Indonesian hip hop
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|Music of Indonesia|
Kempul gongs from Java
Indonesian hip hop is hip hop music performed in Indonesia. Hip hop music began to be produced in Indonesia in the early 1990s, with the first Indonesia artist to release a full-length hip hop album being the emcee Iwa K, who has released five albums to date. Other Indonesian hip hop groups and solos include Salman Aditya, Boyz Got No Brain and Neo. Many Indonesian hip hop groups rhyme in the Indonesian language, but there are also groups that rhyme in English. Variously, songs often combine formal Indonesian with street slang, youth code, regionally colored pronunciations, and even expressions from regional languages (typically Javanese, Sundanese, or Betawi).
One key feature of Indonesian hip hop that is different compared with American hip hop is that the language used in Indonesian hip hop is more polite and does not use vulgar language, and does not often make references to sex and violence. Moreover, American hip hop originated from a group dissatisfied with racial discrimination. Indonesian hip hop arises from a group that is dissatisfied with authoritarian rule. (After the New Order [Orde Baru])
Themes in Indonesian hip hop music mostly pertain to youth culture, such as boredom (Blake "Bosan"), basketball (Iwa K, "Nombok Dong!"), etc. but range to social protest also. Such as themes about the fate of ordinary and poor people, and critiques of middle-class and elite life, as in songs like Sound Da Clan’s ‘‘Anak Gedongan’’ (Rich kid), Black Skin’s "CewekMatre" (Material chick) and "Nyontek Lagi" (Cheating again), or Neo’s "Borju" (Bourgeois). Other themes have also appeared, such as environmental degradation (Iwa-K, ‘‘Bumi Hari Ini’’ [The Earth today]) and condemnations of governmental corruption (Neo,‘‘KKN’’ [Corruption, collusion, nepotism])
Indonesian hip hop music is a youth subculture. It has been seen as a form of protest against the New Order government's state-imposed understanding of the Indonesian cultural identity. It has largely been condemned by key political figures such as former president B.J. Habibie. In January 1995, Habibie raised objections against organising an Indonesian rap festival. Yudhistira A.N.M. Massardi, reporting for the weekly news magazine Gatra, quoted Habibie as remarking:
"The younger generation shouldn’t want to be enslaved by an aspect of foreign culture [with] which isn’t even liked in its own country. It’s not even appropriate over there, much less in Indonesia. It’s not suitable. . . . I don’t agree with it because it’s of no use whatsoever, especially for the young generation."  
The Pesta Rap Indonesian hip hop compilations were influential in the 1990s.
Indonesian hip hop is often mixed with heavy metal. This is called hip-metal. Groups such as Iwa-K and Denada have music that is of this style.
- Bodden, Michael. Rap in Indonesian Youth Music of the 1990s: "Globalization," "Outlaw Genres," and Social Protest Asian Music - Volume 36, Number 2, Summer/Fall 2005, p.14
- Nico Colombant for the Indonesian Observer, Cinere, Jakarta, 1997, http://www.angelfire.com/dc2/usnico/indonesia-rap.html
- Bodden, Michael. "Rap in Indonesian Youth Music of the 1990s: Globalization, Outlaw Genres, and Social Protest." Asian Music, Volume 36, Number 2, Summer/Fall 2005, pp. 1–26
- Massardi, Yudhistira A.N.M. 1995 ‘‘Si Bawel Kena Omel.’’ Gatra 21:106–07.
- The Indonesian reads as follows: Generasi muda jangan mau diperbudak unsur budaya asing yang di negaranya sendiri tak disukai . . . di sana saja tidak patut, apalagi di Indonesia, tidak cocok . . . Saya tidak setuju karena tidak ada manfaatnya sama sekali, terutama bagi generasi muda. . . .
- Article about Indonesian hip hop music online
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