International Practical Shooting Confederation
The International Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) (pronounced IP-sik) is a shooting sport based on the concept of practical shooting. Accuracy, power and speed are all required to achieve a maximum score.
Founding and organization
IPSC was founded at a conference held in Columbia, Missouri, in May 1976. Practical shooting enthusiasts from around the world participated, creating a constitution and establishing the rules governing the sport. Jeff Cooper served as the first IPSC President.
While IPSC is an international organization, countries have their own organizations under the IPSC umbrella. For example, there is the United States Practical Shooting Association (USPSA) in the United States, and the United Kingdom Practical Shooting Association (UKPSA) in the United Kingdom.
Major and Minor
Power is a requirement in IPSC competition, along with speed and accuracy. The power of a given cartridge is measured by both bullet weight and velocity. The weight of the bullet fired in grains (7,000 to the pound) is multiplied by the velocity (feet per second) and the total must exceed certain thresholds. A competitor's ammunition is fired, in the competitor's firearm (velocities can vary slightly from one firearm to another) to measure the velocity for scoring. A Major load is one that exceeds the threshold of 160,000 or 170,000 (depending on the division competed in). To shoot Minor, a competitor's ammunition must exceed 125,000. Extra scoring is not given for exceeding the threshold. A competitor declaring Major, but who fails the threshold, has his/her score re-calculated at Minor. A shooter who declares Minor, but fails that threshold, is given a score of zero for the match.
Procedure and scoring
The typical course of fire is an array of targets, which the competitor must engage with two hits each (sometimes more). Also, steel plates that fall when struck can be added to a course of fire, or stage. The shooter's time is recorded electronically, by means of a timer that detects the sound of the shots. Scoring is relatively simple to explain, but involved to calculate for a match. Known as "Comstock" scoring, the points generated by hits on the targets are totaled. Penalties (if incurred) are subtracted. Then the points total is divided by the time it took the competitor to engage the stage. This calculation, called a "Hit Factor", is the ratio of points per second. The highest hit factor wins the stage and the full total of Stage Points assigned to it, and lesser scores are awarded Stage Points according to the percentage hit factor they fired, compared to the winner.
The points from shots fired and hits generated vary slightly. A center hit for both Major and Minor is five points. However, lesser scoring rings are not rewarded as much for Minor as for Major. The A-C-D rings are scored 5-4-2 for Major, and 5-3-1 for Minor. A shooter who has declared Minor must shoot more "A" hits or shoot faster than one who has declared Major, in order to make up for lesser hits being so punished.
Each competitor then has his/her stage points totaled for all stages of the match, to calculate the match standings. The highest total of points wins the match. Comparing each shooter directly to the performance of the top shooter of each stage allows for precise gradation of performance across a match, but requires a computer and software to do in a timely fashion.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2013)|
In the beginning, IPSC was fired with whatever handguns the competitors chose. After a relatively short period, it became clear that equipment mattered, and equipment divisions were thus designated.
- Open Division
- The handgun equivalent of top-fuel dragsters. The pistols have compensators, red dot sights, and high-capacity magazines. Typically chambered in .38 Super (or some variant) or 9mm Parabellum, the magazines can hold up to 29 rounds. They can be loaded to Major or Minor.
- Standard Division
- Limited to pistols .40 caliber or larger in bore size for Major or 9mm or larger for Minor, at the shooter's choice. They may not have compensators, red dot sights, and the pistol with empty magazine must fit within the "IPSC box" a set of dimensions that limit overall size (225 mm × 150 mm × 45 mm (with tolerance +1 mm/-0 mm)).
- Classic Division
- Introduced for the 2011–2012 season for an evaluation period until December 31, 2014. The division is limited to guns following the classic 1911 form; features such as extended dust covers and light rails are not permitted. Restrictions are placed on the size of magazine wells allowed, as well as physical dimension as measured using the "IPSC box". Other modifications, such as slide lightening and thumb rests as allowed in Open Division, are prohibited in Classic Division. Competitors may shoot in either Major or Minor power factor; Major power factor requires a .40 or larger projectile (with the exception of the .357 SIG, a .40 case necked-down to accept the .355 diameter projectile which can be loaded to high pressures) and are subject to a magazine capacity limit of eight. Minor power factor can be achieved using a 1911 chambered for 9mm; a limit of 10 rounds is in place for such firearms.
- Production Division
- Restricted to double-action or striker fired pistols, scored at Minor, that must both meet the dimensional restrictions and are unmodified from the manufacturer's specifications. Only pistols explicitly listed on the approved list from IPSC may be used. Permitted modifications are limited to the application of grip tape in limited areas, replacement of sights that do not require gunsmithing, and the replacement of internal components with those of the original manufacturer and available as a factory option. Minor polishing and fitting of trigger components is allowed. There are differences in allowed pistols in IPSC Production Division when compared to USPSA Production Division.
- Revolver Division
- Does not permit muzzle brakes or optical sights. Revolvers of any capacity may be used, but a maximum of six rounds can be fired before a reload is required. Competitors can have any caliber .38 Special or larger, and may declare Major.
All Divisions fire the same stages, on the same days, as all other Divisions, in a match. However, when calculating match standings, only Divisional stage scores are compared. Thus, the top shooter in Open on a stage is the measure for all other Open shooters, and likewise for all other Divisions.
In addition to the handgun discipline, there are the rifle, shotgun and action air disciplines of practical shooting. These disciplines have competition rules similar to handgun and are scored in the same way. The divisions in all the disciplines are similar.
Competing in all three disciplines or two of them is called a tournament, with scoring similar to that of the individual disciplines. Action air is not included in the tournament structure as yet and is restricted to handgun (2010).
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2013)|
Since 1975, IPSC has held the World Shoot, a multi-day match comprising at least 30 separate courses of fire, where the best IPSC shooters from around the world vie for the title of World Champion. The World Shoot is currently held every three years. Previous World Shoot winners:
- Ray Chapman (U.S.): 1975 World Shoot I Zurich, Switzerland
- Jan Foss (Norway): 1976 World Shoot II Salzburg, Austria
- Dave Westerhout (Rhodesia): 1977 World Shoot III Salisbury, Rhodesia
- Jimmy Von Sorgenfrei (South Africa) 1979 World Shoot IV Johannesburg, South Africa
- Ross Seyfried (U.S.): 1981 World Shoot V Johannesburg, South Africa
- Rob Leatham (U.S.): 1983 World Shoot VI Virginia, United States
- Rob Leatham (U.S.): 1986 World Shoot VII Florida, United States
- Rob Leatham (U.S.): 1988 World Shoot VIII Caracas, Venezuela
- Doug Koenig (U.S.): 1990 World Shoot IX Adelaide, Australia
- Matt Mclearn (Canada): 1993 World Shoot X Bisley, England
- Todd Jarrett (U.S.): 1996 World Shoot XI Brasilia, Brazil
- Eric Grauffel (France): 1999 World Shoot XII Cebu, Philippines
- Eric Grauffel (France): 2002 World Shoot XIII Pietersburg, South Africa
- Eric Grauffel (France): 2005 World Shoot XIV Guayaquil, Ecuador
- Eric Grauffel (France): 2008 World Shoot XV Bali, Indonesia
- Eric Grauffel (France): 2011 World Shoot XVI Rhodes, Greece
International IPSC organizations
- United States Practical Shooting Association
- Bund Deutscher Sportschützen IPSC representative in Germany
Arranging IPSC matches
- Shoot'n Score It - free web based IPSC, USPSA, IDPA, Steel Challenge, SASS/CAS and PPC/Wa1500 match and scoring service