32,000 years ago, and yielded stone tools, artefacts made from antlers, bones and ivory. Among the most notable items are a sculpture of a flutes of bird bone and mammoth ivory, the oldest known musical instruments with an age of 42.000 to 43.000 years.[1][2]

See also[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Nicolas Conard, Maria Malina: Abschließende Ausgrabungen im Geißenklösterle bei Blaubeuren, Alb-Donau-Kreis. in: Arch. Ausgr. Bad.-Württ. Theiss, Stuttgart 2001, 17-21. ISSN 0724-8954
  • J. Hahn: Die Geißenklösterle-Höhle im Achtal bei Blaubeuren. in: Forsch. u. Ber. Vor- u. Frühgesch. Bad.-Württ. Theiss, Stuttgart 21,1988,262. ISBN 3-8062-0794-1 ISSN 0724-4347

References[edit]

  1. ^ Higham, Thomas; Laura Basell; Roger Jacobic; Rachel Wood; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Nicholas J. Conard (May 8, 2012). "Τesting models for the beginnings of the Aurignacian and the advent of figurative art and music: The radiocarbon chronology of Geißenklösterle". Journal of Human Evolution (Elsevier) 62 (6): 664–76. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2012.03.003. PMID 22575323. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Earliest musical instrument discovered". International Business Times. May 25, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 48°23′54″N 9°46′20″E / 48.39833°N 9.77222°E / 48.39833; 9.77222