Italian Reform Socialist Party
It was formed in 1912 by those leading reformists who had been expelled from the Italian Socialist Party because of their desire of entering in the majority supporting Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti. Leading members of the PSRI were Leonida Bissolati, Giacomo Matteotti, Ivanoe Bonomi and Meuccio Ruini. In the 1913 general election the party won 2.6% of the vote and 21 seats in single-seat constituencies spread in almost all the Italian regions (some others such as Ruini were elected for the Radicals), while in 1919 they stopped at 1.5% and gained only 15 seats under the new proportional system.
After World War II Bonomi and Ruini launched the Labour Democratic Party as the continuation of the PSRI and positioned it within the National Democratic Union, that comprised the Liberals and some former Radicals.
- Massimo L. Salvadori, Enciclopedia storica, Zanichelli, Bologna 2000
- David Busato, Il Partito Radicale in Italia da Mario Pannunzio a Marco Pannella, 1996
- Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009