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Johann Mickl

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Generalleutnant
Johann Mickl
Mickljohann.jpg
Johann Mickl wearing the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
Born (1893-04-18)18 April 1893
Radkersburg, Austro-Hungarian Empire
Died 10 April 1945(1945-04-10) (aged 51)
Rijeka, Yugoslavia
Allegiance
Service/branch
Years of service
  • 1908–18 (Austria-Hungary)
  • 1919–38 (Austria)
  • 1938–45 (Third Reich)
Rank Generalleutnant
Commands held
Battles/wars
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
Order of the Iron Crown 3rd Class (Austria-Hungary)
Military Merit Cross 3rd Class (Austria-Hungary)
Military Merit Medal for Bravery in Silver and bar (Austria-Hungary)

Johann Mickl (18 April 1893 – 10 April 1945) was an Austrian-born Generalleutnant and division commander in the German Army during World War II, and was one of only 882 recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. He was commissioned shortly before the outbreak of World War I, and served with Austro-Hungarian forces on the Eastern and Italian Fronts as company commander in the Imperial-Royal Mountain Troops. During World War I he was decorated several times for bravery and leadership, and was wounded on several occasions, finishing the war as an Oberleutnant.

Immediately after the war, Mikl served in the Volkswehr militia which was formed to resist the incorporation of his home town of Radkersburg into the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. He served with the Austrian Army from 1920 until the Anchluss in 1938, when it was absorbed by the Wehrmacht, and he transferred to the German Army as an Oberstleutnant. He commanded an anti-tank battalion during the invasion of Poland and Battle of France, during which he was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class, and promoted to Oberst. At the request of Generalleutnant Erwin Rommell, under whose command he had served in France, Mickl was transferred to North Africa to command a rifle regiment. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for organising a successful mass escape from a prisoner of war collection point after he and 800 other Germans had been captured by New Zealand troops.

Sent to the Eastern Front, Mickl commanded a rifle brigade of the 12th Panzer Division and was awarded the Oak Leaves to his Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. After promotion to Generalmajor, he commanded the 11th Panzer Division during the Battle of Kursk. In 1943, he was appointed to train and command the 392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division, and led it in fighting against the Yugoslav Partisans before dying of wounds inflicted in the last month of the war. In 1967, the Austrian Bundesheer barracks in Radkersburg were named after him.

Early life and career[edit]

Mickl was born Johann Mikl in Zelting, Radkersburg, which was part of the Duchy of Styria within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father Mathias was a German farmer from Terbegofzen, and his mother Maria (née Dervarič), was from Zelting, and of at least partially Slovene heritage.[1][2] Mikl had a twin brother, Alois, who was killed in action in 1915 in Galicia near Lemberg, present-day Lviv in the Ukraine.[3] As a child, Mikl spoke German, Slovene and Hungarian, and remained fluent in all three throughout his life.[2]

World War I[edit]

After entering a cadet school in Vienna in the Imperial-Royal Landwehr in 1908,[2] he was accepted at the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt in 1911. Described as slim and tall,[4] Leutnant Mikl graduated on 1 August 1914 and was posted to the recently mobilised 4th Imperial-Royal Landwehr Infantry Regiment (LIR 4), which formed part of the Imperial-Royal Mountain Troops.[5]

Galicia[edit]

LIR 4 was a purely Carinthian regiment, and wore the mountain cap (German: Bergmütze) and the Edelweiss badge. As part of the 22nd Rifle Division of the III Corps, Mikl's regiment entrained for the Eastern Front, were offloaded in Stryj in Galicia and marched into the area of Złoczów to take up a position on the Złota Lipa River. Its baptism of fire was an attack on the Russians on 26 August 1914, during which it received inadequate artillery support and suffered heavy casualties.[4] One of those wounded was Mikl, who was shot in the chest. He spent time in a military hospital and was then employed in the regimental replacement battalion as an instructor until 15 April 1915. Nothing is known about Mikl's activities during that period, although LIR 4 was involved in heavy fighting in Galicia throughout the winter, in temperatures that dropped below −20 °C (−4 °F).[6]

On 1 June 1915, LIR 4 received orders to be transferred to the Southern Front, as Italy had entered the war against the Central Powers the previous month.[7] This order was countermanded the following morning when the Russians launched an offensive in the Kolomea region and the Austrians suffered serious reverses. LIR 4 was immediately committed to the battle.[7] The army commander, General der Kavallerie (lieutenant general) Karl von Pflanzer-Baltin later stated that it was the courage of LIR 4 that had stopped the Russians. Mikl had led from the front during the fighting, especially when his company formed the regimental rear guard during the withdrawal from the Pruth river on 3 June. At one point, Mikl used parts of a damaged train to build a defensive position. He was wounded several times during the fighting, but remained with his soldiers. For his actions and "demonstrated personal bravery", Mikl was awarded the Military Merit Cross 3rd Class with War Decoration (German: Militärverdienstkreuz III. Klasse und Kriegsdekoration).[7]

Italian front[edit]

black and white photograph of men in uniforms climbing a steep rock face using ropes
Austro-Hungarian mountain troops scaling a rock face in 1915

By late September 1915, LIR 4 had been transferred to the Flitsch valley in the Julian Alps on the Southern Front, and Mikl had been promoted to Oberleutnant (first lieutenant) and placed in command of the 2nd Company.[8] A fairly quiet winter followed, during which the Austrians undertook reconnaissance of Italian positions, took prisoners, and captured weapons. In August 1915, Italian Alpini troops had captured an advanced position about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) southwest of the 2,208 metres (7,244 ft) Rombongipfels peak, on a rocky outcrop called Cuklahöhe. From this position the Italians overlooked the positions of the 44th Rifle Division and its rear areas, which made movement almost impossible. The group commander, Oberst (colonel) Artur von Schuschnigg tasked Mikl and his company to capture the Cuklahöhe, and allowed him to determine the best way to complete his mission. Between 30 January and 8 February 1916, Mikl and Fähnrich (cadet sergeant) Schlatte reconnoitred the Italian position each night. It dominated the ground around it, and was protected by barbed wire entanglements.[9] On 8 February, they located a narrow channel that they considered could be used to approach the Cuklahöhe without exposing the assault force to Italian fire. Mickl's plan involved a silent attack by his company using the channel, foregoing artillery preparation, as this would warn the Italians of the impending assault.[10]

After a few days delay caused by heavy snowfalls, the attack commenced at 02:45 on 12 February.[10] During the approach march to the foot of the Cuklahöhe, some men disappeared up to their neck in snow due to the many snow-filled depressions and the depth of the snow. This meant that the march to the bottom of the channel took two hours instead of the thirty minutes Mikl had estimated. When they reached the bottom of the channel, they had to climb a 3 m (9.8 ft) high smooth ice wall to enter the gutter, which even highly experienced climbers were unable to scale. Around 06:00, the whole company had assembled at the bottom of the channel, but dawn was beginning to break, threatening to expose the assembled force to flanking Italian positions. Schlatte then came forward, carrying the trunk of an alpenrose, a shrub that grows just above the tree-line in the Alps. He used the trunk to reach the channel ledge, and the troops were able to enter the gutter with his help. The troops could now see the glow of the candles in the Italian position. The assault took the Italians completely by surprise, and three officers and 84 soldiers surrendered, for the loss of four dead, including one officer, and four wounded.[11] The Italian response was to concentrate all available artillery fire on the position. The dugout was exposed to direct Italian fire, and was therefore unusable. The Austrians were in an exposed position in deep snow and with extremely cold winds at an altitude of 1,700 metres (5,600 ft), and during the first day Mikl's company lost 20 dead and 60 seriously wounded. On the night of 15 February, the Italians commenced two days of unsuccessful counterattacks, some carried out in four or five consecutive waves. For several weeks starting on 17 February, Benito Mussolini, then a member of the Italian 11th Bersaglieri Regiment, was on the front line near the Cuklahöhe, and described some of his experiences in his diary.[12] On 5 March, prior to the withdrawal of his company from the Cuklahöhe, Mikl was wounded in the face by an Italian hand grenade. When his company was relieved on the Cuklahöhe on 12 April, it had shrunk to just 44 men. For his leadership of the assault on the Cuklahöhe, Mikl was awarded the Order of the Iron Crown 3rd Class.[13] On 10 May, the Cuklahöhe was retaken by the Italians from three companies of Bosnian-Herzegovinian Infantry, who lost 250 men. The assault force, consisting of four battalions of the Italian 24th Infantry Division lost 18 officers and 516 men.[14]

a map showing the front lines in northeastern corner of Italy
The Italian Front 1915–1917, showing the eleven battles of the Izonzo

In April 1916, Mikl's regiment was deployed to South Tyrol to take part in the Austrian spring offensive, during which he was awarded the bronze Military Merit Medal on the ribbon of the Bravery Medal with War Decoration (German: Militär Verdienstmedaille am Bande der Tapferkeitsmedaille mit Kriegsdekoration), for leading a successful attack on an Italian position on Monte Cengio. At the end of June, his regiment was transported back to Galicia by rail to reinforce the Austro-Hungarian forces being hard-pressed by the Russian Brusilov Offensive. In July, Mikl's regiment was used as a "fire brigade" within the Army Group, and helped prevent the penetration of the Russian offensive through the Jablonika Pass. Their task completed, Mikl's regiment was promptly transferred back to fight the Italians on the Southern Front. Mikl's regiment arrived on the Isonzo Front on 20 August, and remained there until late autumn 1917, fighting in the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th Battles of the Isonzo. During the Eighth Battle of the Isonzo on 10 October 1916, Mikl was wounded once again, and was hospitalised. When he recovered, he was assigned to the regimental replacement battalion until spring 1917. For three months during the summer of 1917, Mikl was employed as an instructor at the VII Corps Reserve Officer's School, preparing young officers for service at the front.[15] In January 1917, he was awarded the silver Military Merit Medal on the ribbon of the Bravery Medal with War Decoration.[16] In August 1917, Mikl was appointed to command a machine gun company, and served in the Battle of Caporetto and the subsequent advance to the Piave river.[17] On 12 November 1917, Mikl's regiment was the first to establish a bridgehead over the Piave at Zenson di Piave, and he was instrumental in rallying the troops of his regiment when they came under heavy fire as they landed on the Italian side of river. For his leadership at this crucial stage of the river crossing, he was awarded a bar to his silver Military Merit Medal.[18] On 15 May 1918,[19] Mikl began a preparatory course for future attendance at the War College (German: Kriegsschule) in Vienna, and when the war ended he was posted to the 54th Rifle Division in Galicia.[17][19]

Between the wars[edit]

Before the war, nationalism had been largely absent in officers of the Austro-Hungarian Army, but this changed during the war, and by the end of the war, the propaganda of the Entente had combined with wider aspirations to encourage nationalist sentiment. In some cases, this resulted in mutiny among units of the Austro-Hungarian Army in the last months of the war. The states that would succeed Austria-Hungary were approved by the Allies on 28 October 1918,[20] and the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was dissolved three days later. Many new nation states emerged in the territory formerly belonging to the realm, as nationalist movements called for greater autonomy or full independence. The Duchy of Styria was divided between the new states of German-Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but the exact line of the new border was unclear.[21] In November 1918, Mikl had returned to his hometown of Radkersburg,[19] an important railway junction point, which was of economic importance to both sides.[22] The Slovenes occupied the city on 1 December 1918.[21] In 1919, Mikl served in the Volkswehr militia,[17] and using arms provided by the provincial government of Carinthia, made an unsuccessful attempt to recapture Radkersburg from forces of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to ensure it remained part of German-Austria.[5][23] The provincial government of Styria, which had not supported Mikl's actions, subsequently issued a warrant ordering Mikl's arrest for treason. Despite his failure, his actions were very important in demonstrating to those negotiating the final border that towns along the northern bank of the Mura river were German. When the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed later in 1919, Radkersburg was retained within what became the First Austrian Republic.[5]

In 1920, Mikl was accepted by the new Austrian Army (German: Bundesheer), and during 1920–21 was rapidly promoted to Hauptmann (captain) and posted to a cyclist battalion.[24] In 1922,[25] he changed his name to the more Germanised Mickl.[2] According to his biographers Richter and Kobe, at this time the Austrian police wanted to speak to Mikl regarding alleged arms trafficking offences, and his decision to change his name may have related to the police inquiries.[26] He married Helene Zischka in Klagenfurt; their only child, Manfred, was born in 1923.[5][a] In 1928, he was promoted to the rank of Major,[24] and on 26 July 1930,[16] he was appointed an honorary citizen (German: Ehrenbürger) of the town of Radkersburg.[5] He was placed on the general staff officer list in 1935,[5] followed by a posting to the headquarters of the 3rd Division at St. Pölten,[24] and was promoted to Oberstleutnant (lieutenant colonel) the following year.[25] After the Anschluss of 1938, he was absorbed at that rank into the German Army.[5] He attended several months training at the Panzertruppenschule II (Armoured Troops School No. 2) in Wünsdorf south of Berlin,[27] before being given command of the 42nd Panzerjäger (Anti-tank) Battalion of the 2nd Light Division.[25]

World War II[edit]

Poland and France[edit]

a black and white photograph of soldiers pushing a light artillery piece
The 37 mm Pak 36 anti-tank guns of Mickl's battalion struggled to defeat the British tanks at Arras

Mickl commanded the 42nd Panzerjäger Battalion of Generalmajor (brigadier) Georg Stumme's 2nd Light Division during the invasion of Poland,[25] for which he was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class.[28] He remained in charge of the battalion during the Battle of France when the division, renamed the 7th Panzer Division, was commanded by Generalmajor Erwin Rommel.[25] Mickl got along well with Rommel, and his battalion fought well but suffered serious casualties during the Battle of Arras while trying to stop the heavily armoured tanks of the British 1st Army Tank Brigade with its 37 mm anti-tank guns.[27] Mickl was promoted to Oberst and was also awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class in June 1940.[27] After the French surrender, Mickl was attached to the division's 25th Panzer Regiment to gain more knowledge about armoured tactics, and in December 1940 was appointed to command the 7th Rifle Regiment of the division.[27] He remained in this role during occupation duties in southwestern France, redeployment to Germany, and during the division's preparation for the invasion of the Soviet Union.[27]

North Africa[edit]

In late May 1941, Mickl was suddenly transferred to North Africa at Rommel's request,[27] and was appointed to command the 155th Rifle Regiment of the composite Afrika (Special Purpose) Division.[25] During the North African campaign Mickl and his regiment fought in the Siege of Tobruk, including the early British attempts to relieve the garrison, Operations Brevity and Battleaxe. During the Battle of Sidi Rezegh, Mickl was captured by elements of the New Zealand Division on 26 November 1941. Under guard at a temporary collection point, Mickl quickly organised the 800 prisoners of war who overwhelmed the camp guard. The group then escaped across the desert to the west, eventually reaching the German lines. Rommel recommended Mickl for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, which was awarded in December 1941.[29] When his division commander, Generalmajor Max Sümmermann, was killed on 10 December 1941, Mickl was appointed to temporarily command the division for the rest of the month. The harsh conditions of desert warfare had begun to affect Mickl's health, so at the end of December he was sent back to Europe for several weeks' rest.[30]

Eastern Front[edit]

In March 1942, Mickl was appointed to command the 12th Rifle Brigade of Generalmajor Erpo Freiherr von Bodenhausen's 12th Panzer Division, which was deployed in Reichskommissariat Ostland (today's Estonia), resting and rebuilding after the Red Army Winter Campaign of 1941–42. The division was the main reserve formation of Army Group North, and was soon committed to fighting south of Leningrad, managing to stop Red Army attempts to relieve the city at significant cost. By January 1943, the division had been so depleted by losses that it did not need a brigade headquarters to command its infantry regiments, and Mickl's staff was disbanded. He was transferred to the Army Headquarters officers' reserve pool (German: Oberkommando des Heeres Führerreserve), and was promoted to Generalmajor and awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves by Adolf Hitler in March.[30]

a black and white photograph of a group of soldiers pushing a motorcycle combination up a hill[31]
Mickl (in glasses) assists in pushing an 11th Panzer Division motorcycle up a hillside in the Soviet Union

On 11 May 1943, Mickl was appointed as commander of the 11th Panzer Division, which had not yet finished rebuilding after suffering serious losses during the attempted relief of Stalingrad in December 1942 and during the Third Battle of Kharkov in February and March 1943. In July and August 1943, the division was committed to the Battle of Kursk as part of Generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal) Erich von Manstein's Army Group South.[30] For the Battle of Kursk, the 11th Panzer Division was part of General der Panzertruppe Otto von Knobelsdorff's XLVIII Panzer Corps, which was a component of Generaloberst Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army. Hoth's 4th Panzer Army and Detachment Kempf formed the southern pincer of the attack, which was aimed at cutting of all Red Army forces within the Kursk salient. It was to attack north out of the areas west of Belgorod, and link up with Generalfeldmarschall Günther von Kluge's Army Group Centre, which was to attack south from the Orel region.[32] Mickl's division achieved its objectives during XLVIII Panzer Corps's preliminary operation on the afternoon of 4 July, and commenced its main assault at 06:00 on 5 July, but its progress was hampered by minimal air support, difficult terrain and constant Soviet counterattacks. Despite this, by the evening of 6 July, XLVIII Panzer Corps had breached the formidable Soviet defences, and Mickl's division had captured a number of villages, and reached the Pena river north and northeast of Cherkasskoe. Von Knobelsdorff's corps regrouped during the night of 6/7 July, and the 11th Panzer Division continued its advance towards Oboyan on 7 July, alongside Panzer Grenadier Division Großdeutschland. The two divisions defeated advanced elements of the Soviet 10th Tank Corps and continued to advance north, gaining the most northern penetration of the Soviet salient achieved by Army Group South during the battle.[33] At this point, the tide turned against the Germans, and 11th Panzer Division suffered heavy losses. The severely mauled division was redeployed north, and participated in the Battle of Belgorod in late July and early August. On 8 August, while the battle was still being fought, Mickl was relieved of command. The reason behind his relief is unclear. His performance commanding the 11th Panzer Division had not been markedly worse than comparable divisional commanders during the preceding battles, and it is possible that Wehrmacht or Army Headquarters had decided Mickl was better suited to fighting insurgents in his native Balkans, especially given his fluency in several local languages.[34]

Yugoslavia[edit]

After three weeks leave, Mickl was sent to Austria to train and command the 392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division.[30] Commencing on 17 August 1943, the 392nd was assembled and trained in Austria as the third and last Croatian division raised for service in the Wehrmacht, following its sister divisions the 369th and the 373rd. One infantry regiment and the divisional artillery regiment formed in Döllersheim, the other infantry regiment in Zwettl, the signals battalion in Stockerau and the pioneer battalion in Krems.[35] It was built around a cadre of 3,500 German troops, and 8,500 soldiers of the Croatian Home Guard, the regular army of the Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH).[36] The division was commanded by Germans down to battalion and even company level in nearly all cases, and was commonly referred to as a "legionnaire division".[37] The division wore Wehrmacht uniform with the coat-of-arms of the NDH on the right sleeve. Although originally intended for use on the Eastern Front, not long after its formation the Germans decided that the division would not be utilised outside the NDH.[38] The division was deployed to the NDH in January 1944 to combat the Partisans in the western parts of the puppet state.[39] It was known as the "Blue Division" (German: Blaue Division, Croatian: Plava divizija).[36]

Mickl's task was to secure the Adriatic coastline along the Croatian Littoral between Rijeka and Karlobag (including all islands except Krk) and about 60 kilometres (37 mi) inland. This task included securing the crucial supply route between Karlovac and Senj. These areas, and in particular the port of Senj, had been largely dominated by the Partisans since the Italian capitulation in autumn 1943. Mickl and his division were placed under the command of the XV Mountain Corps as part of the 2nd Panzer Army, and he established his headquarters in Karlovac. He also took over responsibility for the security of the Zagreb–Karlovac railway line from the 1st Cossack Division. In April 1944, Mickl was promoted to Generalleutnant.[25] After an inauspicious start, during which some of his Croatian soldiers panicked and their German leaders were quickly wounded, the division was able to relieve some isolated garrisons. The division was subject to constant ambushes and interdiction of supply lines by the Partisans, and a lack of mountain artillery made fighting in the rugged terrain even harder.[40]

Death and legacy[edit]

During the last few months of the war, the division was engaged in the defence of the northern Adriatic coast and Lika.[41] On 8 April 1945, the city of Senj fell to the Partisans. The following day, during desperate fighting to control the Vratnik pass through the mountains from Senj to Brinje, Mickl personally took part in the fighting and was shot in the head around noon. He was transported to hospital in Rijeka on a tank, but died the following day.[42]

Oberstleutnant Kobe, the chief operations officer of the 392nd Division, described Mickl as "a giant in stature, lean and muscular despite his 50 years", a very demanding commander who was also very demanding of himself. Kobe stated that Mickl was frequently at the forefront of the fighting, carrying a Gewehr 43 carbine.[43] In 1967,[5] the Austrian Armed Forces barracks (Mickl-Kaserne) in Bad Radkersburg were named after him, and they were used continuously by the Austrian Armed Forces for 44 years until 30 September 2008.[44]

Promotions[edit]

  • Leutnant – 1 August 1914[25]
  • Oberleutnant – 1 May 1915[25]
  • Hauptmann – 1921[5]
  • Major – 1928[24]
  • Oberstleutnant – 16 January 1936[25]
  • Oberst – 1 June 1940[25]
  • Generalmajor – 1 March 1943[30]
  • Generalleutnant – 1 April 1944[25]

Awards and decorations[edit]

Austria-Hungary[edit]

Carinthia[edit]

  • Common Carinthian Cross for Bravery (5 December 1919)[16]
  • Special Carinthian Cross for Bravery (3 April 1920)[16]

Federal State of Austria[edit]

  • Medal of Merit in Gold (7 October 1934)[16]

Third Reich[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Manfred, a Leutnant with the pioneers, and his fiancée, were both killed by an aerial bomb on 25 September 1944 in Vienna, Austria. He had been on his way to see his father to ask for his consent to get married. Mickl's wife, Helene, died in July 1946 of cancer. See: Richter & Kobe 1983, pp. 135, 149.
  2. ^ According to Von Seemen as leader of Schützen-Regiment 155 Afrika. See: Von Seemen 1976, p. 241.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Richter 1994, pp. 456–457.
  2. ^ a b c d Mitcham 2007, p. 147.
  3. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, pp. 13, 35.
  4. ^ a b Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 17.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Richter 1994, p. 457.
  6. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, pp. 18–21.
  7. ^ a b c Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 21.
  8. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 22.
  9. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 23.
  10. ^ a b Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 24.
  11. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, pp. 25–26.
  12. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 28.
  13. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 30.
  14. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, pp. 28–29.
  15. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, pp. 30–32.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 157.
  17. ^ a b c Egger 1974, p. 265.
  18. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 33.
  19. ^ a b c Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 34.
  20. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 83.
  21. ^ a b Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 46.
  22. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 42.
  23. ^ Egger 1974, pp. 265–266.
  24. ^ a b c d Egger 1974, p. 266.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Glaise von Horstenau 1980, p. 348.
  26. ^ Richter & Kobe 1983, p. 87.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Mitcham 2007, p. 150.
  28. ^ a b c Thomas 1998, p. 81.
  29. ^ Mitcham 2007, pp. 150–151.
  30. ^ a b c d e Mitcham 2007, p. 151.
  31. ^ Nipe 2011, p. 244.
  32. ^ Fanghor 2002, pp. 75–77.
  33. ^ Fanghor 2002, p. 85.
  34. ^ Mitcham 2007, pp. 151–152.
  35. ^ Schraml 1962, p. 230.
  36. ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, pp. 267–268.
  37. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 267.
  38. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 304.
  39. ^ Schraml 1962, p. 231.
  40. ^ Schraml 1962, pp. 242–247.
  41. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 463 & 771.
  42. ^ Schraml 1962, pp. 275–276.
  43. ^ Schraml 1962, pp. 276–277.
  44. ^ Österreichs Bundesheer 2008.
  45. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 311.
  46. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 544.
  47. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 67.
  48. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 33.

References[edit]

  • Egger, R. (1974). "Mickl, Johann (1893–1945), Generalmajor". Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 [Austrian Biographical Encyclopedia] (in German) 6. Vienna, Austria: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. pp. 265–266. ISBN 978-3-7001-3213-4. 
  • Fanghor, Friedrich (2002). "Fourth Panzer Army". In Newton, Steven H. Kursk: The German View. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. pp. 71–96. ISBN 978-0-306-81150-0. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Glaise von Horstenau, Edmund (1980). Broucek, Peter, ed. Ein General im Zwielicht: K.u.k. Generalstabsoffizier und Historiker [A General in the Twilight: K.u.k. General staff officer and historian] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Böhlau Verlag Wien. ISBN 978-3-205-08740-3. 
  • Mitcham, Samuel W. (2007). Rommel's Lieutenants: The Men Who Served the Desert Fox, France, 1940. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International. ISBN 978-0-275-99185-2. 
  • Nipe, George M. (2011). Blood, Steel, & Myth : The II. SS-Panzer-Korps and the road to Prochorowka, July 1943. Southbury, Connecticut: Newbury. ISBN 978-0-9748389-4-6. 
  • Österreichs Bundesheer (2008). "Ende der militärischen Nutzung der Mickl-Kaserne" [End of the military use of Mickl Barracks] (in German). Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  • Richter, Heinz (1994). "Mickl (eigentlich Mikl), Johann". Neue deutsche Biographie, Melander – Moller [New German Biography, Melander – Moller] (in German) 17. Berlin, Germany: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 456–457. ISBN 978-3-428-00286-3. 
  • Richter, Heinz; Kobe, Gerd (1983). Bei den Gewehren—General Johann Mickl—Ein Soldatenschicksal [To the Guns—General Johann Mickl—A Soldiers Fate] (in German). Bad Radkersburg, Austria: Selbstverlag der Stadt Bad Radkersburg. ASIN B003DKFQUS  (12 September 2013). 
  • Schraml, Franz (1962). Kriegsschauplatz Kroatien die deutsch-kroatischen Legions-Divisionen: 369., 373., 392. Inf.-Div. (kroat.) ihre Ausbildungs- und Ersatzformationen [The Croatian Theatre of War: German-Croatian Legion divisions: the 369th, 373rd and 392nd (Croatian) Infantry Divisions and their Training and Replacement Units] (in German). Neckargemünd, Germany: K. Vowinckel. OCLC 4215438. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 : The Knight's Cross Bearers of All the Armed Services, Diamonds, Swords and Oak Leaves Bearers in the Order of Presentation: Appendix with Further Information and Presentation Requirements] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9. 
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2. 
Military offices
Preceded by
Generalmajor Max Sümmermann 
Commander of 90th Light Infantry Division
11 December 1941 – 27 December 1941
Succeeded by
Generalmajor Richard Veith
Preceded by
General der Infanterie Dietrich von Choltitz
Commander of 11th Panzer Division
11 May 1943 – 8 August 1943
Succeeded by
Generalleutnant Wend von Wietersheim
Preceded by
None
Commander of 392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division
17 August 1943 – 10 April 1945
Succeeded by
None