List of Archbishops of Canterbury

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Three plaques on a wall, inscribed with the lists of the archbishops. In front of the plaques is a table with two candlesticks flanking an upright cross.
List of the Archbishops of Canterbury up to Rowan Williams, in Canterbury Cathedral

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the "Primate of All England" (the "first bishop" of England),[1] effectively serving as the head of the established Church of England and, symbolically, of the worldwide Anglican Communion. From the 6th century until the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. During the English Reformation the church broke away from the authority of the Pope, at first temporarily and later more permanently. Since then the archbishops have been outside of the succession of the Roman Catholic Church's hierarchy and have led the independent national church.[2]

In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the nomination of the archbishop and other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the king of England, or the Pope.[3][4] Since the Reformation, the church is explicitly a state church and the choice is legally that of the British crown; today it is made in the name of the monarch by the Prime Minister, from a shortlist of two selected by an ad hoc committee called the Crown Nominations Commission.[5]

Today, the archbishop has four main roles:[6]

List of archbishops[edit]

Key to abbreviations in tables below
bet. between
c. circa
dep. deposed
depr. deprived
el. elected
enth. enthroned
nom. nominated
pos. postulated
tr. translated
res. resigned

Anglo-Saxon period[edit]

From[A] Until[B] Incumbent Notes
597 26 May 604 or 605 Augustine Canonised: St Augustine of Canterbury.[7]
c. 604 2 Feb 619 Laurence (Laurentius, Lawrence) Canonised: St Laurence of Canterbury.[8]
619 24 Apr 624 Mellitus Translated from London;[9] canonised: St Mellitus.[10]
624 10 Nov
bet. 627 and 631
Justus Translated from Rochester;[9] canonised: St Justus.[7]
627 30 Sep 653 Honorius Canonised: St Honorius.[11]
Mar 655 14 Jul 664 Deusdedit Canonised: St Deusdedit.[12]
14 Jul 664 c. 666 See vacant
c. 666 668 (Wighard) (Wigheard) Died of plague before consecration.[13]
26 Mar 668 19 Sep 690 Theodore Canonised: St Theodore of Tarsus.[14]
29 Jun 693 13 Jan 731 Berhtwald (Brihtwald, Beorhtweald, Bertwald, Berthwald, Beorhtwald, or Beretuald) Abbot of Reculver;[15] canonised: St Berhtwald.[15]
10 Jun 731 30 Jul 734 Tatwine (Tatwin, Tatuini, or Tadwinus) Canonised: St Tatwine.[16]
735 17 Oct 739 Nothhelm (Nothelm) Canonised: St Nothelm.[17]
c. 740 26 Oct 760 Cuthbert Possibly translated from Hereford.
27 Sep 761 764 Bregowine (Bregwine or Bregwin) Canonised: St Bregwin.[18]
2 Feb 765 11/12 Aug 792 Jænberht (Jambert, Jaenbeorht, Jænbert, Jaenberht, Jaenbert, or Jaenberht) Abbot of St Augustine's, Canterbury.[19]
21 Jul 793 12 May 805 Æthelhard (Ethelhard, Æthilheard, or Aethelheard)
c. Oct 805 21 Mar 832 Wulfred
8 Jun 832 30 Aug 832 Feologild (Feologeld) Abbot of an unknown monastery before election.[20]
c. 27 Jul 833 4 Feb 870 Ceolnoth
870 30 Jun 888 Æthelred (Ethelred)
890 2 Aug 923 Plegmund (Plegemund) Clerk to King Alfred.[21]
bet. 923 and 925 8 Jan 926 Athelm (Æðelhelm) Translated from Wells.
c. 926 12 Feb 941 Wulfhelm Translated from Wells.
941 2 Jun 958 Oda (Odo, Oda the Severe) Translated from Ramsbury; canonised: St Oda.[22]
958 959 Ælfsige (Aelfsige)
959 dep. 959 Byrhthelm (Beorhthelm or Birthelm) Translated from Wells, deposed & returned to Wells.
959 19 May 988 Dunstan Translated from London; canonised: St Dunstan.[23]
988 Feb 990 Æthelgar Translated from Selsey.
990 28 Oct 994 Sigeric the Serious Translated from Ramsbury.
el. 21 Apr 995 16 Nov 1005 Ælfric of Abingdon (Ælfric of Wessex) Translated from Winchester; canonised: St Aelfric.[24]
1006 19 Apr 1012 Ælfheah (Alphege, Elphege, Alfege, or Godwine) Translated from Winchester; canonised: St Alphege.[25]
1013 12 Jun 1020 Lyfing Translated from Wells.
13 Nov 1020 c. 29 Oct 1038 Æthelnoth (Aethelnoth, Ethelnoth, Egelnodus, or Ednodus) Formerly Dean of Canterbury.[26]
1038 29 Oct 1050 Eadsige (Eadsige, Eadsimus, or Eadsin)
Mar 1051 dep. Sep 1052 Robert of Jumièges (Robert Chambert or Robert Champart) Deposed.
1052 depr. 11 Apr 1070 Stigand Concurrently Bishop of Winchester; deprived of both sees.[27]
Source(s): [28]

After the Norman conquest[edit]

From[A] Until[B] Incumbent Notes
29 Aug 1070 28 May 1089 Lanfranc Abbot of St. Étienne, Caen.
4 Dec 1093 21 Apr 1109 Anselm Abbot of Bec; Canonised: St Anselm.[29]
21 Apr 1109 26 Apr 1114 See vacant
el. 26 Apr 1114 2 Oct 1122 Ralph d'Escures Translated from Rochester.[30]
18 Feb 1123 21 Nov 1136 William de Corbeil (William of Corbeil) Prior of St Osyth.
21 Nov 1136 8 Jan 1139 See vacant
8 Jan 1139 18 Apr 1161 Theobald of Bec (Tedbald) Abbot of Bec.
18 Apr 1161 3 Jun 1162 See vacant
3 Jun 1162 29 Dec 1170 Thomas Becket (Thomas of London, Thomas à Becket) Previously Archdeacon of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor;[31] canonised: St Thomas of Canterbury.[32]
1173 (Roger de Bailleul) Abbot of Le Bec-Hellouin; elected but declined the see.
7 Apr 1174 16 Feb 1184 Richard (Richard of Dover) Prior of Dover.
tr. Dec 1184 Nov 1190 Baldwin of Forde Translated from Worcester.
el. 27 Nov 1191 26 Dec 1191 (Reginald Fitz Jocelin) (Reginald Italus, Richard the Lombard, or Reginald Lombardus) Translated from Wells; elected, however, appeals against it were sent to Pope Celestine III, but Reginald died before they were heard.
26 Dec 1191 29 May 1193 See vacant
tr. 29 May 1193 13 Jul 1205 Hubert Walter Translated from Salisbury; Lord Chancellor;[31] Chief Justiciar.[33]
el. bet. Jul
and Oct 1205
bet. Oct
and Dec 1206
(Reginald) Sub-prior, elected but set aside by King John.
pos. 11 Dec 1205 c. 30 Mar 1206 (John de Gray) Bishop of Norwich; chosen by the monks but set aside by Pope Innocent III.
17 Jun 1207 9 Jul 1228 Cardinal Stephen Langton Created a cardinal in 1206.[34]
el. 3 Aug 1228 Jan 1229 (Walter d'Eynsham) (Walter de Hempsham) Elected but set aside by King Henry III of England and Pope Gregory IX.
10 Jun 1229 3 Aug 1231 Richard le Grant (Richard Grant or Richard Wethershed) Formerly Chancellor of the see of Lincoln.
pos. 22 Sep 1231 20 Dec 1231 (Ralph Neville) (Ralf Nevill) Bishop of Chichester, election quashed by Pope Gregory IX.
el. 16 Mar 1232 12 Jun 1232 (John of Sittingbourne) election quashed by Pope Gregory IX.
el. 26 Aug 1232 1 Jun 1233 (John Blund) (Johannes Blund, Iohannes Blondus, Iohannes Blundus) election quashed by Pope Gregory IX.
2 Apr 1234 16 Nov 1240 Edmund Rich Prebendary of Salisbury; canonised: St Edmund of Abingdon.[35]
el. 1 Feb 1241 [C] 14 Jul 1270 Boniface of Savoy Translated from Belley in France
el. 9 Sep 1270 summer 1272 (William Chillenden) (Adam of Chillenden) Prior of Christ Church, Canterbury; elected but set aside by Pope Gregory X.
26 Feb 1273 res. 5 Jun 1278 Cardinal Robert Kilwardby Created a cardinal in 1278;[36] and resigned.
pos. Jun or Jul 1278 Jan 1279 (Robert Burnell) (Robert Burnel) Bishop of Bath & Wells; elected but set aside by Pope Nicholas III.
19 Feb 1279 8 Dec 1292 John Peckham (John Pecham) English Provincial of the Franciscan Order.
12 Sep 1294 11 May 1313 Robert Winchelsey (Robert Winchelsea) Formerly Archdeacon of Essex; Chancellor of Oxford
el. 28 May 1313 1 Oct 1313 (Thomas Cobham) Election quashed.
tr. 1 Oct 1313 16 Nov 1327 Walter Reynolds Translated from Worcester; Lord Chancellor;[37] Lord Treasurer.[38]
5 Jun 1328 12 Oct 1333 Simon Mepeham (Simon Meopham) Prebendary of Chichester Cathedral;[39] excommunicated.[39]
pos. 3 Nov 1333 23 Aug 1348 John de Stratford Translated from Winchester; Lord Chancellor.[37]
nom. 24 Sep 1348 20 May 1349[40] (John de Ufford) Dean of Lincoln;[40] Lord Chancellor;[37] died of plague before consecration.[40][41]
19 Jul 1349 26 Aug 1349 Thomas Bradwardine Died of plague
20 Dec 1349 26 Apr 1366 Simon Islip Prebendary of St Paul's;[42] secretary to the king and keeper of the Privy Seal.[43]
1366 (William Edington) (William Edendon) Bishop of Winchester;[44] elected but refused the see.[4]
tr. 24 Jul 1366 res. 28 Nov 1368 Cardinal Simon Langham Translated from Ely; created a cardinal in 1368;[45] and resigned the see. He was elected a second time in 1374, but Pope Gregory XI refused to confirm the election.[45][46]
tr. 11 Oct 1368 Jun 1374 William Whittlesey (William Wittlesey) Translated from Worcester.
tr. 4 May 1375 14 Jun 1381 Simon Sudbury (Simon de Sudbury; Simon Tibold; Simon Theobold) Translated from London; Lord Chancellor;[37] beheaded during the Peasants' Revolt.[47]
tr. 31 Jul 1381 31 Jul 1396 William Courtenay Translated from London;[41] Lord Chancellor.
tr. 25 Sep 1396 dep. 1397 Thomas Arundel (Thomas Fitz-Alan) Translated from York; Lord Chancellor; charged with high treason under Richard II, fled but restored later.[48]
nom. 8 Nov 1397 depr. 19 Oct 1399 Roger Walden Deprived.
restored
19 Oct 1399
19 Feb 1414 Thomas Arundel (again) (Thomas Fitz-Alan) Restored by Henry IV.[48]
tr. 12 Mar 1414 12 Apr 1443 Henry Chichele (Henry Chicheley; Henry Checheley) Translated from St David's.
tr. 13 May 1443 25 May 1452 John Stafford Translated from Bath & Wells; Lord Chancellor; Lord Treasurer.[49]
tr. 21 Jul 1452 22 Mar 1454 Cardinal John Kemp Created a cardinal in 1439;[50] Translated from York; Lord Chancellor
tr. 23 Apr 1454 30 Mar 1486 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier Translated from Ely; Lord Chancellor; created a cardinal in 1467.[51]
tr. 6 Oct 1486 15 Sep 1500 Cardinal John Morton Translated from Ely; Lord Chancellor.[52] created a cardinal in 1493.[53]
22 Jan 1501 27 Jan 1501 (Thomas Langton) Bishop of Winchester; died 5 days after being chosen.[4]
tr. 26 Apr 1501 15/17 Feb 1503 Henry Deane (Henry Dean; Henry Dene) Translated from Salisbury.
tr. 29 Nov 1503 22 Aug 1532 William Warham Translated from London; Lord Chancellor until 1515.[52]
30 Mar 1533 depr. 13 Nov 1555 Thomas Cranmer Archdeacon of Taunton;[54] excommunicated by Rome and deprived for heresy 1553;[54] put to death by burning, 21 March 1556.[54]
22 Mar 1556 18/19 Nov 1558 Cardinal Reginald Pole Dean of Exeter;[55] created a cardinal in 1536.[56]
Source(s): [41][57][58][59]

After the Elizabethan settlement[edit]

From[A] Until[B] Incumbent Notes
17 Dec 1559 17 May 1575 Matthew Parker Dean of Lincoln.[60]
tr. 29 Dec 1575 6 Jul 1583 Edmund Grindal Translated from York.
nom. 14 Aug 1583 29 Feb 1604 John Whitgift Translated from Worcester.
nom. 9 Oct 1604 2 Nov 1610 Richard Bancroft Translated from London.
nom. 4 Mar 1611 4 Aug 1633 George Abbot Translated from London.
nom. 6 Aug 1633 10 Jan 1645 William Laud Translated from London; executed in office;[3] commemorated in the Church of England,[61] and the Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.[62][63]
10 Jan 1645 2 Sep 1660 See vacant
nom. 2 Sep 1660 4 Jun 1663 William Juxon Translated from London.
nom. 16 June 1663 9 Nov 1677 Gilbert Sheldon Translated from London.
27 Jan 1678 depr. 1 Feb 1690 William Sancroft Dean of St Paul's;[3] deprived for not taking oaths to William and Mary.[3] died 24 Nov 1693.
31 May 1691 22 Nov 1694 John Tillotson Dean of St Paul's.[3]
nom. 6 Dec 1694 14 Dec 1715 Thomas Tenison Translated from Lincoln.
nom. 17 Dec 1715 24 Jan 1737 William Wake Translated from Lincoln.
nom. 9 Feb 1737 10 Oct 1747 John Potter Translated from Oxford.
nom. 21 Oct 1747 13 Mar 1757 Thomas Herring Translated from York.
nom. 29 Mar 1757 19 Mar 1758 Matthew Hutton Translated from York.
nom. 8 Mar 1758 3 Aug 1768 Thomas Secker Translated from Oxford.
nom. 12 Aug 1768 19 Mar 1783 Frederick Cornwallis Translated from Lichfield & Coventry.
nom. 31 Mar 1783 18 Jan 1805 John Moore Translated from Bangor.
nom. 1 Feb 1805 21 Jul 1828 Charles Manners-Sutton Translated from Norwich.
nom. 6 Aug 1828 11 Feb 1848 William Howley Translated from London.
nom. 17 Feb 1848 6 Sep 1862 John Sumner Translated from Chester.
nom. 20 Oct 1862 28 Oct 1868 Charles Longley Translated from York.
nom. 28 Nov 1868 1 Dec 1882 Archibald Tait Translated from London.
nom. 13 Jan 1883 11 Oct 1896 Edward Benson Translated from Truro.
nom. 9 Nov 1896 22 Dec 1902 Frederick Temple Translated from London.
nom. 14 Jan 1903 res. 12 Nov 1928 Randall Davidson Translated from Winchester; retired; died 25 May 1930.
nom. 13 Nov 1928 res. 31 Mar 1942 Cosmo Gordon Lang Translated from York; retired; died 5 December 1945.
nom. 1 Apr 1942 26 Oct 1944 William Temple Translated from York. Died in office.
nom. 12 Jan 1945 res. 31 May 1961 Geoffrey Fisher Translated from London; retired; died 1972.[64]
nom. 1 Jun 1961 res. 15 Nov 1974 Michael Ramsey Translated from York; retired; died 23 April 1988.[65]
nom. 18 Nov 1974 res. 25 Jan 1980 Donald Coggan Translated from York; retired; died 17 May 2000.[66]
nom. 1 Feb 1980 res. 31 Jan 1991 Robert Runcie Translated from St Albans; retired; died 11 Jul 2000.[67]
enth. 19 Apr 1991 res. 31 Oct 2002 George Carey Translated from Bath & Wells; retired.[68]
el. conf. 2 Dec 2002 res. 31 Dec 2012 Rowan Williams Translated from Monmouth. He was also Archbishop of Wales.[69] His resignation was announced on 16 March 2012 and took effect at the end of 2012.[70]
el. conf. 4 Feb 2013 Justin Welby Translated from Durham. His appointment began in February 2013.[71]
Source(s):[59][72]

Notes[edit]

  • A All start dates are consecration dates, unless otherwise noted.
  • B All end dates are death dates, unless otherwise noted.
  • C He was not consecrated until 15 January 1245.[41]

References[edit]

General[edit]

Specific[edit]

  1. ^ "Roles and priorities", the Archbishop of Canterbury's official website
  2. ^ The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England (2004). "History of the Church of England". Church of England. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Horn Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857: volume 3: Canterbury, Rochester and Winchester dioceses: Archbishops of Canterbury
  4. ^ a b c Jones Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300–1541: volume 4: Monastic cathedrals (southern province): Archbishops of Canterbury
  5. ^ "Organization of the Church of England". Church of England. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  6. ^ Archbishop's Roles and Responsibilities, Archbishop of Canterbury Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  7. ^ a b Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 73
  8. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 357
  9. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 213
  10. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 420
  11. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 268
  12. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 154
  13. ^ Bateson, Mary; revised by Marios Costambeys (2004). "Wigheard (d. 664x7)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  14. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 581
  15. ^ a b Delaney Dictionary of Saints p. 90
  16. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 571
  17. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 453
  18. ^ Williams, Ann (2004). "Bregowine (d. 764)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  19. ^ Costambeys, Mario (2004). "Jænberht (d. 792)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  20. ^ Hunt, William; revised by Marios Costambeys (2004). "Feologeld (d. 832)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  21. ^ Brooks, N. (2004). "Plegemund (d. 914)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  22. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints pp. 454–455
  23. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 164
  24. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 12
  25. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 28
  26. ^ Mason, Emma (2004). "Æthelnoth (d. 1038)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  27. ^ Cowdrey, H. E. J. (2004). "Stigand (d. 1072)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  28. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 214
  29. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints pp. 48–49
  30. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 232
  31. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 84
  32. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 595
  33. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 71
  34. ^ Holdsworth, Christopher (2004). "Langton, Stephen (c.1150–1228)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  35. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 169
  36. ^ Tugwell, Simon (2004). "Kilwardby, Robert (c.1215–1279)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  37. ^ a b c d Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 86
  38. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 104
  39. ^ a b Haines, Roy Martin (January 2008). "Mepham, Simon (c.1275–1333)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  40. ^ a b c Haines, Roy Martin (2004). "Offord, John (c.1290–1349)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  41. ^ a b c d Fryde Handbook of British Chronology p. 233
  42. ^ Swanson, R. N. (2004). "Islep , Simon (c.1300–1366)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  43. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 94
  44. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 277
  45. ^ a b Simon Langham. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  46. ^ Simon Langham. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.
  47. ^ Walker, Simon (January 2008). "Sudbury, Simon (c.1316–1381)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  48. ^ a b Hughes, Jonathan (May 2007). "Arundel, Thomas (1353–1414)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  49. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 106
  50. ^ Davies, R. G. (2004). "Kemp , John (1380/81–1454)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (revised May 2011 ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  51. ^ Clark, Linda (2004). "Bourchier, Thomas (c.1411–1486)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  52. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 88
  53. ^ Harper-Bill, Christopher (2004). "Morton, John (d. 1500)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  54. ^ a b c MacCulloch, Diarmaid (January 2008). "Cranmer, Thomas (1489–1556)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  55. ^ Mayer, T. F. (January 2008). "Pole, Reginald (1500–1558)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  56. ^ Mayer, T. F. (2004). "Pole, Reginald (1500–1558)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (revised January 2008 ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  57. ^ Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae: Archbishops of Canterbury
  58. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 87
  59. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 234
  60. ^ Crankshaw, David J. and Alexandra Gillespie (January 2008). "Parker, Matthew (1504–1575)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  61. ^ Holy Days Common Worship Calendar of the Church of England. Retrieved on 5 November 2008.
  62. ^ Calendar of the Church Year. The Episcopal Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  63. ^ William Laud, Arcbishop and Martyr. The Episcopal Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  64. ^ Webster, Alan (2004). "Fisher, Geoffrey Francis, Baron Fisher of Lambeth (1887–1972)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  65. ^ "Michael Ramsey, 100th Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  66. ^ "Donald Coggan, 101st Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  67. ^ "Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, 102nd Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  68. ^ "George Carey – 103rd Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  69. ^ "Rowan Williams – Biography". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  70. ^ "Archbishop to be Master of Magdalene", Archbishop of Canterbury website
  71. ^ BBC News – Welby takes over as Archbishop
  72. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 235

External links[edit]