Australian hip hop
|Australian hip hop|
|Stylistic origins||Hip hop, dancehall, house, funk, R&B, soul, dub, jungle, toasting, rap rock, post-punk|
|Cultural origins||Early 1980s Australia|
|Typical instruments||Keyboards, synthesizer, samplers, turntables|
Australian hip hop music began in the early 1980s, and was originally inspired by African-American and Chicano cultural movements from urban areas. As of the end of 2014, Australian hip hop is no longer predominantly an underground music scene, as artists such as Hilltop Hoods and Bliss n Eso have achieved commercial success. Albums and singles are primarily released by independent record labels, often owned and run by the artists themselves. Australian hip hop continues to develop as a diverse musical genre with a distinct Australian personality.
- 1 History
- 2 Style and influences
- 3 Media
- 4 Notable artists
- 5 Record labels
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early years (1980s)
In 1982, the music video for Malcolm McLaren's track, "Buffalo Gals" was shown on the Australian television music show Sound Unlimited, which was broadcast on Network Seven. The clip was staged in a Manhattan basketball court and featured images of graffiti and break dancers. The video left an impression on Australian teenagers, who began to copy the dancers' moves.
The first hip hop album released in Australia was "Combined Talent" / "My Destiny", released in 1988 by Just Us (consisting of Maltese DJ Case and Mentor). Also in the late 1980s, hip hop act Skippy the Butcher, formerly a funk band, released a five-track EP titled Full Blown Rap under the moniker "STB" which was recorded at ABC Studios in Elsternwick, Victoria, Australia. The band, which had been in existence for just over a year, supported the 1988 Australian tour by Run DMC.
Major label releases (1990s)
In the late 1980s, Sound Unlimited Posse joined the Sony BMG roster, thereby becoming the first Australian hip hop group signed to a major record label. They released the first major-label Australian rap album in 1992, titled A Postcard from the Edge of the Under-side.
In 1991, a 16-year-old Sydney-based solo artist named KIC was signed to Sony/Columbia Records. His first single, "Bring Me On", was popular in Australia, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Also in 1992, the independent label Random Records released Def Wish Cast's album Knights of the Underground Table. After 1992, a string of independent CDs and tapes was released by various artists from the Western Suburbs of Sydney, a largely immigrant-populated area traditionally regarded as a working class, underprivileged, and crime-ridden area.
MC Opi (aka Opi Nelson) was an underground hip hop and dancehall artist who rose to national success after her performance on Christine Anu and Paul Kelly's 1994 ARIA-nominated single "Last Train", released by Mushroom/EMI (White Label). Prior to this, MC Opi co-produced Women on the The Rhyme, the first national radio documentary about Australian female hip hop artists, created at the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).
MC Opi contributed to Anu's debut album Stylin' Up, which attained platinum status in Australia and won the ARIA Award for Best Indigenous Album. Following this, Anu invited MC Opi to perform with her on the first 'Australian Jail Tour' as part of NAIDOC (National Aboriginies and Islanders Day Observance Committee) Week in 1993 in order to raise awareness about indigenous deaths in custody.
Later years (2000s)
The Melbourne hip hop group 1200 Techniques was formed in 1997 by "old-school" 1980s B-boy/aerosol artist DJ Peril (founding member of Melbourne hip hop crew, Island Boys), and consisted of himself on production, turntables, and percussion, his brother Kem on guitar and N'fa on vocals. They released an EP in 2001 called Infinite Styles with the independent label Rubber Records. 1200 Techniques later released one of the first hip hop crossover hits, a track called "Karma" (off the album Choose One), which spawned the first ARIA Award for a hip hop act in Australia even before there was a hip hop category. Additionally, Michael Gracey won an ARIA in the same year for Best Video, also for the song "Karma". In 2003, the band released the first Australian hip hop DVD titled One Time Live, which featured the band's music videos, live footage and two short documentaries. Their second album, Consistency Theory, was released in 2004.
By the early 2000s, the Australian Record Industry Association (ARIA) began to recognise the growth of interest within Australia and in 2004 introduced a new category in their annual awards: Best Urban Album (R&B, hip hop, soul, funk, reggae and dancehall). The inaugural award was won by Koolism for their album, Random Thoughts. Koolism DJ Danielsan dedicated the award to the "Australian hip hop community" and exclaimed: "Be yourselves, keep it real, enough of that American wannabe trash".
At the 2006 and 2007 ARIA Awards, the Urban award was won by Hilltop Hoods for their albums The Hard Road and The Hard Road: Restrung, respectively. The Hard Road also became the first Australian hip hop album to rank in the number-1 position in the ARIA Charts in 2006. Other artists who have won the award include Bliss n Eso, for their album Flying Colours, and Melbourne artist Illy, for his album Bring it Back, released through the independent Obese Records label.
International recognition of Australian hip hop artists has also occurred, with Australians appearing on the albums of artists from the US and Europe. In October 2014, Adelaide, Australia artist K21 appeared on a song, titled "Pas rentable", by French hip hop artist LinkRust.
Style and influences
Australian hip hop artists are strongly influenced by African American and Latino rappers from the US, and continue to incorporate such influences into their music; however, they still use a uniquely Australian, authentic style in their own music. Like many hip hop scenes outside the US, some Australian hip hop artists have also been influenced by funk and dancehall. Indigenous Australian culture is also a strong influence for many hip hop artists.
While hip hop artists in the US are predominantly African American, many Australian hip hop artists are of Anglo heritage. Numerous Australian hip hop artists, including N'fa, Miracle, Vida Sunshyne, KillaQueenz, and Diafrix, are of African descent, which has influenced their music.
US artists cited as key inspirations of Australian hip-hop artists include Public Enemy, A Tribe Called Quest, and Nas. Following the release of Drinking From The Sun in 2012, Hilltop Hoods included Organized Confusion, Kraz and De La Soul in their "ideal festival line up".
In Australia, dance moves associated with hip hop, like krumping, footworking, locking and popping, have drawn public interest to hip hop, and contributed to its dynamic popularity. However, these dance moves have been criticised as not being original and a sign that Australia suffers from not having a hip hop cultural identity of its own.
Although hip hop originated in the US, some Australian rappers see their hip hop scene as distinct, with its own unique character. Dialectrix has described it as a "mongrel mutation" of Afro-centric and Australian culture. According to the lyrics of Def Wish Cast, it is "down under, comin' up."
Australian hip hop has been localized with the introduction of aspects such as the Australian accent, Australian slang, political views, and references to localities and matters of Australian cultural identity. The lyrics of early Western Sydney artists like 046, Def Wish Cast and the White Boys represent the localisation process of Australian hip hop. Additionally, the non-Anglo immigrants of these areas were attracted to hip hop because it tackles the theme of racial opposition, as in African American and Chicano hip hop. Australian hip hop has been described as rich with Australian character, but also as inspiring for immigrants, providing "a voice and a purpose for those making their home anew in Australia." For example, Diafrix use migrant experiences in some of their songs, although this is not their main focus.
Numerous Australian hip hop artists have expressed concern that sections of Australia's hip hop fanbase seem to espouse a "redneck" mentality that is ignorant of the culture's international influences. In a 2009 interview, Cross Bred Mongrels member Flak explained: "I don't go for that. [Only listening to Australian hip hop] I think that is a little narrow minded. If it is dope hip hop, it is dope hip hop. If it is from Germany, Japan or Compton, and it is dope, I go for it." Over time, Australian hip hop diversified, absorbing influences from New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the Caribbean. For example, Def Wish described his style as influenced by reggae from London, UK, rather than North American rap, while also acknowledging the Afro-Caribbean roots of that scene.
Indigenous Australian hip hop
Since the early 1980s, many indigenous crews have, in keeping with a significant aspect of hip hop culture, focused on portraying their skills as better and their turf as tougher. Though not at the forefront of Australian hip hop scene, Aboriginal rappers such as Brothablack, the South West Syndicate, Local Knowledge, Lez Beckett and the Native Ryme Syndicate produce songs that address the cultural situation of Indigenous Australians. One of their musical influences is the American hip hop group Public Enemy.
Munkimuk works on community-based educational hip hop projects around Australia, such as 1999's Desert Rap, conducted with Brothablack from South West Syndicate and Morganics. The Desert Rap project was organised with Tony Collins from Triple J, which made an ABC TV documentary. Munkimuk also hosts a nationally syndicated weekly radio program "Indij Hip Hop Show", which is produced by Koori Radio in Sydney.
Briggs, a Yorta Yorta man from the rural location of Shepparton, became a prominent feature of the Australian hip hop scene since he began his career as an independent artist in 2005. In August 2014, he released his sophomore studio album, Sheplife, on the Golden Era Records label, owned by Hilltop Hoods. As of 2012, Briggs has been the recipient of two Deadly Awards nominations and received the "Best New Talent" award at the 2014 National Indigenous Music Awards (NIMA).
Indigenous producer and MC, Daniel Rankine (Trials), of the Adelaide Funkoars trio and Golden Era Records, also releases his own work, including occasional solo work. Rankine's production credits include Drapht, Vents, Reason, Cross Bred Mongrels and K21, while he has provided guest verses for Purpose, Hilltop Hoods, and the Golden Era mixtapes. At the commencement of 2015, Trials and Briggs were in a Sydney recording studio-undertaking work on their "A.B.Original" collaboration. They had recently performed at the Beat The Drum event for the triple j radio station on 16 January.
Radio, particularly community radio, plays a significant role in the dissemination of hip hop within Australia. Additionally, the Australian Government funds projects, such as the Australian Music Radio Airplay Project (AMRAP), which seeks to promote Australian music nationwide. 3RRR was the first radio station to present an international hip hop act to the city—Run-D.M.C.'s 1987 Australian tour—and it highlighted international hip hop culture as well as the local scene.
- 3RRR: "Hood Pass" hosted by Carlos Turner and Rob Steezy
- 106.7 3PBSFM: "Hippopotamus rex" hosted by Ronin Hamill; "Fresh Produce" hosted by Cosi; "B.P.M." hosted by PBS DJs and guests; "tHE bLEND" hosted by Bevin Campbell
- Triple J: "Hip Hop Show" hosted by Hau Latukefu
- Edge 96.1 (96.1 FM): "K-Sera & The Dirty Dozen" hosted by K-Sera
- 2SER (107.3FM): "Hardcore Classic" hosted by Thomas Rock, Ran-Dee and Raine Supreme
- 4ZZZ (102.1 FM): "Phat Tape" hosted by Chubba Dubbed, Complex, Dj Dcide and Sean B.
- Three D Radio (93.7FM): "Hazy Tones" hosted by Anders; "Episodes In Space" hosted by Sam & TimeSpace
- Fresh FM (92.7FM): "The Lesson" hosted by Sanchez
- RTRFM (92.1FM): "Down Underground" hosted by Nick Sweepah; "Full Frequency" (Monday and Friday) hosted by Micah and Philly Blunt (Monday) and Rok Riley (Friday)
- SYN (90.7FM): "Hip Hop Night" hosted by Jocelyn Leong
The first appearance  of an Australian hip hop act on Australian television was in November 1988, when Skippy The Butcher performed live on the ABC's "The Factory" during the Run DMC tour. The first Australian hip hop documentary, Basic Equipment, was made in 1996 and released in 1997. Narrated by Paul Westgate (aka Sereck) from Def Wish Cast, the documentary examined the Sydney hip hop culture. It was created by Paul Fenech (creator of SBS' Pizza series) and featured artists such as MC Trey, Def Wish Cast, DJ Bonez, DJ Ask.
During the 1990s, SBS TV's MC Tee Vee, the first Australian dance music show became a hit. In 1992, following an invitation from Annette Shun Wah from the alternative arts show The Noise, MC Opi became the first hip hop artist to become a reporter and assistant producer for MC Tee Vee. MC Tee Vee is notable for being the first national Australian music program dedicated to dance, rap and house music.
In August 2006, the ABC program Compass showed a documentary entitled The Mistery of Hip Hop, which explored the cultural movement and popularity of hip hop in Australia. The film followed one of the "founding fathers" of the Sydney hip hop scene Matthew "Mistery" Peet. Mistery works full-time as graffiti artist and is also emcee/rapper in the group Brethren. The 28-minute documentary looked at the "four elements of hip hop": breakdancing, DJing, rapping, and graffiti. It features interviews with the then-host of Triple J's hip hop show Maya Jupiter, and the other half of Brethren: Wizdm and DJ Kool Herc.
In December 2007, ABC Television aired the documentary Words from the City, which includes interviews with a number of high-profile Australian hip hop artists, including: Hilltop Hoods, Koolism, Downsyde, TZU, MC Layla, Bliss n Eso, MC Trey, Wire MC, and Jupiter.
In 2004, independent film-maker Oriel Guthrie, debuted her documentary Skip Hop at the Melbourne International Film Festival (MIFF). The film includes live footage of freestyle battles and prominent gigs around Australia, as well as interviews with Def Wish Cast, DJ Peril, Hilltop Hoods, Koolism, Blades of Hades, Maya Jupiter, The Herd and Wicked Force Breakers.
"Out4Fame presents 2003 MC Battle For Supremacy" was the first (documented) national MC tournament and was responsible for supporting the careers of many MCs across Australia. The following year, MCs were invited to enter the tournament for the chance to compete in New Zealand. MCs who have competed in Battle For Supremacy tournaments include Weapon X, 360, Anecdote, Nfa, Justice, Dragonfly, Robby Bal Boa, Kaos, Tyna, Surreal, Cyphanetics, Delta. Guthrie also documented the 2004 and 2005 events and released them on DVDs. MC Justice went on to win the 2005 "Scribble Jam MC Battle" in the US and is the first Australian to win the competition.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2014)|
One of the oldest hip hop magazines in the world, Vapors, is an Australian publication and is produced by Blaze. Stealth Magazine debuted in 1999 and was distributed worldwide via Tower Records. Notable zines include Hype, Zest, Raptanite, Arfek, Damn Kids, Artillery, Blitzkrieg and Slingshot.
Following the popular Out4Fame: Battle For Supremacy tournaments, Out4Fame Magazine was launched as a free publication. Out4Fame Magazine was later relaunched as Out4Fame presents ACCLAIM Magazine, which then became ACCLAIM Magazine. ACCLAIM Magazine is distributed throughout Australia, as well as other countries including New Zealand, Singapore and the UK.
- OzHipHop.com is a prominent Australian hip hop internet forum that was established in 2002. As of 2004, the website's CEO is Mass MC. In 2011, OzHipHop.Com was sold for an undisclosed amount to LJ Krooker who took over the website administration. The website promptly experienced a sharp decline in patronage and support in response.
- allaussiehiphop.com ("aahh") was established in June 2009 and founded by Jim Steps. Steps also hosts the 'aahhRadio' podcast, which featured guests such as Mixmaster Mike of the Beastie Boys, Hilltop Hoods, 360, Illy, Kerser, Jonwayne, Doc Brown and Atmosphere.
- ozhiphopshop.com.au is a website that features articles and interviews about the Australian hip hop industry and is dedicated solely to Australian hip hop.
- Nuerahiphop features 100% Australian Hip Hop as in/ recent song releases and music videos. Many new and established artists' latest tracks are posted as audio and video multimedia with some free mp3 downloads available. http://nuerahiphop.wordpress.com
- 1200 Techniques
- Astronomy Class
- Bias B
- Big Dave
- Bliss n Eso
- Brad Strut
- Brothers Stoney
- The Bumblebeez
- Chance Waters
- Combat Wombat
- Def Wish Cast
- DJ Bonez
- DJ Vame
- Elf Tranzporter
- Fluent Form (Flu)
- Gully Platoon
- Hau Latukefu
- The Herd
- Hilltop Hoods
- Hyjak N Torcha
- Jackson Jackson
- Justice & Kaos
- The Last Kinection
- Lez Beckett
- Little G
- Local Knowledge
- Matty B
- Maya Jupiter
- MC Layla
- MC Opi
- MC Trey
- Mind Over Matter
- Mnemonic Ascent
- The Modern Day Poets
- Muph & Plutonic
- Native Ryme Syndicate
- Plutonic Lab
- Raspberry Cordial
- Resin Dogs
- Seth Sentry
- Snob Scrilla
- Sound Unlimited
- Spit Syndicate
- Street Warriors
- Tjimba and the Yung Warriors
- The Tongue
- True Live
- The Wilcannia Mob
- Obese Records — Their CEO is MC Pegz; artists include Thundamentals, Illy, Dialectrix, Kerser and M-Phazes
- CMDG — Their CEO is Jelal Edmonds (Lazy J); artists include Lazy J & Big Guy, and producers include Rockstarr Mechnnix
- Basic Equipment — Co-run by Sereck of Def Wish Cast; artists include Def Wish Cast
- Crookneck Records - Melbourne-based label; artists include A-Love, Mnemonic Ascent, Lazy Grey and DJ Ransom
- Elefant Traks — Run by members of The Herd; artists include Urthboy, Astronomy Class, Hermitude, The Herd and Horrorshow
- Golden Era Records - A label established by Hilltop Hoods in 2008; artists include Hilltop Hoods, Vents, Funkoars and Briggs.
- Hydrofunk Records — Run by members of the Resin Dogs; artists include Resin Dogs and Def Wish Cast.
- IF? Records — Originally Melbourne-based, now in Tokyo; artists include Zen Paradox and Little Nobody.
- Inavada Records - Established in Sydney in 2002; artists include Fdel, Koolism, Katalyst and Flow Dynamics.
- Illusive Sounds - Melbourne-based recording label formed in February 2003; artists include Bliss n Eso, Downsyde, Diafrix, Weapon X and Ken Hell.
- Krosswerdz Recordings - Artists include Mistery and Wizdm from Brethren also includes Dean DVS G., and Oakbridge.
- Marlin Records - A Melbourne based recording label; artists include Phrase and Daniel Merriweather.
- Method Recordings - A Melbourne label, part of the Shock Records group; artists include Illzilla, The Last Kinection, Elf Tranzporter, Hykoo, Infallible.
- Nurcha Records (now defunct) — Founded by Shrekk in 2005, the label was based in Sydney until it closed in January 2009. The artist roster included Mind Over Matter, Last Credit, Phatchance, Coptic Soldier, Double & Big Lu, and Natural Causes.
- Nuffsaid Records - Prowla, Mc Que, Menace, Dedlee, Raise, and Delta.
- Payback Records - Melbourne based label founded by Nathan Lovett-Murray and Cappa Atkinson. Artists include Tjimba and the Yung Warriors, Little G and Mr Morggs.
- Soulmate Records - Melbourne-based label with a roster consisting of emcee's: 360, Pez, Syntax and producers: Stat D and Ante Escobar.
- Unda K9 Records - Established in Sydney, founded by Lui in 2002; artists include Bukkcity, Tycotic, 13th Son, Syntax, DirtBox Kings, Herb and DJ Crusador.
- I Forget, Sorry! - Established in Sydney, the roster includes Mind Over Matter, Chris Romeo, Chance Waters (formerly known as Phatchance), Coptic Soldier, Johnny Utah and Smiles Again.
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