Beer in Germany
Beer is a major part of German culture. For many years German beer was brewed in adherence to the Reinheitsgebot order or law which only permitted water, hops and malt as beer ingredients. The order also required that beers not exclusively using barley-malts such as wheat beer must be top-fermented.
Since 1993, the production of beer has been governed by the Provisional German Beer Law which allows a greater range of ingredients (only in top-fermenting beers) and additives, that have to be completely, or at least as much as possible, removed from the final product.
- 1 Reinheitsgebot
- 2 Styles
- 3 Brands and breweries
- 4 Alcohol content
- 5 Drinkware
- 6 Beer festivals
- 7 Masskrugstemmen
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The Reinheitsgebot ("purity decree"), sometimes called the "German Beer Purity Law" or the "Bavarian Purity Law" in English, is a regulation concerning the production of beer in Germany. In the original text, the only ingredients that could be used in the production of beer were water, barley, and hops. After its discovery, yeast became the fourth legal ingredient. For top-fermenting beers the use of sugar is also permitted.
There is a dispute as to where the Reinheitsgebot originated. Some Bavarians point out that the law originated in the city of Ingolstadt in the duchy of Bavaria on 23 April 1516, although first put forward in 1487, concerning standards for the sale and composition of beer. Thuringians point to a document which states the ingredients of beer as water, hops, and barley only, and was written in 1434 in Weißensee (Thuringia). It was discovered in the medieval Runneburg near Erfurt in 1999. Before its official repeal in 1987, it was the oldest food-quality regulation in the world.
- Weizenbier and Weißbier are the standard German names for wheat beer - "Weizen" is German for "wheat", and "weiß" is German for "white".
- Weizenbock is the name for a strong beer or bock made with wheat. 16-17° Plato, 6.5-8% ABV.
- Roggenbier — a fairly dark beer made with rye, somewhat grainy flavour similar to bread, 4.5-6% ABV.
- Berliner Weisse — a pale, very sour, wheat beer brewed in Berlin. 9° Plato, 2.5-5% ABV. The beer is typically served with raspberry or woodruff flavoured syrup.
- Leipziger Gose — an amber, very sour, wheat beer with an addition of salt, brewed around Leipzig. 10-12° Plato, 4-5% ABV.
- Hefeweizen — an unfiltered wheat beer. 'Hefe' is German for yeast.
- Kristallweizen is a filtered Hefeweizen.
- Kölsch — pale, light-bodied, beer which can only legally be brewed in the Köln region. 11-12° Plato, 4.5-5% ABV.
- Helles — a pale lager from Bavaria of 11-12° Plato, 4.5-5% ABV
- Pilsener — a pale lager with a light body and a more prominent hop character. 11-12° Plato, 4.5-5% ABV. By far the most popular style, with around two thirds of the market.
- Export — a pale lager brewed around Dortmund that is fuller, maltier and less hoppy than Pilsner. 12-12.5° Plato, 5-5.5% ABV. Germany's most popular style in the 1950s and 1960s, it is now becoming increasingly rare.
- Spezial — a pale, full, bitter-sweet and delicately hopped lager. 13-13.5° Plato, 5.5-5.7% ABV.
- Bock — an amber, heavy-bodied, bitter-sweet lager. 16-17° Plato, 6.5-7% ABV.
- Maibock — a pale, strong lager brewed in the Spring. 16-17° Plato, 6.5-7% ABV.
- Eisbock — a freeze distilled variation of Doppelbock. 18-28° Plato, 9-15% ABV.
- Märzen — medium body, malty lagers that come in pale, amber and dark varieties. 13-14° Plato, 5.2-6% ABV. The type of beer traditionally served at the Munich Oktoberfest.
- Cloister beer (Kloster Bier) a term for a lager that is, or formerly was, produced in a monastery or convent.
- Altbier — A top-fermented, dark, lagered beer. It is brewed only in Düsseldorf and in the Lower Rhine region. Its origins lie in Westphalia, and there are still a few Altbier breweries in this region. Tastes range from mildly bitter and "hoppy" to exceptionally bitter. About ten breweries in the Düsseldorf region brew Altbier at 5%-6.5% ABV.
- Schwarzbier — A bottom-fermented, dark lager beer with a full, roasty, chocolatey flavor. 11-12° Plato, 4.5-5% ABV.
- Dunkles — Dark lager which comes in two main varieties: the sweetish, malty Munich style and the drier, hoppy Franconian style
- Dunkler Bock — A strong, full-bodied lager darkened by high-coloured malts. 16-17° Plato, 6.5-7% ABV.
- Rauchbier — Usually dark in color and smoky in taste from the use of smoked malt. A speciality of the Bamberg region. 12-13° Plato, 5-5.5% ABV
- Doppelbock — A very strong, very full-bodied lager darkened by high-coloured malts. 18-28° Plato, 8-12% ABV.
- Weihnachtsbier or Festbier — Seasonally styled beers brewed in the autumn for consumption at Christmas. These are dark beers of 6%–8% ABV.
Kellerbiers are unfiltered lagers which are conditioned in a similar manner to cask ales. Strength and colour will vary, though in the Franconia region where these cask conditioned lagers are still popular, the strength will tend to be 5% abv or slightly higher, and the colour will tend to be a deep amber, but the defining characteristic is the cask conditioning. Kellerbier is German for "cellar beer".
Zwickelbier was originally a sample amount of beer taken by a brewery boss from the barrel with a help of a special pipe called a "Zwickelhahn". Zwickelbiers are unfiltered lagers like Kellerbier, though with a slightly different conditioning process which gives the lager more carbonation. Zwickelbiers tend to be younger, lower in alcohol and less hoppy than Kellerbiers.
A very similar beer is Zoiglbier, which in the Upper Palatinate's brewing practice is advertised with a "Zoiglstern" (i.e., sign) — a six-pointed blue-and-white symbol made from wooden slats, similar to a Star of David.
Brands and breweries
While the beer market is weaker but more centralized in northern Germany, the south has lots of smaller local breweries. Almost half of all German breweries are in Bavaria. In total, there are approximately 1300 breweries in Germany producing over 5000 brands of beer. The highest density of breweries in the world is found in Aufseß near the city of Bamberg, in the Franconia region of Bavaria with four breweries and only 1352 citizens. The Benedictine abbey Weihenstephan brewery (established in 725) is reputedly the oldest existing brewery in the world (brewing since 1040). In 2004 Oettinger replaced Krombacher as the best selling brand in Germany.
|Brewery||Output in 2012 in million hectolitres||City|
The alcohol-by-volume, or ABV, content of beers in Germany is usually between 4.7% and 5.4% for most traditional brews. Bockbier or Doppelbock (double Bockbier) can have an alcohol content of up to 16%, making it stronger than many wines.
Elaborate stoneware beer steins
A glass of Weizen beer
A Warsteiner beer glass
Dunkles, German dark beer in a Stange
A Maßkrug of Augustiner Bräu
Originating in Germany, the glass is narrow at the bottom and slightly wider at the top; the width both releasing aroma, and providing room for the often thick, fluffy heads produced by wheat beer. It tends to be taller than a pint glass, and generally holds 500 millilitres with room for foam or "head". In some countries, such as Belgium, the glass may be 250 ml or 330 ml.
Wheat beers tend to foam a lot, especially if poured incorrectly. In pubs, if the bottle is handed to the patron for self pouring, it is customary for the glass to be taken to the patron wet or with a bit of water in the bottom to be swirled around to wet the entire glass to keep the beer from foaming excessively.
A beer stein (or simply a stein //) is an English neologism for a traditional type of beer mug. Steins may be made of stoneware (rarely the inferior earthenware), pewter, porcelain, silver, glass, or wood. They may have open tops or may have hinged pewter lids with a thumb-lever.
Steins usually come in sizes of a half litre or full litre (or comparable historical sizes). Like decorative tankards, they are often decorated in nostalgic themes, generally showing allusions to Germany or Bavaria.
The Maß (pronounced [ˈmas] and the Bavarian word of female grammatical gender, thus die Maß, for a mug containing one litre of liquid, though commonly misinterpreted as the Standard German noun Maß, pronounced [ˈmaːs] and grammatically neuter, thus das Maß, and translating to "measure") is a term used in German-speaking countries for a unit of volume, now typically used only for measuring beer sold for immediate on-site consumption. In modern times, a Maß is defined as exactly 1 litre. As a maß is a unit of measure, various designs are possible: modern maß krugs are often handled glass tankards, although they may also be in the form of steins.
Stange and Becher
A Stange (stick or rod) is a cylindrical glass that is traditionally used for Kölsch beer. A Becher (tumbler), traditionally used for Altbier, is similar to a Stange but is slightly shorter and much thicker. Stangen are carried by placing them into holes in a special tray called a Kranz (wreath).
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Beer boots (Bierstiefel in German) have over a century of history and culture behind them. It is commonly believed that a general somewhere promised his troops to drink beer from his boot if they were successful in battle. When the troops prevailed, the general had a glassmaker fashion a boot from glass to fulfill his promise without tasting his own feet and to avoid spoiling the beer in his leather boot. Since then, soldiers have enjoyed toasting to their victories with a beer boot. At gatherings in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, beer boots are often passed among the guests for a festive drinking challenge. Since the movie Beerfest appeared in 2006, beer boots have become increasingly popular in the United States. Beer boots are made of either manufactured pressed glass or mouth blown glasses by skilled artisans in form of a boot.
In Germany beer boots usually contain between 2 and 4 litres and are passed from one guest at the table to the next one clockwise. When almost reaching the bottom of the boot it suddenly starts bubbling. The drinker who caused the bubbling has to order the next boot. There are also boots known with 6 and 8 litres.
Oktoberfest is a 16–18 day festival held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October. Only beer which is brewed within the city limits of Munich with a minimum of 13.5% Stammwürze (approximately 6% alcohol by volume) is allowed to be served in this festival. Upon passing this criterion, a beer is designated Oktoberfest Beer. Large quantities of German beer are consumed, with almost 7 million liters served during the 16 day festival in 2007
Other festivals include
- The Cannstatter Volksfest in Stuttgart.
- The Gäubodenvolksfest in Straubing
- The Bergkirchweih in Erlangen
- The Hanover Schützenfest
- The Freimarkt in Bremen
- The Volksfest at the Hamburger Dom
In many cases the beer festival is part of a general funfair or volksfest.
Masskrugstemmen is the Bavarian sport of holding beer. It is played by holding a one liter Stein, filled with beer, with one arm, completely stretched out and parallel to the floor. Players must hold the Stein as long as possible in this position. The last person with their arm outstretched and all the beer in their glass is the winner.
- Reinheitsgebot, German Beer Purity Order
- "Vorläufiges Biergesetz". Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-04.
- "492 Years of Good Beer". Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- "Microsoft Word - global_alcohol_overview_260105.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-11. Table 4, page 13.
- "Kirin Institute of Food and Lifestyle Report Vol. 33 Global Beer Consumption by Country in 2010". Table 3.
See also: List of countries by beer consumption per capita
- "Bavaria"; Bolt, Rodney; Globe Pequot Press; Connecticut; 2005; pg 37.
- [dead link]
- "Weissbier". German Beer Institute. Archived from the original on 24 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-07.
- M. Gibson (2010). The Sommelier Prep Course: An Introduction to the Wines, Beers, and Spirits. John Wiley and Sons. p. 364. ISBN 9780470283189. Retrieved 2010-10-07.
- Jackson, Michael. "Jackson's Beer Hunter - Beer Styles: Kloster Bier 'Cloister beer'.". beerhunter.com. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- German Beer Institute
- "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter - Beer Styles: Kellerbier". Beer Hunter. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
- Kellerbier German Beer Institute
- About the history of Zoiglbier
- Pronunciation and definition of Zoiglbier
- Quoted in Sonntag Aktuell Newspaper (Stuttgart), 28.09.2008
-  Cited news from Financial Times Germany on oettinger.de
- Table Statista, 2013.
- Ben McFarland, World's Best Beers: One Thousand Craft Brews from Cask to Glass, page 27. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2009, ISBN 1-4027-6694-7. 2009-10-06. ISBN 9781402766947. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- The Beer Journal. Google Books. 2007-08-30. ISBN 9781430312468. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- US dict: stīn
- Gary Kirsner (1999). "A Brief History of Beer Steins". Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- Prost!: The Story of German Beer, Horst D. Dornbusch, Brewers Publications (1997), ISBN 0-937381-55-1
- Good Beer Guide Germany, Steve Thomas, CAMRA Books (17 May 2006), ISBN 1-85249-219-8
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