Sandy Bridge

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Sandy Bridge
Max. CPU clock rate 1.60 GHz to 3.60 GHz
Product code 80623 (desktop)
L1 cache 64 KB per core
L2 cache 256 KB per core
L3 cache 1 MB to 8 MB shared
10 MB to 15 MB (Extreme)
3 MB to 20 MB (Xeon)
GPU HD Graphics 2000
650 MHz to 1250 MHz
Predecessor Nehalem (tock)
Westmere (tick)
Successor Ivy Bridge (tick)
Haswell (tock)
Socket(s)
Bottom view of a Sandy Bridge i7-2600k.

Sandy Bridge is the codename for a microarchitecture developed by Intel beginning in 2005 for central processing units in computers to replace the Nehalem microarchitecture. Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor in 2009, and released first products based on the architecture in January 2011 under the Core brand.[1][2]

Sandy Bridge implementations targeted a 32 nanometer manufacturing process based on planar double-gate transistors.[3] Intel's subsequent product, codenamed Ivy Bridge, uses a 22 nanometer process. The Ivy Bridge die shrink, known in the Intel Tick-Tock model as the "tick", is based on FinFET (non-planar, "3D") tri-gate transistors. Intel demonstrated the Ivy Bridge processors in 2011.[4]

Technology[edit]

Developed primarily by the Israel branch of Intel, the codename was originally "Gesher" (meaning "bridge" in Hebrew). The name was changed to avoid being associated with the defunct Gesher political party;[5] the decision was led by Ron Friedman, vice president of Intel managing the group at the time.[1] Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor with A1 stepping at 2 GHz during the Intel Developer Forum in September 2009.[6]

Upgraded features from Nehalem include:

  • 32 KB data + 32 KB instruction L1 cache (3 clocks) and 256 KB L2 cache (8 clocks) per core.
  • Shared L3 cache includes the processor graphics (LGA 1155).
  • 64-byte cache line size.
  • Two load/store operations per CPU cycle for each memory channel.
  • Decoded micro-operation cache (uop cache) and enlarged, optimized branch predictor.
  • Improved performance for transcendental mathematics, AES encryption (AES instruction set), and SHA-1 hashing.
  • 256-bit/cycle ring bus interconnect between cores, graphics, cache and System Agent Domain.
  • Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) 256-bit instruction set with wider vectors, new extensible syntax and rich functionality.
  • Intel Quick Sync Video, hardware support for video encoding and decoding.
  • Up to 8 physical cores or 16 logical cores through Hyper-threading.
  • Integration of the GMCH (integrated graphics and memory controller) and processor into a single die inside the processor package. In contrast, Sandy Bridge's predecessor, Clarkdale, has two separate dies (one for GMCH, one for processor) within the processor package. This tighter integration reduces memory latency even more.
  • A 14- to 19-stage instruction pipeline, depending on the micro-operation cache hit or miss.[7]
Translation lookaside buffer sizes[8][9]
Cache Page Size
Name Level 4 KB 2 MB 1 GB
DTLB 1st 64 32 4
ITLB 1st 128 8 / logical core none
STLB 2nd 512 none none
All translation lookaside buffers (TLBs) are 4-way associative.[10]

Models and steppings[edit]

All Sandy Bridge processors with one, two, or four cores report the same CPUID model 0206A7h[11] and are closely related. The stepping number can not be seen from the CPUID but only from the PCI configuration space. The later Sandy Bridge-E processors with up to eight cores and no graphics are using CPUIDs 0206D6h and 0206D7h.[12] Ivy Bridge CPUs all have CPUID 0306A9h to date, and are built in four different configurations differing in the number of cores, L3 cache and GPU execution units.

Die Code Name CPUID Stepping Die size Transistors Cores GPU EUs L3 Cache Sockets
Sandy Bridge-HE-4 0206A7h D2 216 mm2 1.16 billion 4 12 8 MB LGA 1155, Socket G2, BGA-1224, BGA-1023
Sandy Bridge-H-2 J1 149 mm2 624 million 2 4 MB LGA 1155, Socket G2, BGA-1023
Sandy Bridge-M-2 Q0 131 mm2 504 million 6 3 MB
Sandy Bridge-EP-8 0206D6h C1 416 mm2 2.27 billion 8 N/A 20 MB LGA 2011
0206D7h C2
Sandy Bridge-EP-4 0206D6h M0 270 mm2 1.27 billion 4 N/A 10 MB LGA 2011
0206D7h M1

Performance[edit]

  • The average performance increase, according to IXBT Labs and Semi Accurate as well as many other benchmarking sites, at clock to clock is 11.3% compared to the Nehalem Generation, which includes Bloomfield, Clarkdale, and Lynnfield processors.[13]
  • Around twice the integrated graphics performance compared to Clarkdale's (12 EUs comparison).

List of Sandy Bridge processors[edit]

1Processors featuring Intel's HD 3000 graphics are set in bold. Other processors feature HD 2000 graphics or no graphics core (Graphics Clock rate indicated by N/A).

  • This list may not contain all the Sandy Bridge processors released by Intel. A more complete listing can be found on Intel's website.

Desktop platform[edit]

[14] [15] [16]

Target
segment
Processor
Branding & Model
Cores
(Threads)
CPU Clock rate Graphics Clock rate L3
Cache
TDP Release
Date (Y-M-D)
Price
(USD)
Motherboard
Normal Turbo Normal Turbo Socket Interface Memory
Extreme /
High-End
Core i7
Extreme
3970X 6 (12) 3.5 GHz 4.0 GHz N/A 15 MB 150 W 2012-11-12 $999 LGA
2011
DMI 2.0
PCIe 2.0[17]
Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600[18]
3960X 3.3 GHz 3.9 GHz 130 W 2011-11-14
Core i7 3930K 3.2 GHz 3.8 GHz 12 MB $583
3820 4 (8) 3.6 GHz 10 MB 2012-02-13[19] $294
Performance 2700K 3.5 GHz 3.9 GHz 850 MHz 1350 MHz 8 MB 95 W 2011-10-24 $332 LGA
1155
DMI 2.0
PCIe 2.0
Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1333
2600K 3.4 GHz 3.8 GHz 2011-01-09 $317
2600 $294
2600S 2.8 GHz 65 W $306
Core i5 2550K 4 (4) 3.4 GHz N/A 6 MB 95 W 2012-01-30 $225
2500K 3.3 GHz 3.7 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 2011-01-09 $216
2500 $205
2500S 2.7 GHz 65 W $216
2500T 2.3 GHz 3.3 GHz 650 MHz 1250 MHz 45 W
2450P 3.2 GHz 3.5 GHz N/A 95 W 2012-01-30 $195
2400 3.1 GHz 3.4 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 2011-01-09 $184
2405S 2.5 GHz 3.3 GHz 65 W 2011-05-22 $205
2400S 2011-01-09 $195
2380P 3.1 GHz 3.4 GHz N/A 95 W 2012-01-30 $177
2320 3.0 GHz 3.3 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 2011-09-04
2310 2.9 GHz 3.2 GHz 2011-05-22
2300 2.8 GHz 3.1 GHz 2011-01-09
Mainstream 2390T 2 (4) 2.7 GHz 3.5 GHz 650 MHz 3 MB 35 W 2011-02-20 $195
Core i3 2120T 2.6 GHz N/A 2011-09-04 $127
2100T 2.5 GHz 2011-02-20
2115C 2.0 GHz N/A 25 W 2012-05 $241 BGA
1284
2130 3.4 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 65 W 2011-09-04 $138 LGA
1155
2125 3.3 GHz $134
2120 2011-02-20 $138
2105 3.1 GHz 2011-05-22 $134
2102 Q2 2011 $127
2100 2011-02-20 $117
Pentium G870 2 (2) 2012-06-03 $86
G860 3.0 GHz 2011-09-04
G860T 2.6 GHz 650 MHz 35 W 2012-06-03 $75
G850 2.9 GHz 850 MHz 65 W 2011-05-24 $86
G840 2.8 GHz $75
G645 2.9 GHz 09-03-2012 $64 Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1066
G640 2.8 GHz 06-03-2012
G632 2.7 GHz Q3 2011
G630 2011-09-04 $75
G622 2.6 GHz Q2 2011
G620 2011-05-24 $64
G645T 2.5 GHz 650 MHz 35 W 09-03-2012
G640T 2.4 GHz 06-03-2012
G630T 2.3 GHz 2011-09-04 $70
G620T 2.2 GHz 2011-05-24
Celeron G555 2.7 GHz 850 MHz 1000 MHz 2 MB 65 W 2012-09-02 $52
G550 2.6 GHz 2012-06-03
G540 2.5 GHz 2011-09-04
G530 2.4 GHz $42
G550T 2.2 GHz 650 MHz 35 W 2012-09-02
G540T 2.1 GHz 2012-06-03
G530T 2.0 GHz 2011-09-04 $47
G470 1 (2) 1.5 MB 2013-06-09 $37 Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1333
G465 1.9 GHz 2012-09-02 Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1066
G460 1.8 GHz 2011-12-11
G440 1 (1) 1.6 GHz 1 MB 2011-09-04

Suffixes to denote:

  • K – Unlocked (adjustable CPU ratio up to 57 bins)
  • P – Versions clocked slightly higher than similar models, but with onboard-graphics deactivated.
  • S – Performance-optimized lifestyle (low power with 65W TDP)
  • T – Power-optimized lifestyle (ultra low power with 35-45W TDP)
  • X – Extreme performance (adjustable CPU ratio with no ratio limit)

NOTE:3960X,3930K and 3820 are actually of Sandy Bridge-E edition.

Server platform[edit]

Target
Segment
Socket Processor
Branding & Model
Cores
(Threads)
CPU Clock rate Graphics Clock rate L3
Cache
Interface Supported
Memory
TDP Release
Date
Price
(USD)
Standard Turbo Normal Turbo
4P Server LGA
2011
Xeon E5 4650 8 (16) 2.7 GHz 3.3 GHz N/A 20 MB QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
4x DDR3-1600 130 W 2012-05-14 $3616
4650L 2.6 GHz 3.1 GHz 115 W
4640 2.4 GHz 2.8 GHz 95 W $2725
4620 2.2 GHz 2.6 GHz 16 MB 4x DDR3-1333 $1611
4617 6 (6) 2.9 GHz 3.4 GHz 15 MB 4x DDR3-1600 130 W
4610 6 (12) 2.4 GHz 2.9 GHz 4x DDR3-1333 95 W $1219
4607 2.2 GHz N/A 12 MB 4x DDR3-1066 $885
4603 4 (8) 2.0 GHz 10 MB $551
2P Server 2687W 8 (16) 3.1 GHz 3.8 GHz 20 MB 4x DDR3-1600 150 W 2012-03-06 $1885
2690 2.9 GHz 135 W $2057
2680 2.7 GHz 3.5 GHz 130 W $1723
2689 2.6 GHz 3.6 GHz 115 W OEM
2670 3.3 GHz $1552
2665 2.4 GHz 3.1 GHz $1440
2660 2.2 GHz 3.0 GHz 95 W $1329
2658 2.1 GHz 2.4 GHz $1186
2650 2.0 GHz 2.8 GHz $1107
2650L 1.8 GHz 2.3 GHz 70 W
2648L 2.1 GHz $1186
2667 6 (12) 2.9 GHz 3.5 GHz 15 MB 130 W $1552
2640 2.5 GHz 3.0 GHz 4x DDR3-1333 95 W $884
2630 2.3 GHz 2.8 GHz $612
2620 2.0 GHz 2.5 GHz $406
2630L 60 W $662
2628L 1.8 GHz N/A ? OEM
2643 4 (8) 3.3 GHz 3.5 GHz 10 MB 4x DDR3-1600 130 W 2012-03-06 $884
2618L 1.8 GHz N/A 4x DDR3-1066 50 W ? OEM
2609 4 (4) 2.4 GHz 80 W 2012-03-06 $246
2603 1.8 GHz $202
2637 2 (4) 3.0 GHz 3.5 GHz 5 MB 4x DDR3-1600 $884
LGA
1356
2470 8 (16) 2.3 GHz 3.1 GHz 20 MB 1× QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
3x DDR3-1600 95 W 2012-05-14 $1440
2450 2.1 GHz 2.9 GHz $1106
2450L 1.8 GHz 2.3 GHz 70 W
2448L 2.1 GHz $1151
2449L 1.4 GHz 1.8 GHz 50 W OEM
2440 6 (12) 2.4 GHz 2.9 GHz 15 MB 3x DDR3-1333 95 W $834
2430 2.2 GHz 2.7 GHz $551
2420 1.9 GHz 2.4 GHz $388
2430L 2.0 GHz 2.5 GHz 60 W $662
2428L 1.8 GHz 2.0 GHz $628
2418L 4 (8) 2.0 GHz 2.1 GHz 10 MB 50 W $387
2407 4 (4) 2.2 GHz N/A 3x DDR3-1066 80 W $250
2403 1.8 GHz $192
1P Server LGA
2011
1660 6 (12) 3.3 GHz 3.9 GHz 15 MB QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600
130 W 2012-03-06 $1080
1650 3.2 GHz 3.8 GHz 12 MB $583
1620 4 (8) 3.6 GHz 10 MB $294
1607 4 (4) 3.0 GHz N/A Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1066
$244
1603 2.8 GHz $198
LGA
1356
1428L 6 (12) 1.8 GHz N/A 15 MB 1× QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
3x DDR3-1333 60 W Q2 2012 $395
1410 4 (8) 2.8 GHz 3.2 GHz 10 MB 80 W 2012-05-14
Pentium 1407 2 (2) N/A 5 MB 3x DDR3-1066
1405 1.2 GHz 1.8 GHz 40 W August 2012 $143
1403 2.6 GHz N/A 80 W 2012-05-14
LGA
1155
Xeon E3 1290 4 (8) 3.6 GHz 4.0 GHz 8 MB DMI 2.0
PCIe 2.0
Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1333
95 W 2011-05-29 $885
1280 3.5 GHz 3.9 GHz 2011-04-03 $612
1275 3.4 GHz 3.8 GHz 850 MHz 1350 MHz $339
1270 N/A 80 W $328
1260L 2.4 GHz 3.3 GHz 650 MHz 1250 MHz 45 W $294
1245 3.3 GHz 3.7 GHz 850 MHz 1350 MHz 95 W $262
1240 N/A 80 W $250
1235 3.2 GHz 3.6 GHz 850 MHz 1350 MHz 95 W $240
1230 N/A 80 W $215
1225 4 (4) 3.1 GHz 3.4 GHz 850 MHz 1350 MHz 6 MB 95 W $194
1220 N/A 8 MB 80 W $189
1220L 2 (4) 2.2 GHz 3 MB 20 W
BGA
1284
1125C 4 (8) 2.0 GHz N/A 8 MB Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1600
40 W May 2012 $444
1105C 1.0 GHz 6 MB 25 W $333
LGA
1155
Pentium 350 2 (4) 1.2 GHz 3 MB Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1333
15 W November 2011 $159

Mobile platform[edit]

  • Core i5-2515E and Core i7-2715QE processors have support for ECC memory and PCI express port bifurcation.
  • All mobile processors, except Celeron and Pentium, use Intel's Graphics sub-system HD 3000 (12 EUs).
Target
Segment
Processor
Branding & Model
Cores /
Threads
CPU Clock rate Graphics Clock rate L3
Cache
TDP Release
Date
Price
(USD)
Motherboard
Normal Turbo
(1C/2C/4C)
Normal Turbo Interface Socket
Extreme Core i7
Extreme
2960XM 4 (8) 2.7 GHz 3.7/3.6/3.4 GHz 650 MHz 1300 MHz 8 MB 55 W 2011-09-04 $1096 *DMI 2.0
*Memory: Up to
dual channel
DDR3-1600 MHz
*PCIe 2.0
Socket G2 /
BGA-1224 (in embedded products)[20]
2920XM 2.5 GHz 3.5/3.4/3.2 GHz 2011-01-05
Performance Core i7 2860QM 2.5 GHz 3.6/3.5/3.3 GHz 45 W 2011-09-04 $568
2820QM 2.3 GHz 3.4/3.3/3.1 GHz 2011-01-05
2760QM 2.4 GHz 3.5/3.4/3.2 GHz 6 MB 2011-09-04 $378
2720QM 2.2 GHz 3.3/3.2/3.0 GHz 2011-01-05
2715QE 2.1 GHz 3.0/2.9/2.7 GHz 1200 MHz
2710QE
2675QM 2.2 GHz 3.1/3.0/2.8 GHz 1200 MHz 2011-10-02 *DMI 2.0
*Memory: Up to
dual channel
DDR3-1333 MHz
*PCIe 2.0
2670QM 1100 MHz
2635QM 2.0 GHz 2.9/2.8/2.6 GHz 1200 MHz 2011-01-05
2630QM 1100 MHz
Mainstream 2640M 2 (4) 2.8 GHz 3.5/3.3 GHz 1300 MHz 4 MB 35 W 2011-09-04 $346 Socket G2 /
BGA-1023 (in embedded products)[20]
2620M 2.7 GHz 3.4/3.2 GHz 2011-02-20
2649M 2.3 GHz 3.2/2.9 GHz 500 MHz 1100 MHz 25 W
2629M 2.1 GHz 3.0/2.7 GHz $311
2655LE 2.2 GHz 2.9/2.7 GHz 650 MHz 1000 MHz $346
2677M 1.8 GHz 2.9/2.6 GHz 350 MHz 1200 MHz 17 W 2011-06-20 $317
2637M 1.7 GHz 2.8/2.5 GHz $289
2657M 1.6 GHz 2.7/2.4 GHz 1000 MHz 2011-02-20 $317
2617M 1.5 GHz 2.6/2.3 GHz 950 MHz $289
2610UE 2.4/2.1 GHz 850 MHz $317
Core i5 2557M 1.7 GHz 2.7/2.4 GHz 1200 MHz 3 MB 2011-06-20 $250
2537M 1.4 GHz 2.3/2.0 GHz 900 MHz 2011-02-20
2467M 1.6 GHz 2.3/2.0 GHz 1150 MHz 2011-06-19
2540M 2.6 GHz 3.3/3.1 GHz 650 MHz 1300 MHz 35 W 2011-06-20 $266
2520M 2.5 GHz 3.2/3.0 GHz $225
2515E 3.1/2.8 GHz 1100 MHz $266
2510E
2450M 1300 MHz 2012-01 $225
2435M 2.4 GHz 3.0/2.7 GHz 2011-10-02 OEM
2430M 1200 MHz $225
2410M 2.3 GHz 2.9/2.6 GHz 2011-06-20
Core i3 2370M 2.4 GHz N/A 1150 MHz 2012-01
2350M 2.3 GHz 2011-10-02
2348M 2013-01 OEM
2330E 2.2 GHz 1050 MHz 2011-06-19 $225
2330M 1100 MHz
2328M 2012-09
2312M 2.1 GHz Q2 2011 OEM
2310E 1050 MHz 2011-02-20
2310M 1100 MHz
2377M 1.5 GHz 350 MHz 1000 MHz 17 W Q3 2012 $225
2375M 2012-03
2367M 1.4 GHz 2011-10-02 $250
2365M 2012-09 $225
2357M 1.3 GHz 950 MHz 2011-06-19 OEM
2340UE 800 MHz $250
Pentium B915C 1.5 GHz N/A 15 W 2012-05 $138
997 2 (2) 1.6 GHz 350 MHz 1000 MHz 2 MB 17 W 2012-09-30 $134
987 1.5 GHz Q3 2012
977 1.4 GHz 2012-01
967 1.3 GHz 2011-10-02 OEM
957 1.2 GHz 800 MHz 2011-06-19 $134
B980 2.4 GHz 650 MHz 1150 MHz 35 W 2012-09 OEM
B970 2.3 GHz 2012-01 $125
B960 2.2 GHz 1100 MHz 2011-10-02 $134
B950 2.1 GHz 2011-06-19
B940 2.0 GHz
Celeron B840 1.9 GHz 1000 MHz 2011-09-04 $86
B830 1.8 GHz 1050 MHz 2012-09-30
B820[21] 1.7 GHz 2012-07-29
B815[22] 1.6 GHz 2012-01
B810E 1000 MHz 2011-06-19
B810 950 MHz 2011-03-13
B800 1.5 GHz 1000 MHz 2011-06-19 $80
887 350 MHz 17 W 09-30-2012 $86
877 1.4 GHz 2012-07-29
867 1.3 GHz January 2012 $134
857 1.2 GHz 2011-07-03
847 1.1 GHz 800 MHz 2011-06-19
847E
807 1 (2) 1.5 GHz 950 MHz 1.5 MB 2012-07-29 $70
725C 1.3 GHz N/A 10 W 2012-05 $74
827E 1 (1) 1.4 GHz 350 MHz 800 MHz 17 W 2011-07-03 $107
797 950 MHz 2012-01
787 1.3 GHz 2011-07-03
B730 1.8 GHz 650 MHz 1000 MHz 35 W 2012-07-29 $70
B720[23] 1.7 GHz 2012-01
B710 1.6 GHz 2011-06-19
807UE 1.0 GHz 350 MHz 800 MHz 1 MB 10 W 2011-11 $117

Suffixes to denote:

  • M – Mobile processors
    • XM – Unlocked
    • QM – Quad-core
  • E – Embedded mobile processors
    • QE – Quad-core
    • LE – Performance-optimized
    • UE – Power-optimized

Cougar Point chipset flaw[edit]

On January 31, 2011, Intel issued a recall on all 67-series motherboards due to a flaw in the Cougar Point Chipset.[24] A hardware problem, in which the chipset's SATA-II ports may fail over time, cause failure of connection to SATA-II devices, though data is not at risk.[25] Intel claims that this problem will affect only 5% of users over 3 years, however, heavier I/O workloads can exacerbate the problem.

Intel stopped production of flawed B2 stepping chipsets and began producing B3 stepping chipsets with the silicon fix. Shipping of these new chipsets started on 14 February 2011 and Intel estimated full recovery volume in April 2011.[26] Motherboard manufacturers (such as ASUS and Gigabyte Technology) and computer manufacturers (such as Dell and Hewlett-Packard) stopped selling products that involved the flawed chipset and offered support for affected customers. Options ranged from swapping for B3 motherboards to product refunds.[27][28]

Sandy Bridge processor sales were temporarily on hold, as one cannot use the CPU without a motherboard. However, processor release dates were not affected.[29] After two weeks, Intel continued shipping some chipsets, but manufacturers had to agree to a set of terms that will prevent customers from encountering the bug.[30]

Limitations[edit]

Overclocking[edit]

With Sandy Bridge, Intel has tied the speed of every bus (USB, SATA, PCI, PCI-E, CPU cores, Uncore, memory etc.) to a single internal clock generator issuing the basic 100 MHz Base Clock (BClk).[31] With CPUs being multiplier locked, the only way to overclock is to increase the BClk, which can be raised by only 5–7% without other hardware components failing. As a work around, Intel made available K/X-series processors, which feature unlocked multipliers; with a multiplier cap of 57 for Sandy Bridge.[32] For the Sandy Bridge E platform, there is alternative method known as the BClk ratio overclock.[33]

During IDF (Intel Developer Forum) 2010, Intel demonstrated an unknown Sandy Bridge CPU running stably overclocked at 4.9 GHz on air cooling.[34][35]

Chipset[edit]

Non-K edition CPUs can overclock up to four bins from its turbo multiplier. Refer here for chipset support.

vPro remote-control[edit]

Sandy and Ivy Bridge processors with vPro capability have security features that can remotely disable a PC or erase information from hard drives. This can be useful in the case of a lost or stolen PC. The commands can be received through 3G signals, Ethernet, or Internet connections. AES encryption acceleration will be available, which can be useful for video conferencing and VoIP applications.[36][37]

Intel Insider[edit]

Sandy and Ivy Bridge processors contain a DRM technology that some video streaming web sites rely on to protect their content from pirating. Such web sites offer higher quality streaming (1080p) to users with such CPUs.[38]

Software development kit[edit]

With the introduction of the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture, Intel also introduced the Intel Data Plane Development Kit (Intel DPDK) to help developers of communications applications take advantage of the platform in packet processing applications, and network processors.[39]

Roadmap[edit]

Intel demonstrated the Haswell architecture in September 2011, released in 2013 as the successor to Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Man Behind 'Sandy Bridge'". December 28, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  2. ^ Brooke Crothers (December 15, 2010). "CES: First Intel next-gen laptops will be quad core". The Circuits Blog (CNET.com). Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Intel Ivy Bridge preview: everything to know about". Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  4. ^ "Intel 22nm 3-D Tri-Gate Transistor Technology". News release and press materials (Intel). May 2, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  5. ^ "'Sandy Bridge' Breaks the Mold for Chip Codenames". December 28, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  6. ^ Anand Lal Shimpi (September 22, 2009). "IDF 2009 – Intel Shows off 22nm & 32nm, Sandy Bridge Demoed". AnandTech. Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  7. ^ Anand Lal Shimpi (2012-10-05). "Intel's Haswell Architecture Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved 2013-10-20. 
  8. ^ "Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Optimization Reference Manual". Intel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  9. ^ "Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Optimization Reference Manual". Intel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  10. ^ Result of running cpuid
  11. ^ "Support for the Intel® Core™ i5 Desktop Processor". Intel.com. 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  12. ^ http://www.intel.com/content/dam/doc/specification-update/core-i7-lga-2011-specification-update.pdf
  13. ^ AnandTech – The Sandy Bridge Review: Intel Core i7-2600K, i5-2500K and Core i3-2100 Tested
  14. ^ "Intel's Sandy Bridge E-Series in Q4 2011". Tom's Hardware. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  15. ^ "Additional Details on Sandy Bridge-E Processors, X79, and LGA2011". Anandtech. 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2011-04-30. 
  16. ^ "Products (Formerly Sandy Bridge)". Official product web site. Intel. Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Intel® Core™ i7-3930K Processor (12M Cache, up to 3.80 GHz)". Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  18. ^ Chris Angelini (September 12, 2011). "Intel Core i7-3960X (Sandy Bridge-E) And X79 Platform Preview". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved November 14, 2011. 
  19. ^ Fuad Abazovic (January 6, 2012). "Intel Core i7-3820 comes on February 13". Fudzilla. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  20. ^ a b "2nd Generation Intel® Core™ i7 Processors". Ark.intel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  21. ^ "Intel Mobile Celeron B820 - FF8062700848602". Cpu-world.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  22. ^ "Intel Mobile Celeron B815 - FF8062701159901". Cpu-world.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  23. ^ "Intel Mobile Celeron B720 - FF8062701084101". Cpu-world.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  24. ^ Sandy Bridge، راه حل‌ها، بازار ایران
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